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Library    Journal 


Xtbrar?  ficonom?  ant>  Bibliograpbi? 

Vol.  38 




6.7  J 





The    work    of    trustees    in    a    large    library         ...        R.    R.    Boivker 3-7 

Free    and    inexpensive    reference    material      ....        Frank    K.    Walter 8-12 

Experiments    in    library    extension George    H.    Evans 13-15 

Preservation     of    paper Jchn    N orris 16-20 

A    chapter    in    children's    libraries Alice   M.    Jordan 20-21 

Library    legislation    in    1912 W.  R.   Eastman 22 

On    an    order    record    by    funds F.  K.  W.  Drury 22-23 

Catalog    system    at    the    Carnegie    Library    of    Pitts- 
burgh                 Margaret  Mann 23-24 

A  library  in  a  penal  institution G,    E.    Robbins 24-25 

Concerning    social     and    civic    material E.   G.  Rotttsahn 27 

Inter-Library     loans Frederick  C.  Hicks 67-72 

Arrangement    of    cards    under    place    names    in    a    dic- 
tionary   catalog Clifford  B.   Clapp 73-77 

Book     buying     experiences     in     Europe Walter     Lichtenstein 77-8i 

The   moving  of  the  Harvard   Library William    Coolidge    Lane 81-84 

Davis  Memorial  Library  of  Phillips  Exeter  Academy  .  Asa    C.    Tilton 84-85 

Library  exhibit  at  the  R.  I.  child  welfare  conference  .  Margaret    B.    Still-well 88-89 

Efficiency    records    in    libraries Arthur    E.    Bostwick i3*-*33 

Bibliographical    instruction   in   college Kendric  C.  Babcock 133-136 

The    librarian    and    the    bookseller Edward  W.  Mum  ford 136-142 

University    library    expenditures W.   Dawson  Johnston 143 

Work     and     read James  H,   Galloway 143-144 

The    Children's    Library    of    Stockholm Annie   Carroll   Moore 145 

Systematic    training    for    obtaining    information     .     .        Delia    G.    Ovits     . 150-152 

The  joint  work  of  the  high  school  and  the  public  li- 
brary   in    relating    education    to    life        Manila    Waite    Freeman         I79'l83 

The    development    of    secondary    school    libraries     .     .        Edward   D.    Greenman       183-189 

Training    in    the    use    of    books Ida    Mendenhall         189-192 

Some    reference    books    of    1912 Isidore    Gilbert    Mudge 192-198 

The  public  library  and  publicity  in  municipal  affairs  .        John  Cotton  Dana 198-201 

The     Brooklyn     Library    training    class Julia    A.    Hopkins 201-202 

New    York    State    school    libraries Sherwin    Williams 202-203 

The   Philadelphia   Pedagogical   Library   and  the  public 

schools Ada    F.    Liveright 206-207 

The  most  popular  books  in  the   New  York  schools     .        C.  G.  Leland 208-210 

Miss   Hewins  and  her   class  in   children's   reading       .        Harriet  S.    Wright 210-211 

Atlantic     City     conference E.    V.    B 217-219 

American    libraries    and    the    investigator       ....        Herbert    Putnam       275-277 

The    library    and    the    "movies" /.   H.   Hume 277-279 

What     the     public     wants Corinne    Bacon 251-255 

Accessions     records    economized    and    systematized     .        Henry   C,   Bliss 255-263 

Library    reports    from  a   frivolous   point   of  view     .     .        Katherine    Twining   Moody 263-266 

The    new   Harvard    library William    Coolidge   Lane 266-270 

The    dividend    paying    public    library C.    Seymour    Thompson 315-3*9 

A   bureau    of   review George    lies 319-324 

Cooperation  between  the  library  and  the  book  store  .        George  F.  Bowermau 324-33 * 

Additions   to   special    collections W.  Dau'son  Johnston 331-333 

Better    health — better    service E.    V.    B 341 

The   Ferguson  Library,  Stamford,   Conn Alice    M.    Colt 342-344 

Public  library  section — Rochester  child  welfare  exhibit        William    F.     Yust 344-345 

What   people    read Arthur  Low  Bailey 387-391 

Library    circulation    at   long   range Arthur  E.   Boslwick 39J-394 

The    relation    of    public    and    college   libraries     .     .     .       John    A.    Lowe 394-399 

Special    libraries — questionnaire   and   replies     ....        Contributed   by   various  libraries 399-4<>2 


The  use  of  public  documents  in  a  small  library     .     .  Lucy    D.   Luard 402-403 

The  public  library  in  commission-governed  cities     .     .  Alice   S.    Tyler 403-405 

The  remittance  of  fines George  Hill  Evans 405-406 

A  social  service   library Miss  Ketcham 406-407 

Distribution    of   university    library    expenditures      .     .  W.  Dawson  Johnston 408 

The  inter-library  worker  and  the  exhibit  of  new  books  G.    W.    Lee 408-409 

The    world    of    print,    and    the    world's    work     .     .  Henry  E.  Legler        .     .  435-442 

The    library,    a    necessity    of    modern    business      .  N.    C.    Kingsbury 442-449 

The    woman   on   the    farm Lutie    E.    Stearns 449-453 

American   municipal   documents — a   librarian's   view     .  John  Boynton  Kaiser .  453  45^ 

Relations  between  the  library  and  the  municipality     .  Arthur  E.   Bostwick 456-457 

History    lessons    in    vacation Caroline     Heivins 457-45^ 

The    British    Museum    Library— First    p?pcr      .     .     .  Theodore    W.    Koch 499- 509 

The   Municipal   Reference   Library   as   an    aid   in   city 

administration         Hon.    George   McAneny 509-5 1 3 

The   dream  of  an  organizer:   a  library  phantasy     .     .  J.    F.    Hume 5*3-518 

The    value    of    a    university    bindery Thomas  P.  Ayer 5*8-519 

Finding    mis-filed    index    cards     ........  B.    D.    H ousel 519  522 

The   Insular   Library  of   Porto   Rico:   its   history   and 

development       Louis  O'Neill 522-523 

A.   L.  A.   government  documents  round  table     .     .     .  George  S.    Godard 523-524 

The   British   Museum   Library — Second   paper     .     .     .  Theodore    W.    Koch 547-S56 

Some  statistics  of  thirteen  libraries  and  a   s-.i^gestion 

for  an   A.    L.   A.   statistical  handbook Geo.   F.    Winchester 556-558 

Efficiency    in    library    work Theresa    Hitchler      . 558-561 

A    classification    for    agricultural    litt-rature     ....  Mrs.  F.   H.   Ridguay    . 561-563 

Special    library    service G.   W.  Lee 564 

The    Mason    Memorial    Library J.    A.    Lowe 565-566 

What   the   library   can    do   for   our    foreign  born     .     .  John    Foster    Carr 566-568 

What  the  community  is  asking  of  the   department  of 

children's   work   in   the   public   library Annie    Carroll    Moore 595-600 

Books    on    the    care    of    babies Mrs.   Samuel  H.   Ranck 600-602 

Ohio  libraries  in  the  flood Linda    M.    Clot-worthy 602-607 

Oilman  Hall — the  new  library  of  the   Johns   Hopkins 

University          M.   Llewellyn   Raney 607-610 

What  the  foreigner  has  done  for  one  library     ...  J.   Maud  Campbell 610-615 

Pica    for   a   reference   book   commission G.    W.    Lee 615-616 

The    Bournemouth    meeting    of   the     English    Library 

Association         Theo.    W.    Koch 616-622 

Baroda,    India,    and    its    libraries        WHKam   Alanson    Borden 659-663 

The  work  of  trustees  in  a  small  library R.    R.    Bou'ker 663-666 

Samuel    Swett   Green:   some  autobiographical    sketches 

of    incidents    in    his    life  666-670 

Visual    presentation    of    library   work Olive  Mayes 671-672 

A    local    history    exhibition         M.    R.    H 672-674 

EDITORIALS:  The  library  and  the  schools:   an  analogy     .          177 

Library   progress,    1912       Library    hours        177-178 

Library  buildings,    1912 Library  training  in  schools 178 

Bibliographical    enterprises,    1912          ...  i-  Plans  of  the  N.   E.   A 178 

Newspaper     preservation The    Kaaterskill    conference         -49 

Trustees   and   the    library        A   special   libraries   list 249 

A.  L.  A.  Conference,  1913 65  Bibliography    to-day         249-250 

Chicago  meeting  of  the  A.  L.  A 65  New  York's  Municipal  Reference  Library    .          -^5° 

Commission  government  and  the  library  .     .       65-66  The   Leipzig  exposition 

Charles    Carroll    Soule 66  The  Kaaterskill  conference 3*3 

The  Leipzig  Exhibition 66  Library  dividends 3*3 

The   New  York  Public   Library       ....          129  Book  reviews  for  libraries 3*3 

The  librarian  and  the  bookseller    ....          129  The   Booksellers'    Convention .3 13-3*4 

College  bibliographical  training 129-130  The  forty-hour  week 3*4 

Recording    efficiency        130  John   Shaw  Billings  memorial  meeting    .     .          3*4 

La    Follette's   legislative   reference   bill     .     .  130  Library  school  development 3^5 

Parcels  post  and  libraries 130  Specialized  schools 385 

John    Shaw    Billings       17?  Special      libraries        385 

The  people's  reading 385  386 

Story      telling        3§6 

Library    failures          386 

Use   of  the   phonograph 386 

A.    L.    A.    Conference    accommodations     .     .  433 

Library    specialization 433 

Coordination    with    business    libraries     .     .  433-434 

Government  printing 434 

The  Council  and  the  Institute 434 

Civil  service  and  the  budget  in  metropolitan 

libraries 434 

Unification    of    library    representation     .     .  497 
The   "golden  word"   of  the   Kaaterskill  con- 
ference       >  497 

The  obligation  imposed  by  the  public  library  497-498 

Books  and  the  parcels  post    ......  498 

Commercial    publications     .          498 

The    librarian's   vacation   home 498 

Death   of  Josephus  Nelson   Lamed       ...  545 
A.    L.    A.    representation    at    Leipzig    expo- 
sition            545 

Need  of  standardized  D.   C.   subdivisions     .  545 

Efficiency      methods         546 

"The   worst    hundred  books" 546 

The    Wis.    F.    L.    Commission    course    in   li- 
brary   administration        54^ 

Library   week   at   Lake   George 593 

Books  on  the  care  of  babies 593 

Books   in   the    Underwood   tariff       ....  593 

Ohio    libraries   in   the   flood     ......  594 

Gilman     Hall    library 594 

Visits  of  Mr.  Kudalkar  and  Mr.  Otlet    .     .  594 

The   Baroda  library  system 657 

Reuben     Gold    Thwaites 657 

Samuel    Swett    Green *5^ 

Legislative    reference    work 658 

The  book  post 658 

The    Leipzig    Exposition 65? 

Jan.     Henry  E.  Legler 

F«b.     Davis    Library,    Phillips    Exeter    Academy, 
Exeter,  N.  H. 

Ground   floor  and   first   floor   plans  of  the 
Davis  Library,  Phillips  Exeter  Academy 
Charles    Carroll    Soule 

Mar.  The  Children's  Library,  Stockholm,  Swe- 

Apr.     John   Shaw  Billings. 

May.  The  Harry  Elkins  Widener  Memorial  Li- 
brary, Harvard  University,  Cambridge, 

Gore   Hall,    Harvard,   in  process   of  demo- 
Randall  Hall,  where  350,000  volumes  frcm 

Harvard   Library   are   housed. 
Harry   Elkins  Widener   Memorial   Library, 

Harvard,  first  floor  plan. 
Harry  Elkins  Widener   Memorial  Library^ 

Harvard,   second  floor  plan. 
June.     Ferguson   Library,   Stamford,   Conn. 
Ferguson  Library — rear  view 
Ferguson   Library   section,   first   floor   plan 
Aug.     American  Library  Association,  Kaaterskill, 

N.  Y. 
Facsimile    of    letter    from    Andrew    Carne- 

Sept.     The   British   Museum 

British    Museum    Library — a    view    of   the 


British    Museum    Library — King's    Library 

British  Museum — Plan  of  the  ground  floor. 

Oct.     British  Museum  Library — Plan  of  reading 

British      Museum      Library — the      reading 

Exterior     of    the     new     Mason     Memorial 

Library,     Great     Barrington,     Mass. 
The  Mason   Memorial   Library   interior 
Nov.     Ohio    libraries    in    the    flood    (4    illus.) 
Gilman    Hall — exterior 
Gilman  Hall — floor  plans    (2   p.). 
Dec.     The  Baroda  Library  staff 

Central   library  building  of  Baroda 
Map   of  the   Baroda  division 
Samuel  Swett  Green 
Two  diagrams  used  at  book  exhibit 

ft   , 

'resident  American  Library  Association,   1912-1913,  Librarian    Chicago    Public   Library 


VOL.  38 

JANUARY,    1913 

No.   i 

THE  year  1912  was  not  signalized  by  any 
great  increase  in  library  organization,  but 
was  marked  by  the  success  of  the  third 
A.  L.  A.  conference  held  in  Canada,  thus 
emphasizing  the  international  scope  of  the 
American  Library  Association.  The  Cana- 
dian attendance  was  thoroughly  representa- 
tive, and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  conference 
will  prove  a  starting-point  for  the  extension 
of  library  organization  in  the  several  Cana- 
dian provinces,  on  the  lines  of  our  state  asso- 
ciations, in  which  Ontario  had  already  taken 
the  lead.  Unfortunately,  there  were  almost 
no  representatives  from  abroad,  to  the  great 
regret  of  Americans  from  both  sides  of  the 
border.  On  the  other  hand,  there  was  a  con- 
siderable representation  of  American  libra- 
rians at  the  L.  A.  U.  K.  conference  at  Liv- 
erpool, a  continuing  precedent  which  our 
English  brethren  should  reciprocally  adopt. 
The  tri-convention  of  librarians  from  Ger- 
many, Austria  and  German  Switzerland,  at 
Munich,  was  the  leading  event  in  1912  on  the 
Continent,  and  was  notable  for  its  discussion 
of  union  catalogs  and  standard  cataloging 
rules  within  the  territories  of  the  German 
language.  The  Dutch  librarians  formed  a 
national  organization,  and  at  the  Antipodes 
the  Australian  librarians  took  steps  toward 
the  revival  of  their  former  association  by  the 
organization  of  an  association  in  Victoria. 
The  next  A.  L.  A.  conference  is  probably  to 
be  held  at  Eagles'  Mere,  in  Pennsylvania, 
whose  central  position  should  invite  a  ban- 
ner conference.  The  coming  year  should  also 
be  marked  by  an  international  library  meeting 
on  the  Continent,  but  of  this  nothing  has  as 
yet  been  heard. 

THE  distinctive  event  of  the  library  year 
was  the  opening  of  the  New  York  State  Edu- 
cation building  at  Albany,  housing  the  State 
Library,  whose  destroyed  collections  have 
been  so  energetically  replaced  that  the  num- 
ber of  books  already  approximates  and  will 
presently  exceed  the  old  figures.  The  new 
building,  devoted  in  large  part  to  library  pur- 
poses, is  one  of  the  most  dignified  and  noble 
in  the  country,  and  is  in  happy  contrast  with 
those  monuments  of  graft  and  architectural 
excrescences — the  state  capital  opposite  and 

the  Tweed  Court  House  in  New  York  City. 
The  opening  of  the  splendid  central  building 
at  St.  Louis  was  signalized  by  the  consider- 
able attendance  of  representative  librarians 
coming  direct  from  the  new-year  A.  L.  A. 
meetings  in  Chicago;  the  admirable  library 
building  at  Springfield,  Mass.,  remarkable  for 
the  economy  of  its  construction,  was  also 
opened.  The  new  library  of  the  University 
of  California  was  formally  dedicated  to  its 
noble  use;  the  Harper  Memorial  Library,  of 
the  University  of  Chicago,  with  its  fallen 
tower  rebuilt,  was  also  dedicated  as  the  in- 
itial portion  of  a  unique  library  building; 
Kenyon  College  dedicated  a  new  alumni  li- 
brary; and  the  superb  Avery  architectural 
library  building,  opened  at  Columbia  Univer- 
sity, further  extends  a  most  remarkable  group 
of  library  buildings.  Much  progress  was  made 
within  the  year  toward  new  library  buildings; 
ground  was  at  last  actually  broken  for  the 
new  central  library  in  Brooklyn.  The  John 
Crerar  Library  at  Chicago  acquired  its  new 
site;  Cleveland  has  obtained  an  issue  of  $2,- 
000,000  in  municipal  bonds  for  a  central  li- 
brary; St.  Paul  will  have  a  great  library 
building  as  the  beneficence  of  J.  J.  Hill;  and 
Indianapolis  has  been  given  ground  for  a  new 
central  building  by  James  Whitcomb  Riley. 
Philadelphia  is  shaping  the  plans  for  the  cen- 
tral library,  hitherto  lacking  in  its  system.  San 
Francisco  is  developing  its  central  library  plan 
in  relation  with  the  proposed  civic  center; 
and  Detroit  is  busy  on  plans.  Trinity  College 
was  assured  a  new  library  through  the  gift 
of  J.  P.  Morgan,  and  the  munificent  Widener 
gift  to  Harvard  University  for  a  new  library 
building  will  presently  do  away  with  historic 
Gore  Hall. 

THE  completion  of  several  important  bib- 
liographical enterprises  makes  the  past  year 
notable  in  this  field.  The  huge  United  States 
Catalog  of  H.  W.  Wilson  and  his  colleagues 
is  an  achievement  unparalleled  in  the  history 
of  bibliography,  for  it  covered  450,000  entries 
of  books  in  print  January  i,  1912,  and  was  is- 
sued within  nine  months  of  this  date,  where- 
as most  similar  undertakings  have  required 
years  for  their  preparation  and  publication. 
The  first  supplement  to  the  great  A.  L.  A. 


[January,  1913 

Catalog  of  1904  was  issued  by  the  association, 
and  should  make  more  useful  the  original 
catalog,  issued  by  the  Library  of  Congress 
and  still  in  print.  The  seventh  volume  of 
Charles  Evans'  chronological  dictionary  of 
American  bibliography,  covered  the  years 
1786-1789.  The  Bureau  of  Education  has  at 
last  issued  the  report  on  special  collections  in 
public  libraries,  prepared  by  Prof.  W.  D. 
Johnston  and  his  coadjutor,  Miss  I.  G.  Mudge, 
and  Prof.  Johnston  will  continue  this  report 
in  special  articles  from  year  to  year  in  the 
LIBRARY  JOURNAL,  furnishing  the  material  for 
supplements  to  the  report.  It  is  urged  that 
librarians  who  have  knowledge  of  special  col- 
lections not  covered  in  the  original  report 
should  at  once  furnish  the  data  to  Prof.  John- 
ston for  the  extension  of  his  useful  work, 
which  is  peculiarly  valuable  in  connection 
with  the  system  of  library  exchanges.  Among 
works  in  special  fields,  the  check  list  on 
European  history,  prepared  by  Prof.  Richard- 
son's committee  of  the  American  Historical 
Association,  and  the  union  catalog  on  rail- 
way economics,  from  the  Bureau  of  Railway 
Economics  at  Washington,  are  especially  note- 
worthy. The  additions  to  library  literature 
in  general  were  numerous  beyond  present 
summary,  Charles  C.  Soule's  work  on  library 
planning  being  one  of  the  most  notable. 

As  a  result  of  the  activity  of  Mr.  Hill's 
A.  L.  A.  committee  on  the  preservation  of 
newspapers,  the  Brooklyn  Daily  Eagle  has 
undertaken  to  lead  the  way  in  a  plan  which 
sets  before  librarians  an  excellent  oppor- 
tunity for  solving  a  fixed  problem.  The  pro- 
posal to  furnish  two  copies  of  the  daily,  one 
an  ordinary  paper,  to  be  mailed  regularly  for 
reading-room  consumption,  and  the  other  to 
be  furnished  flat  in  monthly  or  quarterly 
packages  for  permanent  preservation,  should 
receive  the  hearty  support  of  all  libraries 
which  take  or  can  take  the  Brooklyn  Eagle, 
one  of  the  most  comprehensive  and  enterpris- 
ing of  New  York  dailies.  Several  other 
dailies  in  different  parts  of  the  country  have 
undertaken  to  join  in  this  experiment,  and 
they  will  probably  unite  on  a  specified  stan- 
dard of  paper,  to  be  furnished  from  one  man- 
ufacturer. If  the  larger  libraries  give  their 
support  to  this  undertaking  its  extension  is 
possible  and  probable;  but  if  the  proposal 
does  not  bring  adequate  support,  it  is  useless 

to  have  any  more  discussion  of  the  subject. 
No  periodical  can  afford  to  supply  a  de- 
mand which  does  not  make  itself  felt  when 
the  opportunity  for  supply  is  given.  The 
LIBRARY  JOURNAL  and  cognate  periodicals 
have  been  printed  on  a  paper  partly  rag,  with 
a  view  to  permanent  preservation,  and  it  is 
gratifying  to  find,  on  the  part  of  the  daily 
press,  a  willingness  to  take  like  action. 

THE  Massachusetts  Library  Commission  is 
making  special  endeavor  to  enlist  the  more 
active  interest  of  trustees  within  that  state 
in  the  affairs  of  the  local  libraries,  and  those 
who  attended  the  conference  in  Ottawa,  where 
the  trustee  section  held  the  largest  meeting 
in  its  history,  found  that  the  development  of 
Canadian  libraries  had  been  quite  as  much  the 
work  of  trustees  as  of  librarians.  It  is  most 
important  that  the  office  of  the  trustee  should 
not  be  a  perfunctory  one,  as  is  too  often  the 
case,  but  that  the  governing  board  of  a  library 
should  be  an  active,  sympathetic  and  efficient 
body  of  co-workers  in  the  interest  of  the 
library.  The  Brooklyn  Public  Library  system 
is  excellently  organized  in  this  respect,  and 
the  detailed  account  in  this  number  of  the 
methods  of  that  board  should  be  read  with 
interest  by  those  concerned  with  other  large 
library  systems.  In  a  later  number,  the  work 
of  trustees  in  a  Massachusetts  town  library 
will  be  dealt  with,  and  during  the  coming  year 
the  LIBRARY  JOURNAL  will  give  special  em- 
phasis to  the  work  of  trustees,  if  librarians 
and  trustees  will  cooperate  in  discussing  per- 
tinent questions.  In  the  smaller  library  sys- 
tems, where  there  are  no  regular  meetings  at 
stated  intervals,  trustees  are  apt  either  to  take 
a  perfunctory  view  of  their  duties  or  else  to 
vex  the  librarian  with  amateur  cooperation — 
both  of  them  extremes  to  be  avoided.  If  library 
trustees  throughout  the  country  can  be  made 
active  and  helpful,  staunchly  supporting  the 
librarian  in  good  work,  the  whole  library 
world  will  be  the  gainer.  The  commission 
plan  of  municipal  government,  so  far  as  it 
overlooks  the  importance  of  this  function  by 
relegating  the  library  to  the  sole  charge  of  a 
commissioner,  whose  chief  duties  are  of  a 
different  kind,  is  a  menace  to  library  progress ; 
and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  defeat  of  the 
commission  charter  in  Los  Angeles  may  re- 
sult in  working  out  a  better  scheme  for  com- 
mission government  in  which  the  library  will 
have  it  proper  place. 

January,  1913] 


BY  R.  R.  BOWKER. 

THE  work  of  the  trustees  in  the  large 
library  and  that  in  the  small  library  differs 
very  much,  qualitatively  as  well  as  quantita- 
tively, but  each  casts  sidelights  on  the  other. 
It  may,  therefore,  be  worth  while  to  present 
the  point  of  view  and  practice  of  each  to 
the  other,  and  the  present  writer  finds  oppor- 
tunity to  do  this  as  a  trustee  of  the  second 
largest  library  system  in  the  country,  that  of 
Brooklyn,  and  the  president  of  the  board  of 
one  of  the  town  libraries  of  Massachusetts, 
that  at  Stockbridge.  There  could  scarcely  be 
a  greater  contrast  in  scope  and  method,  and 
both  comparison  and  contrast  may  be  of  in- 
terest and  value. 

A  large  public  library  in  a  great  city  must 
be  on  the  general  lines  of  the  modern  busi- 
ness organization,  where  the  trustees  have 
the  functions  of  a  board  of  directors  in  a 
great  corporation,  depending  in  a  large  meas- 
ure on  the  trained  professional  executive,  first 
as  professional  adviser,  and,  secondly,  as 
working  executive,  while  in  a  small  rural 
or  town  library  the  librarian*  is  often  without 
professional  training  and  usually  without 
much  business  experience,  so  that  the  trustees 
do  not  obtain  the  same  professional  advice, 
and  cannot  depend  upon  the  same  executive 
skill.  In  some  of  the  great  library  systems 
the  function  of  the  trustees  is  almost  nom- 
inal, as  it  is  apt  to  be  in  a  great  business 
corporation,  such  as  an  insurance  company  or 
a  manufacturing  corporation;  but  the  Brook- 
lyn situation  presents  the  happy  mean  of  a 
board  of  trustees  which  is  kept  fully  in- 
formed, which  has  the  opportunity  of  act- 
ing on  each  detail  of  library  management, 
and  which  does  utilize  that  opportunity  to 
advise  with  the  librarian  and  either  confirm 
his  judgment  and  accept  his  recommendations 
or  modify  them  from  the  larger  experience 
of  the  business  men  of  varied  occupations  who 
constitute  the  board. 

The  board*  of  trustees  of  the  Brooklyn  Pub- 
lic Library  consists  of  twenty-two  working 
members,  in  addition  to  the  ex-officio  mem- 
bers, the  latter  being  the  mayor  of  the  city,  the 

president  of  the  borough  of  Brooklyn  and 
the  comptroller  of  the  city.  It  has  been  sel- 
dom, not  half  a  dozen  times  in  all,  that  any 
one  of  these  ex-officio  members  has  attended, 
and  never  two  of  them  together.  When  the 
old  Brooklyn  Library,  a  private  organization, 
turned  over  its  valuable  collection  and  prop- 
erties to  the  new  Brooklyn  Public  Library, 
it  was  arranged  that  for  twenty-five  years  the 
old  library  should  have  a  representation  of 
half  the  board,  and  the  organization  of  the 
old  library  is  kept  alive  chiefly  for  the  one  pur- 
pose of  selecting  these  trustees,  of  whom  two 
are  elected  each  year  to  serve  for  five  years, 
with  a  third  every  fifth  year.  The  same  trus- 
tees are  usually  reflected,  and  in  some  cases 
sons  of  earlier  trustees  have  become  useful 
successors  to  the  fathers.  The  other  eleven 
members  are  appointed  by  the  mayor  of  the 
city,  two  each  year  to  serve  for  five  years,, 
with  a  third  every  fifth  year,  and  usually 
those  trustees  whose  terms  expire  have  been- 
reappointed  by  the  mayor.  There  has  beer* 
absolutely  no  partisanship  in  these  appoint- 
ments by  any  mayor  of  New  York,  and  very 
little  of  the  personal  equation  in  them,  the 
mayor  frequently,  indeed  usually,  accepting, 
the  suggestions  of  trustees  whom  he  may 
consult  as  to  reappointments  or  new  appoint- 
ments. The  elected  eleventh  member  is 
chosen  in  a  different  year  from  the  appointed 
eleventh  member,  so  that  only  five  members 
can  be  changed  in  any  one  year ;  and  this  con- 
tinuity of  at  least  three-quarters  of  the  board 
makes  possible  the  unity  and  continuity  of 
policy  and  administration  which  would  other- 
wise be  almost  impracticable. 

Since  the  organization  of  the  Brooklyn 
Public  Library  its  president  has  been  an  ex- 
mayor  of  the  city  of  Brooklyn,  whose  polit- 
ical experience  has  been  of  high  value  to  the 
library,  especially  as  it  has  never  led  him  to 
any  act  of  a  political  or  partisan  nature.  It 
is  so  thoroughly  understood  that  appointment 
or  promotion  throughout  the  library  is  based 
on  the  merit  system,  that  trustees  are  almost 
absolutely  free  from  applications  for  their 


[January,  1913 

"influence,"  and  such  applications  by  no  means 
help  the  applicant's  case.  I  recall  but  two  or 
three  such  endeavors  in  my  own  experience 
of  nearly  twenty-five  years.  The  board  has 
been  kept  absolutely  free  from  political,  racial, 
religious  or  other  differences,  having  Protes- 
tant, Catholic  and  Jewish  representatives  in 
its  membership,  and  almost  entirely  free  from 
personal  considerations. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  library  year,  which 
is  the  calendar  year,  the  president  assigns  five 
trustees  each  as  members  of  five  committees: 
the  administration  committee,  the  book  com- 
mittee, the  building  committee,  the  law  com- 
mittee and  the  finance  committee,  whose  func- 
tions are  defined  by  their  titles.    This  involves 
some   duplication,   and   the   chairman   of   one 
committee  is  apt  to  be  a  member  of  a  cognate 
committee,    as   law   and   finance;   usually   the 
same  men  are  reappointed  to  the  same  com- 
mittees, unless  there  is  request  or  reason  for 
change.     The  chairman   of   the  several  com- 
mittees   make    up,    with    the    officers    of    the 
board,  viz.,  the  president,  vice-president,  sec- 
retary and  treasurer,  elected  by  the  trustees 
at   the    February   meeting   of    each   year,   the 
executive  committee,  which  receives  and  acts 
upon  the  reports  of  the  administration  com- 
mittee,  and  transmits  them  to  the  board  it- 
self.    The  executive  committee  has  authority 
to   act   upon    general   matters   between   meet- 
ings  of   the   board,  and  practically   exercises 
the  functions  of  the  board  during  the  summer 
vacation  months.    The  several  committees  are 
expected    to   hold    monthly   meetings,   usually 
at   a   stated   day   in   the   week  preceding  the 
meeting  of  the  board,  which  is  on  the  third 
Tuesday  evening  of  each  month,  the  summer 
vacation    months    excepted.      The    law    and 
finance  committees,  however,  hold  less  regu- 
lar meetings,  depending  upon  the  special  work 
before  them.  For  each  committee,  the  quorum 
is   of   three   members,   and   in  the  occasional 
lack   of    a   quorum   two   members    sometimes 
act,   subject  to   the  approval   of  the  minutes 
by  a  third  member.   The  chairman  is  expected 
to    make    any   necessary    decisions    when   the 
committee    does    not    meet    or    between    the 
meeting    of    the    committee    and    the    board 
meeting,  and,  in  fact,  he  is  tacitly  given  power 
of  executive  decision  within  the  field  of  his 
committee,  nem.  con. 

The    administration    committee,    to    take    a 
specific  example,  meets  late  in  the  afternoon, 
usually  in  the  board  room  of  the  old  library, 
on  the  second  Wednesday  of  the  month.   The 
librarian  has  prepared  a  schedule  of  business, 
and  a  duplicate  typewritten  copy  is  put  before 
each  member.     This   schedule  usually  covers 
two  or  three  folios,  and  is  in  great  detail.   It 
includes   the   name    of    each   person    who    is 
recommended  for  appointment  or  promotion, 
or  change  of   salary  in  accordance  with  the 
library   service   rules,   which   are   in   print   in 
detail.     Any  changes  in  these  rules  are  dis- 
cussed  in  the   administration   committee   and 
finally    made    the    subject    of    board    action. 
The    several    items    on    the   librarian's    sche- 
dule   are    read    by    the  chairman    and    con- 
sidered   approved    if    no    dissenting   voice    is 
raised.     On  many  items,   further  explanation 
from  the  librarian,  who  is  always  present  at 
the  meeting,  is  asked  and  given ;  the  members 
of   the  committee  have  an  active  discussion, 
a  vote  is  had,  and  the  librarian  abides  by  the 
decision  of  the  trustees   without  question   if 
it  is   adverse  to  his   recommendation.     As  a 
matter   of    fact,   the   librarian's   recommenda- 
tions are  usually  adopted,  but  oftentimes  ac- 
tion is  modified  by  the  consensus  of  opinion 
of  the  librarian  and  the  committee,  and  in- 
frequently   the    committee    differs    from    the 
librarian  and  negatives   his   recommendations 
and  substitutes  its  own  views.    This  points  to 
an  absolute  harmony  between  the  governing 
body   and   the    executive   officer,    much    more 
real  than  if  the  proceedings  were  perfunctory 
and  there  was  no  dissent  or  reversal.    By  this 
means,  representative  members  of  the  board 
constituting   this    committee    are    actually    in- 
formed of  every  detail  in  the  administration 
of   the  library,   and  the  name  of   every   em- 
ployee comes  sooner  or  later  before  it.     As 
the  schedule,  with  any  changes  agreed  upon, 
is  presented  to  and  approved  by  the  executive 
committee,  and  a  typewritten  copy  is  at  the 
disposal  of  each  trustee  at  the  board   meet- 
ing,   the    trustees    in    general    may    be    fully 
informed  in  detail;  and  the  effect  of  this  on 
the    personnel    of    the    library    and    on    the 
members   of   the   board   is    most   wholesome. 
The  trustee  feels   that  his   duty  is  not  per- 
functory, that  he  has  a  real  personal  touch 
and   responsibility,   and  that  he  has  the   full 

January,  1913] 


knowledge  in  which  to  do  his  full  duty,  while 
the  members  of  the  staff  are,  or  should  be, 
gratified  to  know  that  their  standing  and  per- 
formance are  known  not  simply  to  the  execu- 
tive officer,  but  to  all  the  members  of  their 
governing  board. 

The  library  service  scheme,  as  already 
stated,  is  one  specific  to  the  library,  carefully 
worked  out  by  the  trustees  through  the  libra- 
rian and  the  administration  committee,  while 
in  parallel  with  the  principles  of  the  merit 
system  in  the  civil  service  generally.  Appli- 
cants are  admitted  to  the  apprentice  system 
after  examination,  a  substantial  proportion 
being  excluded  by  failure  to  pass  the  75  per 
cent,  requirements.  After  a  course  of  teach- 
ing and  practice,  now  worked  out  in  co- 
operation with  the  Pratt  Institute  Library 
School  with  excellent  result,  apprentices  are 
admitted  through  further  examination  to  the 
eligible  list  for  appointment  to  the  third  or 
lowest  grade  of  the  library  service.  These 
eligibles,  previous  to  full  appointment,  are 
utilized  for  substitute  and  vacation  service, 
receiving  for  this  work  a  per  diem  payment. 
From  the  third  grade,  promotions  are  made 
into  the  second  through  regular  examination, 
and  similar  promotions  are  made  from  the 
second  to  the  first  grade.  The  initial  salary 
is  $40  per  month  in  the  third  grade,  raised 
to  $45  and  thence  to  $50  for  length  of  service 
and  meritorious  work;  on  promotion  to  the 
second  grade  the  regular  salaries  are  $55,  $60 
and  $65,  and  in  the  first  grade  $70,  $75  and 
thence  up  to  $95,  according  to  service  and 
work.  No  salary  is  advanced  without  formal 
report  by  the  librarian  to  the  administration 
committee  that  the  increase  is  justified  by 
length  of  service  and  meritorious  work;  and, 
though,  as  a  rule,  an  increase  of  salary  is 
given  after  each  year,  this  is  not  necessarily 
the  case,  and  any  quicker  promotion  or  larger 
increase  requires  definite  explanation  from 
the  librarian.  Children's  librarians  are  ap- 
pointed from  any  grade,  and  the  fact  that 
this  work  requires  peculiar  qualifications  and 
adaptability,  and  is  not  congenial  to  all  li- 
brary workers,  has  brought  about  a  demand 
for  children's  librarians  greater  than  the  fit 
supply,  so  that  salaries  in  this  department 
are,  as  a  rule,  greater  than  in  the  other  de- 
partments. Branch  librarians  and  heads  of 

departments  are  appointed  only  from  the  first 
grade.  Graduates  of  all  accepted  library 
schools  are  admitted  to  the  service  without 
examination,  and  appointments  may  be  made 
for  special  reasons  without  examination;  but 
all  promotions  within  the  service,  except  of 
heads  of  departments,  are  made  as  the  re- 
sult of  examinations.  A  month's  vacation, 
with  pay,  is  the  rule;  longer  vacations  or 
leaves  of  absence  are  granted  specifically 
through  action  by  the  trustees  on  the  recom- 
mendation of  the  librarian,  who  must  present 
his  reasons.  Sickness  leave  is  usually  given 
with  pay  up  to  thirty-one  days'  absence  in  a 
calendar  year;  other  leaves  are  usually  with- 
out pay,  unless  for  very  special  reasons.  This 
whole  scheme  of  service  has  been  worked  for 
some  years  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  all 
concerned,  and  presents  the  best  argument 
for  a  merit  service  based  on  library  needs, 
as  distinguished  from  the  old-fashioned 
method  of  appointment  on  the  one  side,  and 
the  general  municipal  civil  service  scheme  on 
the  other.  It  is  cited  here  in  illustration  of 
the  manner  in  which  thorough  systematization 
makes  the  control  by  the  trustees  through  the 
librarian  comprehensive,  close  and  efficient. 

The  book  committee,  which  has  the  general 
supervision  and  control  of  the  selection,  ac- 
quisition, cataloging  and  care  of  books  and 
periodicals,  holds  its  regular  meeting  on  the 
second  Monday  of  each  month.  The  selec- 
tion of  books  for  purchase  is  made  by  the 
librarian,  each  new  title  suggested  for  addi- 
tion to  the  library  requiring  the  approval  of 
at  least  three  members  of  the  book  committee 
before  it  is  purchased.  A  list,  containing  the 
recommendation  of  the  librarian,  is  presented 
to  a  member  of  the  book  committee,  with  the 
request  that  when  he  has  examined  the  list 
it  be  forwarded  to  a  second  member,  who,  in 
turn,  forwards  it  to  the  chairman,  after  which 
it  is  returned  to  the  library,  the  approval  or 
disapproval  of  each  member  being  indicated 
on  the  list.  Recommendations  for  the  pur- 
chase of  important  or  expensive  books  are 
held  until  the  regular  monthly  meeting  of  the 
committee,  when  the  question  as  to  the  ad- 
visability of  the  purchase  is  presented  to  the 
committee  for  discussion,  in  many  instances 
the  books  themselves  being  procured  for  ex- 
amination. By  this  means  the  members  of 


[January,  1913 

the  book  committee  are  kept  fully  informed 
of  the  accessions  to  the  library's  collection. 

The  executive  committee  usually  meets  at 
the  president's  business  office  the  day  before 
or  on  the  day  of  the  board  meeting,  or  some- 
times a  few  hours  before  the  board  meeting 
in  the  library  board  room.  The  president  of 
the  board  is  the  chairman  of  the  executive 
committee.  The  executive  committee,  in  ad- 
dition to  having  the  supervision  of  the  affairs 
of  the  library  in  the  intervals  between  the 
meetings  of  the  board,  has  the  general  super- 
vision and  control  of  all  appointments  to,  and 
renewals  from,  the  library  service.  The  rec- 
ommendations of  the  administration  commit- 
tee, in  regard  to  appointments,  increases  in 
salary,  leaves  of  absence,  etc.,  are  presented 
to  the  executive  committee  for  approval,  and 
acted  upon  by  it  rather  than  the  board  of 
trustees.  A  report  of  the  action  of  the  ex- 
ecutive committee  is,  however,  made  to  the 
board,  and  the  recommendations  of  the  ad- 
ministration committee  in  detail  are  typewrit- 
ten in  duplicate  and  are  available  for  exam- 
ination, so  that  every  member  who  may  desire 
may  be  fully  informed  as  to  any  action  which 
affects  the  staff  of  the  library ;  and  the  board, 
if  it  desires,  may  reverse  the  action  of  the  ex- 
ecutive committee. 

The  board  of  trustees  meets  in  the  board 
room  in  the  Administration  Building  on  the 
third  Tuesday  evening  of  each  month,  with 
the  exception  stated.  The  president,  or,  in 
his  absence,  the  vice-president,  presides,  and 
as  soon  as  a  quorum  is  present  calls  upon 
the  secretary,  who  is  a  member  of  the  board, 
for  the  minutes  of  the  previous  meeting 
which  have  been  recorded  by  the  librarian, 
who  acts  as  the  clerk  of  the  board,  and  pre- 
pared in  proper  shape  by  the  library  force. 
The  treasurer,  who  is  a  member  of  the  board, 
with  a  staff  of  accountants  directly  under  his 
control,  whose  salaries  are  paid  by  the  library, 
personally  reads  his  report,  summarizing  all 
the  figures  of  the  month  and  the  year,  with 
details  where  these  are  of  practical  bearing. 
This  reading  takes  perhaps  ten  minutes,  and 
often  elicits  questions  to  the  treasurer  or 
librarian  as  to  individual  expenditures.  The 
librarian,  who  is  always  present,  unless  he  is 
requested  to  withdraw  for  the  possible  dis- 
cussion of  matters  of  personal  salary  or  other 

personal  question,  and  who  has  no  vote  in 
the  board  and  technically  no  voice,  then  pre- 
sents his  report,  in  which  he  gives  the  general 
figures  of  the  library  for  the  month  and  the 
year,  summarizes  the  circulation  at  the  sev- 
eral branches,  as  compared  with  the  same 
month  of  the  previous  year,  and  presents 
pithily  a  report  of  the  salient  events  of  the 
month  within  the  library  and  at  library  meet- 
ings at  which  he  was  a  delegate.  It  may  here 
be  mentioned  that  the  librarian  is  authorized 
by  specific  vote  of  the  board  to  represent  the 
library  at  specified  meetings,  at  the  expense 
of  the  library,  and  that  usually  a  second 
representative  is  sent  at  the  library's  expense 
to  A.  L.  A.  meetings,  and  other  employees 
are  permitted,  under  sanction  of  the  librarian, 
to  be  in  attendance  at  such  meetings  at  their 
own  expense,  but  without  loss  of  pay,  when 
this  is  not  to  the  detriment  of  the  service. 
The  librarian's  report  is  always  listened  to 
with  interest,  and  throughout  the  meeting  he 
is  practically  given  a  voice  in  the  discussion 
and  treated  as  a  member  of  the  board.  Re- 
ports of  the  executive  committee  and  the 
several  committees  are  then  presented  by  the 
respective  chairmen,  and  the  president  usually 
rules,  to  the  considerable  saving  of  time,  that 
a  recommendation  is  approved  by  the  board, 
Quaker  meeting  fashion,  unless  some  member 
raises  question.  Often,  however,  a  com- 
mittee asks  for  specific  action  by  the  board, 
or  a  member  makes  a  specific  motion,  and 
this  practically  results  in  a  thorough  discus- 
sion by  the  board  of  many  questions  of  policy 
and  administration,  as,  for  instance,  the  re- 
lations with  the  city,  the  policy  of  the  library 
toward  the  public,  the  methods  of  lighting 
and  the  contracts  for  coal.  A  year  or  two 
ago  the  board  considered  very  carefully  the 
whole  system  of  electric  lighting  throughout 
the  branches  of  the  library,  employed  an  ex- 
pert electrical  engineer,  considered  his  report, 
and,  as  a  result,  saved  nearly  half  the  cost 
of  lighting.  In  the  same  way  the  yearly  con- 
tract for  coal,  now  based  scientifically  on  the 
British  thermal  unit  system,  as  the  result  of 
a  similar  discussion  by  the  practical  business 
men  of  the  board,  is  thoroughly  discussed  be- 
fore the  administration  committee's  proposed 
award  of  the  contract  is  finally  approved. 
There  is,  then,  the  usual  call  for  unfinished 

January,  1913] 


and  miscellaneous  business.  All  this  is  coram 
public o,  as  the  room  adjoining,  which  is  prac- 
tically an  extension  of  the  board  room,  is 
thrown  open  to  representatives  of  the  press 
and  the  public.  If  there  is  business  which 
can  be  better  discussed  in  private  session,  a 
motion  for  executive  session  is  passed;  the 
adjoining  room  is  then  shut  off,  and  the  pend- 
ing question  is  discussed  with  somewhat  less 
formality  and  freedom  in  such  executive  ses- 
sion. These  sessions  occur  perhaps  once  or 
twice  a  year,  sometimes  not  at  all  within  a 
year.  Thus  again  the  harmony  between  the 
governing  board  and  the  executive  officer,  the 
librarian,  is  fully  preserved  by  this  absolute 
touch  all  along  the  line  which  gives  full 
knowledge  to  every  member  of  the  board, 
and  full  opportunity  to  each  to  pass  upon  all 
library  affairs. 

The  annual  budget,  which  must  be  presented 
to  the  Board  of  Estimate  and  Apportionment 
of  the  City  of  New  York  at  its  October  meet- 
ing, receives  the  most  careful  attention  from 
the  trustees.  It  is  made  up  by  the  librarian 
and  treasurer,  submitted  to  the  administration 
and  finance  committees,  and  passed  upon  by 
the  executive  committee  before  it  is  presented 
to  the  Board  of  Estimate.  It  is  classified  and 
subdivided  in  detail,  according  to  a  scheme 
of  classification  adopted  by  the  city,  not  quite 
in  consonance  with  library  methods,  and  per- 
haps not  quite  as  useful  as  it  might  be  for 
that  reason.  The  trustees  administer  revenue 
now  approximating  half  a  million  dollars  a 
year.  These  include  the  direct  appropriation 
from  the  city  covered  in  the  budget,  which 
in  1912  was  $1,181,633.47  for  all  library  pur- 
poses, $417,000  being  for  the  borough  of 
Brooklyn;  the  fines  and  similar  items  desig- 
nated as  the  directors'  fund  approximating 
$18,000;  and  the  rentals  from  the  building  and 
proceeds  from  endowment  funds  of  the  old 
Brooklyn  Library  approximately  $16,000  per 
year.  The  total  revenue  for  1912  was  ap- 
proximately $451,000,  of  which  approximately 
$110,300  was  for  books,  $236,000  for  salaries, 
and  $104,700  for  supplies,  printing,  heating, 
lighting  and  other  items  of  expenditure,  be- 
ing, respectively,  24.4  per  cent.,  52.4  per  cent, 
and  23.2  per  cent.  It  may,  incidentally,  be 
noted  that  of  the  $107,800  book  expenditure 
in  1911,  $7397  was  for  periodicals.  $25,921  for 

binding,  and  $74,533  for  books,  and  that  the 
volumes  purchased  show  an  expenditure  of 
$1.24  per  volume,  including  the  rare  and  ex- 
pensive books  for  the  reference  department. 
The  expenditures  for  1912  will  show  practi- 
cally the  same  apportionment,  and  the  cost 
per  volume  will  be  approximately  the  same  as 
last  year.  The  details  of  all  these  expen- 
ditures are  in  full  control  of  the  trustees, 
first  through  the  budget,  secondly,  through 
appropriations  from  time  to  time,  and,  thirdly, 
through  detailed  monthly  statements  of  the 
librarian  and  of  the  treasurer,  although  the 
hands  of  the  trustees  are  tied,  more  or  less, 
by  the  fiscal  regulations  of  the  city,  which 
are  more  properly  applicable  to  city  depart- 
ments than  to  institutions  separately  con- 
trolled by  a  careful  and  conscientious  board 
of  trustees. 

The  librarian,  it  will  be  noted,  is  through- 
out the  library  organization  the  active  execu- 
tive officer,  and  the  board  of  trustees,  col- 
lectively and  individually,  limit  themselves 
carefully  to  general  direction,  advisory  rela- 
tions and  ultimate  control,  refraining  from 
interference  in  the  administrative  routine. 
This  gives  the  executive  officer  full  command 
of  his  staff  and  of  the  administrative  re- 
sources, so  that  his  hands  are  upheld,  and  he 
is  fully  the  master  of  the  situation.  There 
is  appeal  from  his  decision  for  any  member 
of  the  staff,  and  such  appeals  are  conscien- 
tiously considered  by  the  administration  com- 
mittee; but  unless  the  reasons  given  fully 
justify  the  appeal,  the  appellant  is  not  bet^ 
tered  in  the  eyes  of  the  trustees. 

The  application  of  these  principles  and 
methods  permit  the  administration,  with 
thorough  oversight  by  a  score  of  business 
and  professional  men,  of  a  library  system 
dealing  with  $3,000,000  of  invested  capital  and 
4,000,000  annual  circulation  of  books,  through 
seventeen  Carnegie  buildings,  eleven  other 
branches,  and  three  delivery  stations,  in  addi- 
tion to  the  Administration  Building.  When 
the  old  Brooklyn  Library,  now  known  as  the 
Montague  Branch,  and  the  administration 
work  are  brought  together  in  the  new  central 
building,  some  years  hence,  the  system,  sec- 
ond in  size  only  to  that  of  the  New  York 
Public  Library  in  Manhattan,  will  be  one  of 
the  most  complete  in  the  world. 


[January,  1913 

BY  FRANK  K.  WALTER,  Vice-Director,  New  York  State  Library  School 

LARGE  and  small  libraries  alike  are  interested 
in  the  question  of  inexpensive  reference  ma- 
terial. The  large  library  must  constantly  use 
much  material  of  only  temporary  value,  as 
well  as  much  that  may  be  of  considerable 
historic  value,  but  which  is  not  obtainable 
through  the  regular  channels  of  the  book 
trade.  The  small  library  may  use  such  ma- 
terial to  keep  up  to  date  at  the  lowest  possible 

Fortunately,  this  need  can  often  be  met 
with  little  difficulty.  The  present  tendency 
toward  advertising  on  the  part  of  all  kinds 
of  corporations  and  institutions,  and  the  long- 
established  custom  of  issuing  printed  reports 
of  municipal,  state  and  national  governments, 
are  responsible  for  a  great  amount  of  material 
of  considerable  reference  value  which  may 
be  obtained  free  or  at  a  very  slight  cost.  So 
great  is  the  amount  of  such  material,  and  so 
varied  is  its  value,  that  good  judgment  on 
the  part  of  the  librarian  is  needed  in  deciding 
what  to  ask  for  and  what  to  keep  of  the 
things  received  by  the  library,  but  much  in- 
formation on  live  topics  can  be  obtained  in 
this  way  which  would  otherwise  be  out  of 
the  question  to  libraries  with  very  limited 
incomes.  The  large  library,  too,  can  profit- 
ably use  much  material  of  this  kind  in  its 
reference  department. 

So  many  kinds  of  this  material  exist  that 
only  a  few  of  the  more  important  can  be 
mentioned  here. 

These  are  sent  in  complete  sets  only  to 
"depository"  libraries,  but  other  libraries  may 
usually  obtain  such  as  they  need  by  writing 
for  them  to  the  Superintendent  of  Documents, 
Washington,  D.  C,  taking  care  to  mention 
that  they  are  for  library,  not  personal  use. 
The  Superintendent  of  Documents  does  not 
distribute  documents  free  to  individuals.  In 
some  cases,  the  departments  or  bureaus  issu- 
ing regular  series  of  publications  will  put  the 
library  on  a  mailing  list  to  receive  such  publi- 
cations regularly.  A  considerable  number  of 
the  government  departments  and  bureaus 

Abstract  of  an  address  at  the  Albany,  Middletown 
and  Poughkeepsie  Library  Institutes,  May,   1912. 

issue  lists  of  their  publications,  which  make 
it  easy  to  learn  what  is  published.  Except 
in  a  large  library  or  a  library  primarily  for 
reference  use,  it  is  seldom  advisable  to  at- 
tempt to  obtain  complete  sets  of  United  States 
documents,  as  they  take  a  great  amount  of 
shelf  room  and  are  in  most  cases  too  techni- 
cal for  general  use. 

In  case  the  library  possesses  United  States 
documents  that  are  of  no  value  in  its  work, 
a  rough  list  of  them  should  be  sent  to  the 
Superintendent  of  Documents,  who,  if  they 
are  of  any  value,  will  send  mail  bags  and 
franking  slips  for  their  return  to  him,  without 
any  expense  to  the  library.  If  he  cannot  use 
them,  they  should  be  sold  as  waste  paper. 

Only  a  careful  and  constant  study  of  the 
catalogs  of  government  documents  will  show 
all  that  may  be  of  value.  A  large  proportion 
of  the  publications  of  the  following  depart- 
ments and  bureaus  will  be  found  of  direct 
value  in  reference  work  in  nearly  all  libraries. 

Department  of  Agriculture. — Of  particular 
interest  to  farmers,  householders  and  house- 
keepers are  the  "Farmers'  Bulletins,"  many 
of  the  circulars  of  the  Bureau  of  Entomology, 
the  Bureau  of  Animal  Industry,  the  Bureau; 
of  Chemistry,  and  the  Office  of  Public  Roads. 
All  publications  of  the  Department  of  Agri- 
culture are  listed  in  the  "Monthly  List  of 
Publications"  issued  by  the  department. 

Census  Bureau. — Many  of  the  publications- 
of  this  bureau,  including  the  full  census  re- 
port, are  too  statistical  to  be  of  general  in- 
terest, but  many  of  them,  such  as  the  reports 
on  special  industries,  the  general  summary 
of  each  census,  published  after  the  full  re- 
port of  each  census,  and  a  few  special  publi- 
cations, such  as  the  "Century  of  Population 
Growth,  1790-1900,"  are  useful  in  any  library. 

Bureau  of  Education. — The  annual  report 
of  the  Commissioner  of  Education  is  a  very 
valuable  summary  of  educational  activities 
during  the  year,  and  frequently  includes  chap- 
ters on  library  matters.  Nearly  all  of  the 
regular  Bulletins  of  this  bureau  are  of  in- 
terest to  teachers,  and  several  are  devoted  to 
library  topics. 

Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. — The  an- 
nual reports  of  this  bureau  are  highly  in- 

January,  1913] 


teresting  collections  of  articles  and  mono- 
graphs on  the  present  and  past  history  of  the 
American  Indian.  The  Bulletins  are  a  series 
of  monographs  on  the  same  general  subject. 
Nearly  all  of  the  publications  of  this  bureau 
are  admirably  illustrated. 

Geological  Survey. — This  bureau  publishes 
several  series  of  bulletins,  most  of  which 
appeal  chiefly  to  the  mining  or  civil  engineer 
and  to  the  professional  geologist.  A  consid- 
erable number  of  them,  however,  are  of  gen- 
eral or  local  interest.  Examples  are  "Geology 
of  the  Hudson  Valley,  between  the  Hoosic  and 
the  Kinderhook"  (Bulletin  242)  ;  "Boundaries 
of  the  United  States  and  of  the  several  states 
and  territories"  (Bulletin  226)  ;  "Rate  of  re- 
cession of  Niagara  Falls"  (Bulletin  306)  ; 
"Areas  of  the  United  States,  the  states  and 
the  territories"  (Bulletin  302)  ;  "Origin  of 
certain  place  names  in  the  United  States" 
(Bulletin  258).  Many  of  these  bulletins  have 
excellent  maps  and  illustrations. 

Another  very  useful  series  of  this  bureau 
is  the  series  of  topographic  maps,  covering 
nearly  one-third  of  the  entire  country.  Each 
sheet  covers  its  territory  thoroughly,  and  is 
on  a  large  scale.  The  largest  part  of  New 
York  state  and  many  other  states  have  been 
mapped,  and  sheets  covering  almost  any  small 
section  of  these  states  may  be  obtained  from 
the  Survey  at  five  cents  each,  with  a  discount 
in  quantities.  Booksellers  occasionally  keep 
them  in  stock.  None  of  these  "topographic 
sheets"  are  distributed  free,  except  to  "depos- 
itory libraries." 

Bureau  of  Labor. — The  publications  of  this 
bureau  are  concerned  with  the  workers  and 
industries  of  the  nation.  Most  of  them  are 
statistical,  but  many  are  of  general  interest. 
Examples  are  the  annual  "Statistical  abstract 
of  the  United  States"  and  the  quarterly  Bul- 
letin of  the  bureau,  which  contains  many  in- 
teresting special  articles.  ^ 

Library  of  Congress. — The  most  useful  of 
its  publications  to  small  libraries  are  probably 
its  lists  of  references  on  topics  of  present  in- 
terest, such  as  "Taxation  of  incomes,"  "Cost 
of  living,"  etc.,  and  its  catalog  cards,  which 
are  sold  to  hundreds  of  libraries  throughout 
the  country.  Many  of  its  special  publications 
are  of  great  value  to  the  larger  libraries. 

Smithsonian  Institution.  —  The  annual  re- 
ports are  collections  of  semi-popular  papers 

on  a  wide  range  of  scientific  subjects,  and,  in 
the  hands  of  an  alert  librarian,  are  of  much 
reference  value.  The  publications  of  the  Na- 
tional Museum,  which  is  a  part  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution,  are  primarily  for  the  scien- 
tific specialist. 

Congress. — The  Congressional  Record,  which 
is  a  full  report  of  all  the  public  proceedings 
of  Congress,  and  all  reports  made  to  Congress 
by  any  officer  of  the  national  government, 
are  published  by  Congress  and  can  usually 
best  be  obtained  through  the  local  Congress- 
man. Most  of  the  routine  reports  are  of 
little  use  in  small  libraries.  The  Congres- 
sional Record  is  considerably  used  for  debate 
work,  and  a  number  of  special  reports  and 
documents  of  general  value  are  issued  at 
each  session  of  Congress.  The  Congressional 
Directory  (obtainable,  also,  from  the  Super- 
intendent of  Documents  for  35  cents)  is  a 
most  valuable  handbook  of  the  national  gov- 

Pan- American  Union  (formerly  the  Inter- 
national Bureau  of  American  Republics). — 
This  issues  guide  books,  bulletins,  maps  and 
other  publications  of  great  interest  and  value 
to  anyone  interested  in  Spanish-American 
affairs.  A  list  may  be  obtained  on  application 
to  the  Director,  Pan-American  Union,  Wash- 
ington, D.  C.  The  Union  is  not  a  department 
of  the  United  States  government,  but  is 
affiliated  with  governmental  activities. 


These  are  usually  harder  to  get  than  United 
States  documents,  and  there  are  fewer  good 
lists.  The  local  Assemblyman  or  state  Senator 
is  usually  the  best  person  to  whom  to  apply, 
as  the  departments  and  state  offices  seldom 
have  more  than  a  limited  supply.  Early  ap- 
plication, if  possible,  is  desirable,  for  the  docu- 
ment rooms  in  most  states  are  in  charge  of 
men  selected  for  reasons  other  than  their 
interest  in  the  dissemination  of  information 
useful  to  the  general  public,  and  by  far  the 
greater  part  of  many  issues  of  state  docu- 
ments go  to  the  junk  man.  Occasionally,  as 
in  the  case  of  the  New  York  State  Labor 
Department  and  the  New  York  State  Educa- 
tion Department,  careful  mailing  lists  are 
kept  and  publications  are  distributed  direct 
from  the  department. 

Naturally,  the  documents  of  one's  own  state 



[January,  1913 

are  usually  the  most  useful,  though  in  many 
cases  those  of  other  states  are  very  valuable. 
Usually  there  is  no  wide  free  distribution 
outside  the  state  publishing  the  documents, 
except  to  institutions  and  to  individuals  hav- 
ing a  special  interest  in  the  document,  and 
often  a  nominal  charge  covering  the  postage 
or  other  transportation  charges  is  made.  As 
in  the  case  of  national  documents,  the  libra- 
rian should  beware  of  getting  too  many  of 
little  or  no  direct  value  to  her  particular 
library.  Many  statistical  and  highly  technical 
reports  of  great  value  to  the  special  investi- 
gator are  quite  useless  to  the  ordinary  user 
of  the  library. 

There  is  no  uniformity  in  the  character 
of  the  publications  of  the  different  states. 
Among  those  useful  to  small  libraries  are  the 
Legislative  Manual,  obtainable  through  the 
local  member  of  the  legislature.  This  serves 
for  the  state  government  a  purpose  similar  to 
that  served  the  national  government  by  the 
Congressional  Directory.  All  of  the  states 
issue  legislative  manuals.  The  New  York 
Red  Book  is  a  non-official  annual,  covering 
much  the  same  ground,  but  including  por- 
traits and  biographies  of  legislators  and  other 
state  officers  and  some  other  general  material. 
It  can  usually  be  obtained  from  the  local 
member  of  the  legislature.  The  agricultural 
colleges  at  Cornell  University,  Geneva  (N.  Y.) 
and  those  of  other  states  issue  valuable  series 
of  bulletins.  In  general,  in  any  state,  the  pub- 
lications of  the  State  Agricultural  Department 
and  the  state  agricultural  colleges,  the  reports 
and  bulletins  of  the  state  geologist  of  the  State 
Education  Department  and  the  State  Labor 
Department  are  worth  careful  consideration. 


As  the  publication  and  distribution  of  these 
is  usually  more  loosely  conducted  even  than 
that  of  state  documents,  they  are  harder  to 
obtain  regularly,  and  except  such  as  are 
strictly  local,  they  are  seldom  of  much  gen- 
eral value.  Exceptions  may  usually  be  made 
in  favor  of  the  local  school  reports,  building 
codes,  the  ordinances  of  the  city  council,  and 
regulations  of  the  local  board  of  health,  and 
occasional  special  reports. 



This  general  class  includes  the  widest  di- 
versity of  material  from  bulletins,  year  books 

and  reports  of  local  churches,  secret  societies, 
charitable  institutions,  etc.,  and  the  occasional 
publications  of  local  institutions,  like  banks, 
social  clubs  and  the  like,  to  the  proceedings 
of  societies  of  national  scope.  It  is  usually  a 
good  thing  to  keep,  if  space  permits,  anything 
relating  in  any  way  to  the  history  of  the 
community,  such  as  anniversary  pamphlets, 
programs,  etc.  In  most  cases  such  material 
is  rather  easy  to  get,  and  care  must  be  taken 
not  to  overdo  this  side  of  the  work.  Dona- 
tions of  this  sort  should  never  be  taken  with- 
out at  least  an  implied  understanding  that 
they  may  be  kept  or  discarded,  as  the  libra- 
rian sees  fit. 

Much  valuable  sociological  material  can  be 
obtained  free  from  societies  like  the  American 
Association  for  International  Conciliation,  the 
Lake  Mohonk  Conferences  on  International 
Arbitration  and  on  Indian  Welfare,  and  the 
School  of  Philanthropy  of  New  York  City. 


Information  concerning  this  class  of  ma- 
terial can  usually  best  be  found  in  the  ad- 
vertising pages  of  reputable  periodicals.  Ma- 
terial of  this  kind  is  often  of  great  use  if 
.carefully  selected,  and  used  with  the  under- 
standing that  it  was  issued  primarily  for  ad- 
vertising purposes.  Among  common  sources 
of  material  of  this  sort  may  be  mentioned: 

(1)  Railroad    and    steamship    lines. — These 
often  issue  very  valuable  booklets,  maps  and 
folders.     Among  the   steamship   lines   whose 
publications  are  of   general   interest  may  be 
mentioned    the    North    German    Lloyd,    the 
Cunard,  Hamburg-American  and  the  Old  Do- 
minion lines.    Among  railroads,  the  Delaware 
and    Hudson    (whose   time   table    includes    a 
valuable  historical  map  of  the  upper  Hudson 
Valley),  the  New  York  Central  and  Hudson 
River,  the  Santa  Fe,  Northern  Pacific,  Rock 
Island,   and   the   London   and    Northwestern. 
The  time-table  rack  in  any  hotel  lobby  will 
furnish  many  other  examples. 

(2)  Industrial  establishments. — Trade  cata- 
logs and  house  organs  often  give  the  latest 
information  on  new  trade  processes  and  ma- 
chinery,   and    are    indispensable   in    the    large 
library  with  a  technology  department,  and  use- 
ful in  any  library  in  an  industrial  town.  Many 
firms  issue  booklets  giving  popular  illustrated 
accounts  of  general  manufacturing  processes. 
These    are    often    valuable    in    school    work. 

January,  1913] 



Examples  are  the  descriptive  booklets  of  the 
Riverside  Press,  "The  biography  of  a  book," 
issued  by  Harper  &  Brothers,  and  the  pamph- 
let on  "Manufacture  of  paper,"  issued  by  the 
Champion  Coated  Paper  Co.,  of  Hamilton,  O. 
Several  publishing  houses  have  recently  issued 
biographical  pamphlets  on  authors  whose 
works  they  publish,  e.  g.,  Little,  Brown 
&  Co.,  on  E.  Phillips  Oppenheim;  the  "Kip- 
ling primer"  of  Doubleday,  Page  &  Co.;  a 
sketch  of  John  Galsworthy  by  Charles  Scrib- 
ner's  Sons,  and  one  on  John  Ames  Mitchell 
by  the  F.  A.  Stokes  Co. 

The  publications  of  local  boards  of  trade 
are  usually  well  illustrated  and  fairly  reliable 
handbooks  of  their  respective  cities. 

In  gathering  this  class  of  material,  be  sure 
that  only  reputable  firms  are  represented  in 
your  collection.  Beware  of  sending  to  pub- 
lishers for  specimen  pages  of  advertised 
books  unless  you  are  willing  to  devote  a  great 
deal  of  time  to  agents.  Also  beware  of  book- 
lets issued  by  real  estate  promoters  or  mining 
companies  and  any  others  which  are  issued 
"with  intent  to  deceive." 

Clipping  bureaus  are  seldom  of  much  use 
to  small  libraries.  An  exception  must  be 
made  in  favor  of  the  H.  W.  Wilson  Co.,  of 
Minneapolis,  whose  system  of  renting  period- 
ical articles  brings  practically  any  material 
listed  in  the  current  standard  indexes  within 
the  temporary  reach  of  any  library. 



These  are  usually  bibliographic  or  descrip- 
tive of  some  phase  of  library  work.  They 
are  usually  obtainable  free  or  for  return  post- 
age, and  are  preeminently  useful  as  time- 


Though  a  temporary  source  of  material, 
this  is  one  of  the  most  important  of  all  to 
the  small  library.  So  cordial  are  library  rela- 
tions that  the  small  library  can  usually  call 
with  confidence  on  the  nearest  large  library 
for  aid.  On  the  other  hand,  common  pro- 
fessional courtesy  demands  that  the  resources 
of  one's  own  library  be  exhausted  before 
others  are  called  upon  for  assistance,  nor 
should  an  unreasonable  amount  of  time  or 
excessive  loans  of  books  be  requested.  In 

New  York  state,  the  logical  place  to  ask  for 
such  aid  is  the  State  Library,  whose  purpose 
is  to  serve  the  library  interests  of  the  state 
in  every  way  possible.  In  other  states,  the 
state  library  or  state  library  commission  usu- 
ally supervises  this  work. 


Useful  material,  in  the  form  of  gifts,  can 
often  be  obtained,  especially  about  houseclean- 
ing  or  moving  time.  This  must  be  selected 
and  accepted  with  discrimination,  and  all  use- 
less material  consigned  at  once  to  the  dupli- 
cate shelves  or  the  junk  pile.  Useful  chap- 
ters, passages,  pictures,  etc.,  should  be  re- 
moved and  filed  in  some  convenient  place. 
Social  clubs  and,  occasionally,  newspaper 
offices,  are  often  fruitful  sources  of  material, 
and  the  donors  in  such  cases  are  less  likely 
to  be  sensitive  about  the  disposition  of  gifts 
than  individuals  usually  are. 

Whatever  the  kind  of  library,  two  facts 
should  be  observed  in  any  attempt  to  get 
something  for  little  or  nothing.  First,  that 
low  price  is  not  necessarily  indicative  of  low 
value,  and  that  alertness  may  secure  for  a 
library  much  that  is  useful  at  little  or  no 
cost,  other  than  postage.  Second,  the  fact 
that  a  book  or  pamphlet  costs  little  or  noth- 
ing" is  not  in  itself  a  reason  for  adding  it  to 
a  library.  Selection  is  necessary  here,  as 
well  as  in  the  case  of  more  expensive  books, 
and  it  is  easy  to  waste  over  useless  matter 
valuable  time  that  could  be  better  used  in 
getting  results  from  things  already  in  the 
library.  Neither  should  the  librarian  depend 
too  much  on  things  that  are  really  collateral 
rather  than  essential.  Cheap  material  may  be 
a  valuable  supplement,  but  it  can  never  be- 
come a  satisfactory  substitute  for  standard 
books  or  periodicals. 



Publishers'   Weekly.     New   York,   Publishers' 

Weekly,  298  Broadway.    $4. 

Includes,  especially  in  the  monthly  cumula- 
tive numbers,  many  pamphlets  and  occasional 
bound  volumes,  obtainable  "gratis"  or  at  a 
nominal  price.  Includes  many  state  and  United 
States  documents. 



{January,  1913 

Cumulative  Book  Index.    Minneapolis,  H.  W. 

Wilson  Co.     (Monthly.)     $6. 

Includes  much  the  same  entries  as  the  Pub- 
Ushers'    Weekly,    with    perhaps    rather    more 
entries  of  minor  western  publications. 
Reader's     Guide     (Abridged).      Minneapolis, 

H.  W.  Wilson  Co.     (Monthly.)     $4. 

Formerly  the  Eclectic  Library  Catalog.  Pri- 
marily a  periodical  index,  but  includes  in  each 
number  a  "check  list  of  government  and  other 
valuable  publications  distributed  free  or  at  a 
nominal  price." 

LIBRARY  JOURNAL,  Public  Libraries  and  New 

York  Libraries. 

All  three  make  special  mention  of  many 
items  of  this  kind.  The  first  has  a  regular 
column  of  current  bibliographies. 


A.  L.  A.  Booklist.   Chicago,  American  Library 

Association.     (Monthly.)     $i. 

Includes  brief  list  of  United  States  docu- 
ments useful  in  small  libraries. 

Monthly    Catalog    of    United    States    Public 
Documents.    Washington,  Government  Print- 
ing Office.    Free  to  libraries. 
Complete  list  of   departments   of   all   docu- 
ments   issued    by    the    national    government. 
Fullest  of  any  list.    'Quarterly  and  annual  in- 

Monthly  list  of  publications,  U.  S.  Department 
of    Agriculture.      Washington,    Editor    and 
Chief,  Division  of   Publications,  U.   S.  De- 
partment of  Agriculture.     Free. 
Four-page  list  of  one  department  only,  but 

includes  much  that  is  very  useful. 

New  publications   of   the   Geological  Survey. 

Washington,    director,    Geological     Survey. 

(Monthly.)    Free. 

Lists  occasional  items  useful  to  the  small 
library,  and  many  of  value  to  larger  libraries. 

Price  lists  and  leailets.  Washington,  Superin- 
tendent of  Documents.  Free  on  applica- 

Subject  lists  of  documents,  including  many 
analytical  references.  The  lists  make  very 
serviceable  bibliographies.  Among  the  sub- 
jects treated  are  food  and  diet,  dairy  indus- 

try,  Indians,   education,   tariff,   poultry,   polit- 
ical economy. 

In  addition  to  the  lists  noted  above,  many 
of  the  departments  issue,  from  time  to  time, 
lists  of  their  publications  available  for  dis- 
tribution. Among  these  are  the  Department 
of  Agriculture,  Bureau  of  Education,  Depart- 
ment of  Commerce  and  Labor,  Library  of 
Congress,  Geological  Survey,  Census  Bureau 
and  the  Smithsonian  Institution. 


Monthly  List   of  State   Publications.     Wash- 
ington, Library  of  Congress.    50  cents. 
The  only  list  of  current  publications  of  all 
the  states  and  territories  that  even  approaches 
completeness.     Gives  practically  all   informa- 
tion necessary,  except  as  to  whether  the  docu- 
ment is  free  or  not. 

New  York  Libraries.  Recent  state  publica- 
tions of  interest. 

This  department,  formerly  conducted  by 
Mr.  F.  L.  Tolman,  will  be  resumed  in  future 
numbers  of  New  York  Libraries,  under  the 
direction  of  Mr.  C.  B.  Lester,  legislative  ref- 
erence librarian.  It  will  be  a  brief  annotated 
list  of  New  York  state  documents,  with  direc- 
tions as  to  the  best  method  of  obtaining  the 
documents  listed. 

New  York  State  Education  Department.  Gen- 
eral department  publications.  (Handbook 
6.)  March,  1911.  Albany,  State  Education 
Department.  Free. 

Lists  publications  of  the  department  still  in 
print.  Many  of  these  are  valuable  and  inter- 
esting to  teachers  and  others. 

State  Museum.  List  of  Museum  publi- 
cations. Albany,  State  Education  Depart- 
ment. Free. 

Frequently  revised.  Includes  all  publica- 
tions still  in  print.  Among  them  are  the  in- 
teresting Archaeology  Bulletins  and  many  ad- 
mirably illustrated  geological  monographs. 

Other  lists  may  be  found  on  the  covers  of 
publications  of  the  departments  concerned, 
e.  g.,  New  York  State  Library  publications  in 
the  bulletins  of  the  library  and  the  Library 
School,  of  the  Bureau  of  Labor  in  the  Quar- 
terly Bulletin  of  the  bureau,  etc.,  and  similar 
departments  in  other  states. 

January,  1913] 


BY  GEORGE  H.  EVANS,  Librarian,  Woburn  (Mass.)  Public  Library 

THE  subject  of  my  remarks  is  intended  to 
suggest  not  ideals,  purposes,  nor  theories,  the 
need  and  value  of  which  I  should  be  the  last 
to  disparage  and  the  first  to  recognize  and 
urge,  but  some  actual  attempts  to  push  a 
little  farther  out  the  frontier  line  of  library 
influence  and  usefulness.  The  librarian  whom 
the  ferment  of  the  pioneer  spirit  urges  ever 
onward  into  new  and  uncharted  territories  is 
the  one  most  likely  to  sift  the  actual  from 
the  theoretical,  to  whom  things  already  real- 
ized seem  most  clearly  to  map  out  the  path 
to  further  accomplishment.  I  shall,  therefore, 
try  to  tell  in  a  direct  and  concrete  way  about 
some  experiments,  quite  disconnected,  save  in 
their  single  purpose  of  adding  to  the  useful- 
ness of  the  library  in  the  community. 

First,  then,  an  experiment  within  the  library. 
Every  librarian,  at  times,  indulges  in  those 
elusive  and  hardly  realized  day  dreams  of 
improving  the  literary  taste  of  his  own  little 
coterie  of  readers.  Like  the  will-o'-the-wisp, 
the  results  of  these  efforts  are  difficult  to 
put  one's  hands  upon.  Taste  in  reading  is 
peculiar.  It  seems  to  have  an  almost  organic 
relation  to  the  native  fiber  of  the  man.  I 
have  known  a  day  laborer  who  read  Homer 
of  an  evening,  and  a  college  professor  who 
drained  to  their  unsavory  dregs  the  offerings 
of  the  daily  press. 

A  large  and  attractive  bulletin  was  made, 
with  the  heading,  "Books  the  world  calls 
great."  Beneath  this,  at  the  left,  was  paneled 
off  a  space  for  the  posting  of  lists.  Along- 
side the  panel  was  a  notice  to  the  effect  that 
the  books  named  in  the  accompanying  list 
would  be  found  on  the  shelf  below,  and  that 
each  month  the  list  would  be  changed.  As 
each  new  list  was  posted,  it  was  fastened,  at 
the  top  only,  over  the  list  of  the  previous 
month,  thus  making  a  cumulation  of  titles  to 
which  a  reader  could  always  refer  should  any 
topic  tempt  his  appetite  to  further  tasting. 
Selections  were  made  under  such  subjects  as 
biography,  history,  travel,  natural  science,  fic- 
tion, essays,  poetry  and  drama.  The  shelf 
selected  for  the  exhibit  was  craftily  located 
in  the  midst  of  the  new  book  section,  as  un- 
doubtedly the  best  advertising  space  within 
the  library  walls.  This  plan  was  followed 

Read    before    Rhode    Island    Library    Association, 
Nov.    u,   1912. 

throughout  the  busy  part  of  the  year.  A 
check  upon  circulation  showed  for  non-fiction 
an  increase  of  about  33  per  cent,  over  the 
corresponding  period  of  the  previous  year. 
An  interesting  feature  was  a  decrease  in  the 
circulation  of  the  fiction  selected,  ascribed  to 
the  absence  of  the  books  from  their  accus- 
tomed place,  so  much  better  known  to  bor- 
rowers than  the  location  of  particular  classes 
of  non-fiction.  It  is  an  open  question  whether, 
upon  the  whole,  the  advertising  of  "best 
books"  is  psychologically  sound. 

Much  more  desirable  is  that  type  of  out- 
ward extension  of  the  library's  field  which 
has  for  its  object  the  reaching  of  those  who 
do  not  already  have  affiliations  with  the  li- 
brary. For  all-around  effectiveness,  I  do  not 
believe  that  there  is  any  agency  to  compare 
with  the  press.  Experience  in  different  places 
convinces  me  that  the  paper  that  will  not  co- 
operate cordially  with  public  library  work,  if 
properly  approached,  is  not  only  blind  to  its 
own  opportunities,  but  is  the  rare  excep- 

Our  library  in  Woburn  is  now  conducting 
a  weekly  library  corner  in  the  two  local 
dailies.  This  is  a  feature  of  the  Wednesday 
evening  issue,  publishing  identical  matter  sim- 
ultaneously in  both  papers.  It  occupies  a 
double  column  under  a  distinctive  heading,  in 
connection  with  which  is  used  in  the  form  of 
a  motto  a  happy  phrase  from  the  will  of  the 
chief  benefactor  of  the  library:  "For  the  use, 
benefit  and  improvement  of  the  people  of 
Woburn."  There  is  practically  no  limit  as  to 
space  or  to  subject  matter.  The  double  col- 
umn format  is  more  attractive  to  the  eye,  and 
makes  the  corner  stand  out  prominently  from 
the  rest  of  the  page.  Permanence  of  position 
is  desirable,  as  a  familiar  feature  always  tends 
to  fix  a  mental  habit. 

The  nature  of  the  copy  supplied  for  the 
corner  is  quite  varied ;  in  fact,  anything  of 
interest  that  we  can  hang  on  a  library  peg: 
library  news  of  all  sorts,  book  accessions, 
reading  lists  on  current  topics,  and  subjects 
in  constant  demand,  special  book  notices  and 
book  chat  of  the  day,  notes  on  local  history, 
special  days,  etc.  In  connection  with  the 
newspaper  column  are  used  bulletin  boards 
and  special  reservations  of  bo'oks,  as  occasion 


[January,  1913 

Incidentally,  the  library  corner  takes  the 
place  of  the  Bulletin,  formerly  published  and 
discontinued  for  financial  reasons.  I  believe 
it  to  be  the  more  valuable  of  the  two.  It  is 
particularly  adapted  to  the  small  library  of 
limited  resources  in  any  community  that  sup- 
ports a  local  paper.  To  summarize,  its  ad- 
vantages are  wide  dissemination,  not  confined 
to  present  users  of  the  library;  regularity  and 
frequency,  persistence  and  variety  of  appeal. 

On  account  of  their  adaptability,  special 
reading  lists  have  received  much  attention 
from  librarians.  One  hardly  expects  to  dis- 
play any  originality  in  this  field.  Out  of 
numerous  experiments  we  note  two  or  three 
of  attested  usefulness. 

A  committee  of  our  local  woman's  club  is 
sponsor  for  one.  I  assume,  by  the  way,  that 
every  woman's  club  has  a  library  committee. 
If  not,  let  me  commend  to  you  its  usefulness 
in  matters  of  cooperation.  Primarily,  this 
list  is  for  the  use  of  the  club  members;  inci- 
dentally, for  all  who  care  to  refer  to  it.  It 
includes  carefully  selected  lists  on  such  topics 
as  English  and  American  fiction,  education, 
art,  conservation,  civics  and  domestic  science. 
A  strongly  bound  copy  of  this  list,  kept  at 
the  desk,  is  in  frequent  use.  The  prestige  of 
a  strong  and  active  club  adds  to  its  value. 

The  English  department  of  our  high  school 
also  maintains  a  reading  list  at  the  library. 
It  numbers  several  hundred  titles,  broadly 
classified,  but  carefully  graded,  designed  for 
the  three  higher  classes.  The  library  under- 
takes to  have  all  the  titles  on  this  list,  and 
to  duplicate  some  of  them  liberally.  The  list, 
now  in  typewritten  form,  has  become  so  use- 
ful, and  is  so  constantly  in  demand,  that  it 
is  proposed  to  print  a  revised  and  enlarged 
edition  for  distribution.  In  such  an  event, 
we  hope  to  make  still  further  use  of  it  out- 
side the  school,  and  believe  that,  when  it  is 
possible  for  them  personally  to  own  a  copy, 
many  pupils  will  continue  to  refer  to  it  after 
graduation.  A  merit  of  the  present  tempo- 
rary form  is  the  ease  and  consequent  fre- 
quency of  revision  which  permits  the  addition 
of  such  new  titles  as  seem  worthy  of  inclu- 
sion and  within  the  scope  of  its  purpose. 
The  newer  titles  seem  to  remove  to  a  certain 
extent  the  curse  of  taboo  that  in  the  student 
mind  rests  upon  all  required  reading. 

Still  another  form  of  the  list  we  find  very 
useful  in  facilitating  the  exchange  of  books 

lent  to  the  high  school  for  collateral  reading. 
Such  lists  are  on  cards,  arranged  under  guides 
bearing  the  names  of  the  courses  of  study. 
Teachers  are  thereby  enabled  to  revise  or  in- 
sert new  titles,  as  they  see  fit,  easily  and  with- 
out confusion.  By  means  of  this  list  we  are 
able  to  make  quick  delivery  of  any  course 

A  brief  reference  to  an  interesting  and 
possibly  unique  phase  of  high  school  and 
library  relations  will  conclude  my  remarks. 
It  grows  out  of  the  possession  by  the  school 
of  an  excellent  library  of  its  own,  newly 
housed  and  equipped.  This  has  an  assured 
income  adequate  for  the  purchase  of  books, 
but  limited  to  that  purpose,  with  a  consequent 
maintenance  problem.  Here  are  two  libraries, 
then,  with  lines  of  work  parallel  where  not 
identical,  a  situation  well  calculated  for  waste- 
ful duplication  of  books  and  effort.  Happily,, 
however,  a  spirit  of  cooperation  makes  it 
easy  in  most  cases  to  avoid  undesired  duplica- 
tions. No  books  of  importance  are  added  to- 
the  school  library  without  first  ascertaining 
whether  they  are  in  the  public  library,  and, 
if  not  necessary  to  both,  in  which  they  will 
be  most  useful. 

The  administration  of  the  school  library 
has  been  something  of  a  problem.  Under 
the  general  charge  of  a  teacher,  the  books 
were  formerly  prepared  for  use  by  students 
of  library  economy,  whose  services  could  be 
secured  without  compensation  other  than  the 
experience  and  practice  obtained.  The  re- 
sults were  unsatisfactory,  owing  to  lack  of 
continuity  and  differing  individual  viewpoints. 
The  experience  of  two  or  three  years  showed 
not  only  such  divergencies  from  the  usages 
of  the  public  library  as  might  have  been  ex- 
pected, but  also  internal  inconsistencies  of 
cataloging  and  classification.  Such  a  condi- 
tion naturally  tended  to  confusion  in  the 
minds  of  both  teachers  and  students. 

In  the  meantime,  however,  the  teacher  in 
charge,  being  an  observing  person  of  practical 
bent,  had  learned  much.  On  her  initiative  the 
old  plan  of  management  was  abandoned  a 
year  ago,  and  the  work  of  the  high  school 
library  was  converted  into  what  is  practically 
an  elementary  laboratory  course  in  library 
economy.  It  was  hoped  thereby  to  combine 
economy,  internal  consistency  and  uniformity 
with  the  methods  of  the  public  library,  and, 
at  the  same  time,  give  instruction  about  books 
to  a  small  class. 

January,  1913] 


In  accordance,  therefore,  with  this  plan, 
seven  seniors  were  allowed  a  credit  of  four 
hours  a  week  throughout  the  year.  The 
course  is  a  combination  of  lectures,  recita- 
tions, reports  and  the  actual  preparation,  and 
handling  of  the  books  of  the  school  library, 
together  with  the  general  care  of  the  stock 
of  the  text-books.  The  class  is  expected  to 
become  familiar  with  the  construction  and 
use  of  the  dictionary  catalog  and  the  princi- 
ples and  most  important  divisions  of  the 
decimal  classification.  They  are  given  prac- 
tice in  classifying  books  in  the  simpler  classes, 
assigning  Cutter  numbers,  reading  the  shelves 
and  arranging  books.  They  learn  how  to 
open,  mend  and  care  for  books,  and  how  to 
prepare  them  for  the  shelves  and  for  circula- 
tion. Instruction  is  given  in  the  relative  value 
of  the  better-known  reference  books,  both 
general  and  special,  together  with  their  scope 
and  limitations,  with  illustrative  use  of  the 
same.  Bibliographies,  based  upon  material  in 
the  public  library,  are  made  both  for  individ- 
uals and  for  special  topics. 

The  main  dependence  in  mapping  out  the 
work  has  been  placed  upon  such  well-known 
books  as  Dana's  "Modern  American  library 
economy  series,"  Ward's  "Practical  use  of 
books  and  libraries,"  Kroeger's  "Guide  to  the 
study  and  use  of  reference  books,"  the  Deci- 
mal Classification,  Cutter's  "Alphabet  order 
table,"  and  the  A.  L.  A.  "List  of  subject  head- 
ings." With  these  are  combined  readings 
from  other  sources,  such  as  Spofford's  "Books 
for  all  readers,"  and  Bostwick's  "The  Amer- 
ican public  library."  For  cataloging,  Library 
of  Congress  cards  are  used. 

The  librarian  of  the  public  library  has 
participated  to  the  extent  of  assisting  the 
teacher  in  laying  out  the  course  and  giving 
lectures,  informal  talks  arid  demonstrations 
to  the  class  on  such  subjects  as  the  selection, 
treatment  and  use  of  books,  reference  works, 
bindings,  the  catalog,  mending,  marking  and 
library  handwriting.  In  addition  to  this  work 
with  the  class,  he  has  lectured  to  the  senior 
class  and  teachers  on  the  making  of  books 
and  the  significance  of  their  parts. 

The  high  school  entrusts  the  care  of  its 
large  collection  of  text-books,  which  is  dis- 
tinct from  the  school  library,  to  the  class 
which  attends  to  the  charging  system  and 
keeps  the  books  mended.  The  latter  especial- 
ly is  a  happy  solution  of  an  old  problem.  The 

library  is  satisfactorily  supervised,  the  new 
accessions  prepared  for  use,  and  other  routine 
work  discharged.  A  considerable  number  of 
needed  bibliographies  have  been  made  for  dif- 
ferent teachers,  who  are  finding  it  very  con- 
venient to  refer  to  this  new  source  for  in- 
formation and  assistance. 

The  public  library  feels  an  increased  in- 
terest and  understanding.  Uniformity  and 
avoidance  of  confusion  have  been  secured. 
The  teachers  are  being  educated  in  the  re- 
sources of  the  library,  and  as  our  local  teach- 
ing corps  is  mostly  recruited  from  home 
material,  it  is  quite  probable  that  we  are  even 
now  teaching  embryo  teachers. 

As  for  the  pupil,  the  purpose  of  the  course 
is  not  to  make  of  him  a  librarian,  though  the 
suggestions  of  a  vocation  are  obvious.  It 
aims  rather  to  instill  some  working  knowl- 
edge of  books  and  the  resources  of  the 


THE  following  classification  of  borrowers 
of  a  German  municipal  library,  the  Breslau 
Stadtbibliothek,  may  be  of  interest  as  indi- 
cating the  library  clientele.  The  figures  are 
taken  from  the  report  for  1911.  The  circula- 
tion was  47,346.  In  translation,  there  was 
some  difficulty  in  finding  exact  equivalents, 
e.  g.,  Landwirte  and  Gartner,  translated  as 
farmers  and  gardeners,  in  reality  connote  a 
more  trained  class  of  workers  than  is  sug- 
gested by  the  English  use  of  those  terms. 

Occupation  of  Borrowers. 




High-school  Teachers 





Theology  Catholic  .... 

54      6 












f.    „ 


Lawyers,     Judges,    Administra- 
tors, etc  

40  c 


Doctors  and  Chemists          .  ... 

Officials  of  Scientific  Institutions. 
Teachers  in  Colleges  etc. 





Teachers  in  Elementary  Schools. 
Minor  Officials  





Authors  and  Artists  



Technologists,  Farmers,  Garden- 
ers, Manufacturers,  Merchants, 

Military  Officers  


Men,  no  calling  












Government  Officials  


„     T9T 







[January,  1913 

AT  a  meeting  of  the  committee  appointed 
-by  the  American  Library  Association  to  study 
methods  of  preserving  newspaper  files  for  use 
of  future  generations,  held  Nov.  26,  1912,  at 
the  Montague  Branch  of  the  Brooklyn  Pub- 
lic Library,  when,  at  the  invitation  of  the 
committee,  representatives  of  New  York  and 
Brooklyn  newspapers  were  asked  to  partici- 
pate in  the  study  of  the  question,  Mr.  John 
Norris,  chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Paper 
of  the  American  Newspaper  Publishers' Asso- 
ciation, submitted  the  following  observations: 
"Much  has  been  said  recently  by  librarians 
.about  the  inferiority  of  the  newsprint  paper 
which  goes  into  bound  files  of  the  libraries 
for  the  purposes  of  reference  and  historical 
preservation.  An  examination  of  the  places 
of  storage  in  the  libraries  and  the  conditions 
of  storage  convinces  me  that  while  the  ordi- 
nary newsprint  paper  may  not  be  in  any  re- 
spect suitable  for  purposes  of  preservation, 
the  methods  of  handling  those  papers  when 
.bound  are  conducive  to  deterioration.  This 
criticism  applies  not  only  to  libraries,  but  to 
newspaper  offices,  and  substantially  to  all 
places  where  newspaper  files  are  stored.  In 
many  of  the  libraries,  the  files  are  subjected 
to  treatment  which  deprives  the  paper  of  its 
required  moisture.  The  libraries  dry  out  the 
newspapers  by  keeping  them  in  rooms  with 
an  average  temperature  of  70  degrees,  which 
is  bound  in  the  course  of  time  to  cause  de- 
terioration. The  artificial  heat  renders  the 
paper  extremely  brittle  and  makes  it  crumble 
like  isinglass  when  handled.  Excessive  damp- 
ness is  also  disadvantageous.  One  of  the 
paper  authorities  says  that  proximity  to  the 
seashore  causes  paper  to  fade  more  quickly. 


"Improvement  in  the  preservation  of  these 
historical  records  may  be  obtained : 

"ist,  by  using  a  printing  paper  that  will 
endure  indefinitely;  2d,  by  binding  with  ma- 
terials that  do  not  attract  minute  organisms ; 
3d,  by  storing  under  conditions  (a)  that 
do  not  deprive  the  paper  of  all  its  moisture; 
(b)  or  subject  it  to  excessive  dampness;  (c) 
or  subject  it  to  chemical  action  produced  by 
sunshine  or  gas  or  artificial  heat  or  similar 
agencies  of  deterioration;  (d)  or  propagate 
insects  or  other  growth. 

"In  gathering  information  that  relates  to 
the  preservation  of  the  printed  paper,  I  have, 
at  the  request  of  newspaper  publishers,  in-- 
quired  about  the  storage  and  preservation  of 
newsprint  rolls  which  I  will  also  touch  upon 
in  this  compilation. 

"The  matter  of  paper  preservation  has  at- 
tracted attention  for  centuries.  Pliny  says 
the  ancients  preserved  their  paper  and  books 
from  moths  by  washing  them  over  with 
cedar  or  citron  oil.  In  1773,  the  Royal  So- 
ciety of  Sciences,  at  Gottingen,  offered  a 
-premium  for  the  answers  to  questions  rclat- 

irg  to  insects  found  in  records  and  books. 
The  answers  accepted  at  that  time  indicated 
that  five  insects  were  destructive,  and  that 
six  appeared  to  be  doubtful.  They  recom- 
mended that  bookbinders  use  glue  mixed  with 
alum  in  place  of  paste.  The  ravages  of  in- 
sects vary  according  to  latitude.  The  cigar- 
ette beetle  has  been  described  as  the  most 
destructive  raider  upon  books.  A  publication, 
entitled  'Bookworms  of  fact  and  fancy/  gives 
a  list  of  insects,  and  includes: 

"The  bedbug,  found  in  wood  papers;  white 
ants,  found  in  clay  fillers;  roaches,  after  oils 
and  fats  in  parchments;  beetles,  in  skin  bind- 
ings; spring  tails  and  silver  fish,  in  dry  and 
warm  locations;  centipedes  and  scorpions, 
which  prey  upon  the  insects  found  in  libraries. 

"These  live  promoters  of  paper  deteriora- 
tion may  work  considerable  damage  in  warm 
latitudes,  but  in  the  important  libraries,  which 
are  located  in  the  more  northerly  latitudes,  I 
believe  their  damage  is  negligible. 


"Newsprint  paper  is  made  by  the  mixture 
of  approximately  75  per  cent,  of  mechanical 
wood  pulp  and  25  per  cent,  of  sulphite  wood 
pulp,  with  a  slight  addition  of  clay  and  rosin. 

"The  agencies  leading  to  decay,  according 
to  my  limited  observation  and  study,  are: 

"Artificial  heat,  gas  combustion,  sunshine, 
oxidation,  excess  of  mineral  substances,  ex- 
cessive dampness,  carelessness  in  bleaching 
and  inferior  materials  in  binding. 

"Mechanical  pulp  will  deteriorate  rapidly 
when  exposed  to  air  or  light.  R.  W.  Sindall, 
an  English  authority,  says  many  of  the  books 
printed  on  wood-pulp  paper  between  1870  and 
1880  are  in  a  hopeless  condition.  With  lower- 
grade  papers,  containing  mechanical  pulp,  the 
degradation  of  color  and  fiber  is  inevitable. 
Clayton  Beadle  points  out  that  paper  which 
is  brittle,  when  very  dry,  becomes  stronger 
and  more  pliant  with  a  certain  amount  of 
moisture.  With  more  moisture  it  loses  its 
power  of  'felting/  There  is  a  point  where 
the  maximum  strength  is  obtained.  Prof. 
Herzberg,  of^  the  German  Testing  Institute, 
is  credited  with  the  statement  that  paper  con- 
taining three  to  five  per  cent,  of  moisture  is 
at  its  strongest.  Newsprint  paper  will  ab- 
sorb close  to  10  per  cent,  of  its  weight  in 
moisture.  Most  of  this  paper,  when  manu- 
factured, contains  about  five  per  cent,  of 
moisture,  or  100  pounds  per  ton  of  paper. 
It  is  liable  to  absorb  80  pounds  of  water  per 
ton  of  paper  in  transit  from  mill  to  news- 
paper office.  The  additional  weight  of  the 
paper  when  delivered  has  puzzled  many  news- 
paper publishers,  who  almost  invariably  found 
that  their  rolls  weighed  more  than  the  weight 
indicated  at  mill.  A  recent  litigation  in  Eng- 
land disclosed  the  fact  that  jobbers  had 
bought  a  less  weight  of  paper  than  the  cus- 
tomer had  demanded,  the  jobbers  relying  upon 
the  absorption  of  moisture  in  transit  to  make 
up  the  deficiency. 

January,  1913] 


"English  librarians  report  that  the  ordinary 
novel,  printed  on  light,  spongy  paper,  has  a 
life  of  about  40  issues.  In  other  words,  it 
will  be  unfit  for  further  use,  and  even  not 
worth  rebinding  after  circulation  among  40 

"The  American  Chemical  Society  appointed 
a  committee,  in  1908,  to  find  a  paper  more 
suitable  for  the  records  of  the  society.  It 
sought  to  ascertain  the  most  durable,  strong- 
est, lightest,  thinnest,  most  opaque  and  clean- 
est paper,  having  a  surface  not  injurious  to 
the  eyesight  that  it  was  possible  to  procure 
for  the  money  available.  The  specifications 
-adopted  by  that  society  were: 

"Rag,  75  per  cent.;  bleached  chemical  wood 
or  equivalent  thereto, 25  per  cent.;  ash  (China 
•c^ay),  5  per  cent.;  weight  (26  x  38,500),  42 
pounds;  strength  (Mullen),  15  pounds;  fold- 
ing number  (Schopper),  if  practicable,  10 
pounds  ;  sizing,  three-quarter  rosin — no  starch  ; 
finish,  uniform  machine,  same  both  sides ; 
color,  uniform,  natural,  paper  must  be  well 
washed  to  remove  soluble  salts  and  bleaching 

"The  paper  cost,  approximately,  6l/2  cents 
per  pound. 


"At  a  conference  of  librarians  in  1909,  at 
Bretton  Woods,  N.  H.,  Frank  P.  Hill,  libra- 
rian of  the  Brooklyn  Public  Library,  read  a 
paper  on  The  deterioration  of  newspaper 
paper/  wherein  he  narrated  the  results  of  an 
examination  of  the  bound  copies  of  Manhat- 
tan and  Brooklyn  newspapers  filed  in  the 
Brooklyn  Library.  He  said :  'In  many  in- 
stances, papers  published  within  the  last  forty 
years  had  begun  to  discolor  and  crumble  to 
such  an  extent  that  it  would  hardly  pay  to 
bind  those  which  had  been  folded  for  any 
length  of  time.  Further  investigation  showed 
that  practically  all  of  these  newspapers  were 
printed  on  cheap  wood-pulp  paper,  which  car- 
ries with  it  the  seeds  of  early  decay,  and  that 
the  life  of  a  periodical  printed  on  this  in- 
ferior stock  is  not  likely  to  be  more  than  fifty 
years/  The  librarian  sent  out  circulars  to 
publishers,  asking  whether  a  better  grade  of 
paper  was  being  used  for  running  off  extra 
copies  for  their  own  files,  and  what,  if  any, 
means  had  been  taken  to  preserve  the  files 
in  their  offices.  The  answers  showed  that  no 
special  paper  was  used,  and  that  no  means 
were  taken  to  preserve  those  in  the  worst 
condition.  Inquiries  were  sent  to  paper  man- 
ufacturers, with  no  more  satisfactory  results. 
Mr.  Hill  had  not  then  found  any  newspaper 
that  printed  extra  copies  on  a  better  grade 
of  paper,  but  subsequent  inquiry  has  disclosed 
that  the  Red  Wing  Republican,  of  Red  Wing, 
Minn.,  prints  15  copies  daily  from  which 
number  it  supplies  paper  to  the  Minnesota 
Historical  Society  and  the  Congressional  Li- 
brary, at  Washington.  It  binds  some  for  its 
own  use  and  places  them  in  vaults  for  refer- 
ence. Its  secretary  and  manager,  Mr.  Jens 

K.  Grondahl,  says  a  fair  grade  of  book  paper 
is  used.  The  paper  has  not  obtained  any  scien- 
tific test.  I  submit  a  copy  of  that  publication 
printed  on  the  special  paper.  Mr.  Hill's  paper 
described  the  use  of  a  liquid  mixture  in  the 
German  Governmental  Paper  Testing  Insti- 
tute of  Berlin,  by  the  use  of  which  it  was 
aimed  to  indefinitely  preserve  wood-pulp  pa- 
pers and  make  them  fit  to  read  for  centuries 
to  come.  The  method  was  to  dip  the  sheets, 
one  by  one,  into  a  'cellit'  solution,  and  then 
hang  them  up  to  dry  or  to  spread  them  on 
large  meshed  nets.  Mr.  Hill  suggested  that 
it  might  be  to  the  interest  of  publishers  and 
librarians  if  a  few  copies  of  each  issue  of 
the  newspapers  should  be  printed  on  paper 
which  had  been  treated  with  this  chemical  in 
the  roll. 

"At  a  recent  meeting  of  the  committee  of 
the  American  Library  Association,  Mr.  Cedric 
Chivers,  a  bookbinder  of  Brooklyn,  spoke  of 
the  successful  experiments  he  had  made  with 
the  German  product  'cellit'  by  painting  the 
edges  of  bound  volumes  with  it.  He  was  of 
the  opinion  that  paper  so  treated  would  last 
50  or  75  years,  and  that  the  treatment  could 
be  repeated  with  the  same  result.  The  ex- 
pense of  treating  the  volume,  page  by  page, 
might  deter  most  librarians  and  publishers 
from  attempting  that  method  of  preservation. 
He  pointed  out  the  necessity  for  binding  the 
newspapers  as  quickly  as  possible,  so  that  they 
might  not  long  be  exposed  to  the  air. 


"In  1904,  Secretary  Wilson,  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture,  authorized  the  Bureau 
of  Chemistry  to  investigate  the  subject  of 
suitable  papers  for  government  purposes.  The 
investigation  covered  about  5000  samples  of 
paper,  and  resulted  in  the  issue  of  two  cir- 
culars by  the  Bureau  of  Chemistry.  Subse- 
quently, the  Joint  Committee  of  Congress  on 
Printing  appointed  a  commission  to  pass  upon 
this  matter.  Its  report  was  adopted  Dec.  18, 

1911,  and  now  controls  all   government   sup- 
plies of  paper  and  printing  and  binding  ma- 
terials.     In    the    following    month,    a    public 
bidding  was  held.     The  standard  specification 
for  printing  paper  that  would  'endure  indefin- 
itely' was  as  follows: 

"Weight,  25  x  40,  500;  50-pound  basis 
(24  x  36,  42.6)  ;  thickness  shall  not  exceed 
.0035  inch ;  strength  shall  not  be  less  than  18 
points;  stock  shall  be  not  less  than  75  per 
cent,  rag,  the  remainder  may  be  bleached 
chemical  wood,  free  from  unbleached  or 
ground  wood  pulp;  ash  shall  not  exceed  5 
per  cent;  size — the  total  rosin  shall  not  ex- 
ceed 2  per  cent. 

"This  quality  of  paper  is  comparatively 
cheap,  costing  4^  cents  per  pound,  or  twice 
as  much  as  the  International  Paper  Company 
quoted  as  its  newsprint  price  for  the  year 

1912.  The   list  of   bidders   and   the  mills   at 
which  the  paper  would  be  made  was: 



[January,  1913 

per  pound 

American  Writing  Paper  Co 

Lots  22   b   and   23   b 4-35 

Lots  24  b  and  25   b '•  •  4-55 

C.  H.  Clinton  Paper  Co.  of  Phila.,  supplied 

by   Nashua  River  Paper  Corporation 4.5 

Lewis    Hoffenmaier,    supplied    from    Bryant 

Paper    Co 5-i 

C.  W.  Rantoul  Co.  of  N.  Y.,  supplied  from 

Tidewater  Paper  Mills 4-99 

King   Paper    Company,   of  Kalamazoo 5-5 

R.     P.     Andrews     Paper    Co.,     supplied    by 

West  Virginia  Pulp  and   Paper   Co 7.0 

Bryant    Paper    Co 5-i 

Champion    Coated    Paper    Co 4-75 

"The  award  was  made  to  the  American 
Writing  Paper  Co.  for  280  tons  at  4.35  cents 
per  pound,  and  to  C.  H.  Clinton  Paper  Co., 
of  Philadelphia,  at  4^  cents  per  pound  for 
76  tons.  The  government  commission,  in  rec- 
ommending this  quality  of  paper,  said: 


"  The  use  of  this  paper  should  be  limited 
to  copies  of  those  permanent  publications  in- 
tended for  government  libraries  or  govern- 
ment use,  or,  at  most,  be  limited  to  the  copies 
placed  in  the  depository  and  university  libra- 
ries of  the  country.  This  is  intended  as  the 
permanent  printing  paper  for  the  service,  and 
while  its  use  will  not  be  extensive,  it  will 
serve  a  very  important  purpose.  The  impor- 
tant historical  documents  of  the  government 
and  its  original  scientific  contributions  should 
be  printed  on  permanent  paper.  It  is  also 
desirable  that  such  publications  as  the  Stat- 
utes at  Large  should  be  printed  upon  this 
grade  of  paper. 

"Mr.  Veitch,  of  the  Bureau  of  Chemistry, 
who  was  a  member  of  a  government  commis- 
sion on  paper  specifications,  and  who  has 
given  much  research  to  these  matters,  says 
there  is  need  for  two  sets  of  papers,  one  for 
•rdinary  handling  and  immediate  accessi- 
bility, and  one  for  storing  away  for  future 
reference.  It  should  be  practically  inaccessi- 
ble. He  writes:  'No  paper  which  is  subject 
to  a  great  amount  of  handling  and  use  can 
prove  absolutely  permanent.  Even  the  best 
paper,  if  handled,  will  deteriorate  and  go  to 
pieces,  and  if  handled  constantly  would  last 
but  a  few  years.  If  handled  very  little,  it 
would  last  for  several  hundred  years,  and  if 
the  volumes  were  opened  but  several  times  a 
year,  and  were  stored  in  a  suitable  place,  they 
would  undoubtedly  last  for  many  hundreds 
of  years.  In  other  words,  the  problem  is  one 
largely  of  use  and  storage.  The  sheets  should 
never  be  folded.  They  should  be  kept  in  bind- 
ers, and  not  folded  repeatedly  backward  and 
forward  upon  themselves.' 

"The  Bureau  of  Chemistry  and  the  Bureau 
of  Standards,  at  Washington,  concur  in  the 
matter  of  ink.  They  say:  'Very  little  difficulty 
would  be  experienced  with  the  ordinary  print- 
er's ink.  The  black  inks  consist  essentially 
of  carbon,  which  is  very  permanent,  and 
therefore  very  little  anxiety  need  be  felt  for 
any  publications  printed  with  black  ink.' 


"In  the  Congressional  Library,  at  Washing- 
ton, special  efforts  are  made  to  preserve  eigh- 
teenth-century files.  The  volumes  are  sealed 
in  dustproof  cases.  They  are  bound  with 
buckram  and  finished  with  materials  recom- 
mended by  the  best  authorities.  The  books 
lie  flat,  with  air  spacing  every  six  inches  for 
ventilation.  Channel  iron  ribs  are  used  in 
the  stacks.  Air  that  has  been  washed  or 
screened  to  remove  dust  is  forced  through 
the  stacks  and  then  exhausted.  The  tempera- 
ture is  kept  uniform  the  year  round.  Flour 
paste,  boiled  with  alum,  is  used  for  binding. 
Protecting  sheets  of  paper  are  inserted  be- 
tween every  double  page.  A  thin,  tough  linen 
ledger  paper  is  used  for  guards.  The  only 
possible  criticism  that  might  be  offered  toward 
the  perfection  of  these  provisions  for  preser- 
vation is  the  occasional  sunshine  in  the  stor- 
age room.  The  volumes  thus  protected  cost 
$10  each  for  binding.  The  ordinary  binding 
of  the  current  newspaper  volumes  in  the  Con- 
gressional Library  cost  $2  per  volume.  The 
deleterious  effects  of  the  products  of  gas 
combustion  are  avoided  in  the  Congressional 
Library,  because  electricity  is  used  for  illu- 
mination when  artificial  lighting  is  necessary. 
No  records  are  kept  of  the  humidity  of  the 
atmosphere.  The  cleanliness  of  the  entire 
establishment  is  its  insurance  against  animal 

"In  the  New  York  Public  Library,  the  news- 
paper files  are  stored  upright,  in  well-venti- 
lated stacks,  with  some  protection  against  dust 
by  the  screening  of  the  air.  The  thermostat 
in  the  public  file  room  was  fixed  in  August 
at  68  degrees.  The  files  in  the  north  room 
and  in  stacks  rest  on  steel-ribbed  shelving. 
No  attempt  is  made  to  regulate  the  humidity 
of  the  storage  place.  Gas  is  not  used  in  the 

"Four  large  steam  pipes  pass  through  the 
room  of  the  Montague  Branch  of  the  Brook- 
lyn Library,  containing  the  old  New  York 
Herald  files.  There  is  no  sunshine  there,  but 
the  main  hall,  where  most  of  the  newspaper 
files  are  kept,  is  flooded  with  sunshine.  Some 
of  the  files  lie  flat  and  some  are  upright.  The 
ordinary  effort  is  made  to  preserve  uniform 
temperature  by  heating  in  cool  weather,  but 
there  is  no  special  regulation  of  temperature, 
or  humidity,  or  ventilation,  or  exclusion  of 

"The  Philadelphia  Free  Library  stores  its 
newspaper  files  flat  in  the  cellar.  It  permits 
the  access  of  very  little  sunshine.  There  is 
some  ventilation  and  some  opportunity  for 
variation  of  humidity,  due  to  changes  in  the 
atmosphere.  Gas  throws  off  its  deleterious 
products  of  combustion  in  this  room.  Steam- 
heated  pipes  pass  through  the  cellar.  The 
newspapers  are  bound  in  buckram. 

"May  I  suggest  to  your  committee  that  it 
gather  information  from  the  various  libraries 
and  historical  societies  upon  a  blank  corre- 
sponding substantially  to  the  following: 

January,  1913] 






1.  Name  of  library  or  society. 

2.  Number  of   daily  newspapers,  the  regu- 
lar issues  of  which  are  bound  and  preserved 
by  the  library  or  society. 

3.  Are  the  bound  files  flat  or  upright? 

4.  Is  there  sunlight  in  the   room  in  which 
the  bound  files  are  stored? 

5.  Is  gas  used  for  illumination  or  any  other 
purpose  in  any  part  of  the  library,  especially 
near  that  room  in  which  the  bound  files  are 

6.  Is  there  any  ventilation  around  the  bound 
files  that  will  permit  of  the   free  ventilation 
of  outside  air? 

7.  Is   there    artificial   heat    in   the    room   in 
which  the  bound  files  are  stored? 

8.  Are  the  variations  of  humidity  in  outside 
air  permitted  to  reach  the  bound  files? 

9.  Are  the  bound  files  stored  in  sealed  cases, 
or  are  they  kept  in  such  manner  as  to  be  pro- 
tected from  dust  in  the  air? 

10.  Is  any  attempt  made  in  binding  to  guard 
against  insects? 

11.  What  suggestions  do  you  offer  to  secure 
the  preservation  of  records  of  current  history? 

(Signed)     Name    




"Conceding  the  failure  of  the  newspapers, 
up  to  this  time,  to  do  that  which  is  more  or 
less  of  an  obligation  upon  them,  it  should  be 
borne  in  mind  that  until  recently  very  little 
data  has  been  available  for  ascertaining  a 
standard  quality  of  printing  paper  that  would 
endure  indefinitely  under  proper  storage.  From 
time  to  time,  the  subject  has  been  taken  up 
by  newspapers.  Several  canvasses  have  been 
made  of  the  possible  revenue  to  be  obtained 
from  such  an  issue.  Apparently,  the  expenses 
would  far  exceed  the  probable  revenue.  The 
purchase  would  be  restricted  to  the  larger  pub- 
lic libraries,  some  college  libraries  and  some 
historical  societies.  I  doubt  if  subscriptions 
could  be  obtained  for  one  hundred  copies  of 
such  a  publication.  It  seems  like  a  dream 
as  a  commercial  proposition,  though  some 
newspaper  genius  may  accomplish  such  a  re- 
sult some  day.  A  rich  institution,  or  news- 
paper publisher  or  philanthropist  like  Mr. 
Carnegie,  who  has  enthusiasm  for  the  accu- 
rate historical  guidance  of  future  generations, 
might  endow  such  an  effort  and  make  it  pos- 
sible. In  any  event,  it  lacks  the  attractiveness 
of  direct  profit.  The  mere  cost  of  the  paper 
would  be  a  bagatelle.  One  hundred  copies  of 
an  ordinary  daily  newspaper,  upon  the  terms 
and  specifications  of  the  government's  con- 

tract, would  hardly  exceed  $2.50  per  diem,  but 
the  cost  of  preparing  the  plates  and  rolls  to 
meet  the  varying  conditions  would  carry  the 
total  cost  to  a  figure  that  very  few  publishers 
would  care  to  incur  as  a  permanent  obliga- 


"Some  newspaper  publishers  have  asked  me 
to  gather  for  them  information  that  will  en- 
able them  to  store  newsprint  rolls  under  such 
conditions  that  will  avoid  deterioration.  The 
experience  in  recent  years  has  tended  to  the 
belief  that  paper  stored  by  manufacturers  in 
warehouses  near  the  place  of  consumption 
has  become  so  brittle  within  three  months 
that  it  interfered  with  prompt  printing  of  the 
paper  by  reason  of  breaks  in  the  web  and 
increased  waste.  This  brittleness  is  attributed 
to  the  artificial  heat  or  absence  of  moisture 
in  the  warehouses. 


"The  print  paper  manufacturers  of  the 
United  States  carry  nearly  100,000  tons  of 
newsprint  paper,  of  which  the  supply  at  the 
mill  averages: 

40,000    tons,    or    9    days'    supply    for    all 

newspapers  of  the  country 40,000 

6  days'  supply  in  transit,  equalling 27,000 

7  days'   supply   in  places  of  consumption, 
equalling 31,500 

Total 98,500 

"This  total  of  approximately  100,000  tons 
of  paper  represents  a  selling  value  of  about 
$3,500,000.  Up  to  date,  there  is  no  evidence 
of  any  general  effort,  either  by  manufacturers 
or  by  consumers,  to  standardize  the  method 
of  storage  or  to  improve  conditions.  Obvi- 
ously, it  would  be  to  their  mutual  advantages 
to  encourage  and  promote  every  such  effort. 

"The  International  Paper  Co.  stores  over 
1800  tons  of  paper  in  the  loft  of  the  big  shed 
at  Pier  39,  North  River,  New  York.  The  place 
is  not  heated  in  any  way,  and  it  is  subject 
to  all  the  variations  of  temperature  and  hu- 
midity which  are  incidental  to  the  free  play 
of  the  air  on  the  river  front.  Its  officers  say 
they  can  store  paper  rolls  indefinitely  in  that 
loft  as  much  as  three  years,  and  deliver  the 
rolls  to  newspaper  consumers  in  good  condi- 
tion. Their  only  trouble  in  storing  paper  is 
due  to  one  extra  handling,  which  is,  however, 
less  than  cartage  and  storage  in  a  warehouse. 
Some  of  the  paper  is  stored  in  a  warehouse, 
in  Franklin  street,  New  York,  in  order  that 
the  company  may  not  have  all  of  its  eggs  in 
one  basket.  The  Chicago  Daily  News  stores 
looo  tons  of  newsprint  paper  as  a  reserve. 
Eighteen  months  ago,  during  the  pendency 
of  a  paper  strike,  it  used  600  tons  of  paper 
that  had  been  stored  for  five  years  in  a  cellar 
that  was  open  to  the  free  play  of  the  atmos- 
phere. The  rolls  were  set  upright  on  strips 
that  permitted  ventilation  under  and  on  every 



[January,  1913 

side.  The  windows  had  never  been  closed 
in  all  that  period.  It  is  reported  that  when 
the  stored  paper  was  put  upon  the  presses  it 
ran  better  than  fresh  paper. 

"New  York  City  uses  750  tons  of  newsprint 
paper  per  diem.  The  total  tonnage  stored  in 
this  city  is  not  readily  ascertainable.  The 
Great  Northern  Paper  Company  carries  be- 
tween 8500  and  9000  tons  at  Pier  42,  North 
River,  to  supply  the  needs  of  its  customers. 
The  International  Paper  Company  now  has 
approximately  3500  tons  in  storage  in  its  loft 
and  on  cars  in  the  city.  In  Kansas  City,  the 
Star  carries  2000  tons  of  paper.  In  Brooklyn, 
the  Eagle  carries  a  month's  supply. 


"Mr.  A.  E.  Wright,  vice-president  of  the 
International  Paper  Company,  was  asked  for 
suggestions  for  storing  paper  in  the  new 
building  of  the  New  York  Times.  He  an- 
swered as  follows: 

"  'Our  experience  has  taught  us  that  paper 
stored  in  a  room  of  fairly  even  temperature 
of  from  thirty  to  forty  degrees,  with  a  free 
circulation  of  air  at  all  times,  is  best  suited 
for  the  storage  of  newspaper. 

"  'As  you  no  doubt  know,  the  warmer  the 
air  the  higher  percentage  of  moisture  it  car- 
ries; therefore,  we  suggest  a  temperature  of 
from  thirty  to  forty  degrees.  When  neces- 
sary to  get  as  low  a  temperature  as  this  dur- 
ing the  summer  months,  we  would  suggest 
some  sort  of  a  refrigerating  device  through 
which  the  air  would  pass  before  entering  the 
storeroom.  It  is  well  to  avoid,  as  far  as 
possible,  excessive  temperature  and  moisture 
conditions,  and  allow  for  as  free  a  circulation 
of  air  as  possible. 

"  'We  suggest  the  storing  of  paper  on  a 
ventilated  platform  fully  three  inches  from 
the  floor ;  this  will  allow  circulation  across 
the  bottom  of  the  rolls. 

"  'As  to  the  effect  of  light  upon  paper,  we 
do  not  think  that  this  has  much  bearing,  as 
long  as  the  wrappers  are  left  on  the  rolls. 
We  should  say  that  the  most  satisfactory 
place  for  paper  storage  would  be  a  basement, 
with  windows  for  ventilation  on  all  four 
sides,  and  the  paper  stored  on  a  platform 
such  as  recommended  above. 

"  'We  feel  sure,  from  our  experience  in 
storing  large  quantities  of  paper  in  roll  form, 
that  if  our  suggestions  are  followed  out  as 
outlined  above,  very  little,  if  any,  change  in 
the  character  of  the  paper -will  be  found  after 
it  has  been  stored  for  a  considerable  period.' 

"It  should  be  stated  that  no  one  has  ever 
attempted  to  adopt  refrigeration  as  a  method 
of  preserving  stored  paper  rolls. 


"Another  phase  of  this  matter  of  storing 
rolls  is  the  question  of  carrying  rolls  in  a 
horizontal  or  vertical  position.  Practically  all 
the  paper  companies  and  newspapers  store  the 

roll  vertically,  because  it  seems  to  require  less 
space.  The  New  York  Times,  in  planning  its 
new  annex,  has  aimed  to  store  over  1000  tons 
of  paper,  and  to  preserve  the  horizontal  posi- 
tion of  the  roll  to  avoid  the  waste  and  labor 
incidental  to  up-ending  each  roll  and  subse- 
quent throwing  of  the  roll  to  a  horizontal 
position.  In  the  Government  Printing  Office, 
five  men  have  been  observed  helping  to 
change  the  position  of  a  roll. 

"Up  to  this  time,  no  effort  has  been  made 
to  collate  the  data  relating  either  to  the  stor- 
age of  newsprint  paper  rolls  or  the  preserva- 
tion of  the  printed  paper.  In  the  common 
interest,  some  definite  steps  should  be  taken 
to  improve  conditions." 

Announcement  was  made  that  the  Brooklyn 
Eagle,  beginning  Jan.  i,  1913,  would  be  able 
to  supply  libraries  with  copies  of  its  paper 
printed  on  linen  paper,  suitable  for  filing. 


"!N  consequence  of  a  grateful  remembrance 
of  hospitality  and  friendship,  as  well  as  an 
uncommon  share  or  patronage,  afforded  me  by 
the  inhabitants  of  West  Cambridge,  in  the 
Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts,  in  the  early 
part  of  my  life  when  patronage  was  most 
needful  to  me,  I  give  to  the  said  town  of  West 
Cambridge  one  hundred  dollars  for  the  pur- 
pose of  establishing  a  juvenile  library  in  said 
town.  The  Selectmen,  Ministers  of  the  Gospel, 
and  Physicians  of  the  town  of  West  Cam- 
bridge, for  the  time  being  shall  receive  this 
sum,  select  and  purchase  the  books  for  the 
library,  which  shall  be  such  books  as,  in  their 
opinion,  will  best  promote  useful  knowledge 
and  the  Christian  virtues  among  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  town  who  are  scholars,  or  by 
usage  have  a  right  to  attend  as  scholars  in 
their  primary  schools.  Other  persons  may  be 
admitted  to  the  privilege  of  said  library  un- 
der the  direction  of  said  town,  by  paying  a 
sum  for  membership  and  an  annual  tax  for 
the  increase  of  the  same.  And  my  said  execu- 
tors are  directed  to  pay  the  same  within  one 
year  after  my  decease." 

This  "extract  from  the  last  will  and  testa- 
ment of  Dr.  Ebenezer  Learned,  late  of  Hop- 
kinton,  N.  H.,"  forms  the  first  book  plate  of  the 
Arlington  (Mass.)  Public  Library,  founded 
in  1835.  It  appears  to  be  the  earliest  record 
we  have  of  a  specific  bequest  for  a  children's 
library,  free  to  all  the  children  of  the  town 
receiving  it. 

In  the  late  eighteenth  century  it  was  the 
custom  at  Harvard  College  to  grant  a  six- 
weeks'  vacation  in  winter  and  summer,  when 
students  could  earn  money  for_  college  ex- 
penses. The  popular  way  of  doing  this  was 
to  teach  school.  Ebenezer  Learned,  a  young 
man  in  the  class  of  1787,  availed  himself  of 
this  opportunity  and  taught  in  West  Cam- 
bridge, or  Menotomy.  His  associations  there 

January,  1913] 



were  pleasant  ones,  and  the  memory  of  the 
friends  then  made  persisted  through  his  later 
successful  career.  Dr.  Learned  became  a  prac- 
tising physician,  first  in  Leominster  (Mass.) 
and  later  in  Hopkinton,  N.  H.  He  is  said  to 
have  been  warmly  interested  in  education  and 
science  throughout  his  life,  and  was  the  orig- 
inator of  the  New  Hampshire  Agricultural 
Society  and  vice-president  of  the  New  Hamp- 
shire Medical  Society.  And  yet  with  all  these 
later  interests,  his  thought,  toward  the  end  of 
his  life,  was  of  the  little  town  where  he  taught 
his  first  school. 

At  the  time  of  receiving  this  legacy  there 
were  in  West  Cambridge  two  ministers — a 
Unitarian  and  a  Baptist — and  one  physician. 
Together  with  the  selectmen,  they  formed  the 
first  board  of  trustees,  which  met  on  Nov.  30, 
1835,  and  voted  that  the  books  selected  for 
the  library  should  be  such  as  were  directed 
by  Dr.  Learned's  will,  "the  same  not  being  of 
a  sectarian  character."  Selection  of  books 
was  left  largely  to  Mr.  Brown,  of  the  newly 
formed  firm  of  Little  &  Brown,  publishers. 
He  was  directed  to  spend  at  least  half  of  the 
bequest  for  books  suitable  for  the  purpose, 
and  these  were  sent  to  the  home  of  Dr.  Well- 
ington, the  physician  on  the  board. 

Then  followed  the  task  of  selecting  a  libra- 
rian, and  the  obvious  choice  was  Mr.  Dexter, 
a  hatter  by  trade  and  already  in  charge  of  the 
West  Cambridge  Social  Library.  This  was  a 
subscription  library,  founded  in  1807,  and  con- 
sisting mainly  of  volumes  of  sermons  and 
"serious  reading."  The  question  of  the  libra- 
rian's salary  was  the  next  care,  for  the  state 
law  authorizing  towns  to  appropriate  tax 
money  for  libraries  was  yet  ten  years  in  the 
future.  At  town  meeting,  in  1837,  however, 
one  of  the  trustees  called  attention  to  the 
clause  in  Dr.  Learned's  will  which  provided 
that  others,  beside  children,  might  use  the 
library  by  paying  a  sum  for  membership  and 
an  annual  assessment.  "Why  should  not  the 
town  pay  the  tax,  and  thus  make  it  free  to  all 
the  inhabitants?"  he  asked.  And  this  was 
done.  The  town  at  once  appropriated  thirty 
dollars  for  the  library,  and  the  right  to  take 
books  was  extended  to  all  the  families  in  town. 
From  this  time  the  institution  has  been  a  free 
town  library,  the  earliest  of  its  class  in  Massa- 

The  Jittle  collection  of  books  for  the  West 
Cambridge  Juvenile  Library  traveled  to  its 
first  home  on  a  wheelbarrow.  "Uncle"  Dexter 
would  make  hats  during  the  week,  and  on 
Saturday  afternoons  open  the  library  for  the 
children.  Three  books  were  the  limit  for  a 
family,  and  they  could  be  retained  for  thirty 
days.  That  the  books  were  actually  read  by 
the  children  is  vouched  for  by  those  who  re- 
member the  library  from  its  beginning.  Even 
free  access  to  the  shelves  was  permitted  for  a 
while.  But  we  come  to  a  period,  later,  when 
the  by-laws  declare,  "No  person  except  the 
librarian  shall  remove  a  book  from  the 

One  would  like  to  know  just  what  those 
books  were  for  which  one-half  of  that  pre- 
cious bequest  was  first  spent.  The  earliest  ex- 
tant catalog  of  the  juvenile  library  is  dated 
1855,  though  there  exists  an  earlier  list  (1835) 
of  the  Social  Library.  Tradition  has  handed 
down  the  names  of  two  books  said  to  be  in 
the  first  collection,  but  one  of  these  is  cer- 
tainly of  later  date.  The  first  is  still  in  ex- 
istence, a  copy  of  the  "History  of  Corsica," 
by  James  Boswell.  One  who  as  a  boy  read 
this  book,  years  ago,  in  the  West  Cambridge 
Juvenile  Library,  recalled  it  with  delight  when 
he  visited  Corsica  years  afterward. 

The  other  title,  mentioned  as  belonging  to 
the  first  library,  is  "The  history  of  a  London 
doll."  But  this  delightful  child's  story,  by 
Richard  Hengist  Home,  was  not  published 
until  1846.  Some  of  the  Waverley  novels,  are 
also  remembered  as  being  among  the  earliest 
purchases.  Of  course,  we  realize  that  books 
which  "will  best  promote  useful  knowledge 
and  the  Christian  virtues"  in  school  children 
are  not  necessarily  children's  books.  So  we 
may  be  tolerably  sure  that  Rollins'  and  Rob- 
ertson's histories,  as  well  as  Goldsmith  and 
Irving,  would  have  appeared  in  the  catalog 
had  there  been  one. 

The  juvenile  library  remained'  a  year  in  its 
first  home,  the  frame  house  still  standing  near 
the  railroad  which  runs  through  Arlington. 
There  have  been  five  library  homes  since  then,, 
including  the  meeting  house,  where  the  collec- 
tion of  books  was  nearly  doubled  by  the  addi- 
tion of  the  district  school  libraries  and  a  part 
of  the  Social  Library. 

In  1867  the  town  changed  its  name  to  Ar- 
lington, discarding  the  Indian  name  of  Men- 
otomy,  by  which  it  was  known  before  its 
incorporation  as  West  Cambridge.  The  library- 
then  became  known  as  the  Arlington  Juvenile 
Library,  and,  in  1872,  its  name  was  formally- 
changed  to  Arlington  Public  Library.  With 
the  gift  of  a  memorial  building,  in  1892,  the 
present  name,  the  Robbins  Library,  was  adop- 
ed  by  the  town. 

It  is  characteristic  of  our  modern  careless- 
ness of  what  the  past  has  given  us,  that  we 
have  lost  sight  of  this  first  children's  library. 
Not  JBrookline  in  1890,  not  New  York  in  1888, 
but  Arlington  in  1835  marks  the  beginning  of 
public  library  work  with  children.  Here  is 
one  public  library,  with  a  history  stretching 
back  over  seventy-five  years,  which  need  not 
apologize  for  any  expenditure  in  its  work  with 
children.  Its  very  being  is  rooted  in  one  man's 
thought  for  the  children  of  the  primary 
schools.  Dr.  Learned  could  think  of  no  better 
way  of  repaying  the  kindnesses  done  to  a  boy 
than  by  putting  books  into  the  hands  of  other 
boys  and  girls.  A  children's  librarian  may 
well  be  grateful  for  the  memory  of  this  far- 
seeing  friend  of  children,  who  held  the  be- 
lief that  books  may  be  more  than  amusement, 
and  that  the  civic  virtues  can  be  nourished  by 
and  in  a  "juvenile  library." 




[January,  1913 


IN  the  year  1912,  the  legislatures  of  thirteen 
states  held  regular  sessions  and  in  nine  states 
there  were  extra  or  special  sessions.  An 
examination  of  the  results  of  these  22  ses- 
sions shows  very  little  of  library  interest, 
presumably  because  there  was  little  or  no 
occasion  to  disturb  or  change  the  operation 
of  established  library  laws. 

In  the  new  state  of  Arizona,  at  the  first 
legislative  session,  a  system  of  district  libra- 
ries was  established,  to  be  under  the  control 
of  the  school  trustees  in  each  district,  to  re- 
port annually  to  the  county  school  superin- 
tendent, who  must  report,  in  turn,  to  the 
State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction. 
Three  per  cent,  of  all  school  funds,  with  the 
addition  of  special  donations  made  for  the 
purpose,  not  to  exceed  $300  in  all  in  any  dis- 
trict, are  to  be  set  apart  for  buying  books, 
reference  books  and  schoolroom  decorations. 
The  library  is  to  be  free  to  all  pupils  of  suit- 
able age,  and  its  privileges  may  be  extended 
to  other  residents  of  the  district  on  the  pay- 
ment of  an  annual  or  monthly  fee  fixed  by 
the  district  trustees. 

In  California  at  an  extra  session  in  Decem- 
ber, 1911,  the  power  was  given  to  any  munici- 
pality to  take  land  by  condemnation  for  pub- 
lic library  purposes. 

In  New  York,  no  change  was  made  in  the 
library  law,  but  the  appropriations  for  library 
aid  and  support  were  somewhat  increased. 
The  amount  to  be  distributed  to  free  libraries 
for  books  was  made  $35,000  instead  of  $33,ooo, 
as  in  the  previous  year.  The  very  large 
amount  of  $1,250,000  had  been  voted  in  1911 
for  the  reestablishment  and  enlargement  of 
the  State  Library  and  Museum,  which  had 
suffered  so  great  a  disaster  in  the  Capitol  fire 
on  March  29,  1911,  and  of  this  sum,  $500,000 
was  made  immediately  available  by  an  act  of 
1912.  By  the  same  act,  $200,000  were  appro- 
priated for  furniture  and  office  equipment  in 
the  new  State  Education  building,  a  consider- 
able part  of  which  is  occupied  by  the  State 

Two  local  library  acts  were  passed  in  New 
York,  one  of  them  to  fix  the  annual  tax  of 
the  city  of  Syracuse  for  the  support  of  its 
public  library  at  not  less  than  2  per  cent.,  and 
not  more  than  2^2  per  cent,  of  the  aggregate 
annual  tax  levy  of  the  city ;  and  the  other 
to  authorize  the  city  of  Buffalo  to  sell  its 
"Jubilee  water  system,"  and  with  a  part  of 
the  proceeds  to  buy  land  and  erect  a  public 
library  building,  gymnasium  and  assembly 
hall,  the  library  to  become  a  branch  in  the 
Buffalo  public  library  system. 

The  laws  of  the  year  affecting  libraries  in 
other  states  are  few,  and  provide  mostly  for 
increase  of  salary  or  of  force  in  the  state 
libraries.  Slight  as  these  indications  are,  they 
are  enough  to  shov;  that  the  public  interest 
in  libraries  is  a  growing  interest. 



THE  purchasing  division  of  a  college  library 
comes  in  for  its  share  of  complaints,  and  the 
criticisms  it  receives  are  chiefly  three:  First, 
slowness  in  getting  a  book ;  second,  inexact 
record  of  outstanding  orders;  and  third,  un- 
reliable bookkeeping  accounts.  Having  bet- 
tered, if  not  removed,  all  three  of  these  by 
a  system  based  on  a  record  of  orders  by 
funds,  the  following  extract  from  our  annual 
report  may  be  welcomed  by  libraries  troubled 
in  like  manner. 

Our  basal  record  is  obtained  by  using  a 
separate  order  sheet  for  each  book  fund  and 
by  writing  two  carbon  copies  of  each  order 
when  typed.  One  of  these  is  on  a  green 
sheet,  the  other  on  a  red.  The  red  sheet  is 
filed  in  a  red  folder,  under  the  agent's  name; 
the  green  sheet  is  filed  in  a  green  folder,  un- 
der the  name  of  the  fund.  These  distinctive 
colors  cannot  be  confused  with  the  yellow 
sheet,  which  always  indicates  the  copy  of  a 
letter,  never  of  an  order.  Each  fund  is  pro- 
vided with  a  folder,  in  which  each  green  sheet 
finds  its  proper  place  in  the  vertical  file. 

As  the  order  is  typed,  the  limit  of  price 
(really  the  estimated  price)  is  carried  to  the 
right  of  the  sheet,  as  in  a  column.  This 
makes  it  easy  to  add  up  the  totals  of  the 
outstanding  orders.  When  the  order  is  filled, 
this  estimate  is  cancelled  by  a  line  drawn 
through  it,  while  the  actual  cost  taken  from 
the  bill  is  written  in  the  space  to  the  right. 
The  date  of  the  bill  is  also  placed  before  the 
author's  name,  thus  enabling  us  to  tell  from 
the  fund  record  at  any  future  time  just  when 
the  order  was  filled  and  how  much  it  cost. 

Continuations  which  have  no  green  sheet 
order  are  entered  from  the  bill  in  the  same 
manner,  but  on  a  white  sheet  which  lies  al- 
ways on  top.  Here  appears  also  the  total 
estimate  of  continuations  for  the  year.  Extra 
items  of  all  sorts,  such  as  express,  postage, 
etc.,  are  transferred  from  the  bill  to  this  white 

Binding  chargeable  to  a  book  fund  appears 
on  a  green  sheet  also  as  soon  as  the  schedule 
is  made  out  for  the  binder;  thus  this  item  is 
included  in  our  estimate  of  outstanding  orders. 

From  this  fund  (the  green  sheet)  file,  there- 
fore, can  be  gleaned  exact  information  as  to 
the  outstanding  orders,  both  titles  and  the 
estimate  of  cost.  Further  and  conversely, 
there  is  shown  for  a  given  period  every  cent 
spent  from  the  fund  and  for  what  titles  the 
money  went.  Equally  important,  the  items 
in  the  regular  ledger  of  the  funds  (the  book- 
keeping accounts)  can  be  proven  by  totaling 
the  entries  on  the  green  sheet. 

We  thus  satisfy  the  professor  in  charge 
of  the  fund  (i)  by  sending  off  his  order  with 
a  minimum  of  delay;  (2)  by  indexing  his 
order  automatically,  with  small  chance  for 
error,  and  with  no  loss  of  clerical  time;  (3) 
by  being  able  to  show  him  at  any  time  the 
exact  estimate  of  his  outstanding  orders  by 

January,  1913] 


author  and  title  (and  this  at  no  loss  of  time 
to  ourselves,  for  we  know  of  libraries  where 
these  titles  and  estimates  are  written  in  un- 
der funds  by  hand) ;  and  (4)  by  being  able 
to  prove  our  accounts,  so  that  we  know  they 
are  posted  correctly.  We  now  have  a  double 
check  on  its  being  ordered  right,  filled  right 
and  posted  right. 

This  system  calls  for  no  delay  or  red  tape 
in  the  routine  of  getting  the  order  off,  nor 
in  putting  the  book  through  to  the  accessioner 
when  it  arrives. 

As  to  speed  in  filling  an  order,  we  are  de- 
pendent a  good  deal  on  our  agents.  Yet  our 
use  of  indicator  clips  to  show  the  week  in  the 
month  when  a  rush  order  should  be  filled, 
enables  us  to  prod  the  dealer  and  to  exact 
a  prompter  service  for  what  we  need  without 

The  chief  criticism  has  been  the  greater  use 
of  paper,  with  the  multiplying  of  our  sheets 
by  funds,  and  the  consequent  filling  up  of  the 
filing  cabinet.  Our  defense  is  that  paper  is 
cheaper  than  the  time  of  the  order  assistants, 
and  since  we  get  the  results  we  are  after, 
we  are  content  to  use  the  extra  paper  and 
the  extra  space. 

F.  K.  W.  DRURY, 
University  of  Illinois  Library. 


BOOKS  for  the  entire  system  of  the  Carnegie 
Library  of  Pittsburgh  are  cataloged  by  the 
catalog  department  at  the  central  library.  The 
work  is  so  centralized  that  the  filing  of  the 
completed  cards  in  the  branch  catalogs  is  the 
only  part  of  the  process,  except  the  printing, 
which  is  done  outside  the  catalog  department. 

A  few  general  statements  must  be  made  be- 
fore the  methods  of  work  can  be  made  clear, 
(i)  No  books  are  added  to  any  part  of  the 
library  system  which  are  not  also  added  to 
the  central  collection.  (2)  Catalog  cards  are 
printed  by  means  of  the  linotype  process  in 
the  printing  department  of  our  own  library. 
(3)  Annotations  are  written  for  nearly  all 
titles,  and  these  are  printed  on  the  catalog 

Twenty-one  card  catalogs  are  kept  to  date. 
Twenty  of  these  are  dictionary  in  form,  and 
one  is  classified.  A  special  author  list  of  all 
works  of  fiction  and  two  lists  of  books  printed 
in  foreign  languages  are  kept  to  date,  in  ad- 
dition to  the  twenty-one  regular  catalogs,  as 
well  as  an  official  list  of  printed  cards.  No 
two  of  the  twenty-one  catalogs  are  exactly 
alike,  because  the  collections  which  they  cata- 
log vary  in  scope.  The  following  catalogs  are 
kept  to  date: 
(i)  Official  catalog. 

This  is  kept  in  the  catalog  department,  and 
is  made  up  as  follows: 

(a)  Official  typewritten  author  cards,  on 
which  are  indicated  the  various  agencies,  or 
departments,  having  the  titles  or  books.  The 

subject  headings  used  are  indicated  on  these 
cards,  and  class  numbers  are  added  to  locate 
the  cards  in  the  classified  catalog.  These  are 
the  cards  which  are  sent  to  the  printing  de- 
partment as  "copy,"  and  the  ones  from  which 
all  duplicates  are  made. 

(b)  Cards  for  each  subject  heading  in  use 
in  any  of  our  dictionary  catalogs. 

(c)  Subject   heading   reference   cards,   con- 
taining all  references  to  and  from  a  subject. 
Catalogs  in  which  we  use  these  headings  are 
also  indicated. 

(d)  All  name   cards,   official   author   refer- 
ence cards,  series  cards  and  added  entries  un- 
der authors. 

(2)  Reference  room  dictionary  catalog. 

This  is  a  complete  dictionary  catalog  of  all 
books,  reference,  circulating  and  juvenile,  in 
the  collection. 

(3)  Central     lending     department     dictionary 

A  complete  dictionary  catalog  of  all  circu- 
lating books. 

(4)  Central  children's  room  dictionary  catalog. 
"iA  card  catalog  of  all  juvenile  books  -^Jded 

to  the  library  since  the  printing  of  the  book 
catalog  of  "Books  in  the  central  children's 
room,"  1909. 

This  catalog  is  dictionary  in  form,  anct  con- 
tains many  more  subject  headings  than  dp  the 
other  dictionary  catalogs.  It  is  an  indfK  to 
children's  books,  rather  than  a  catalog.  The 
same  printed  catalog  card  is  used  as  is  used 
for  the  other  catalogs,  but  it  is  duplicated 
more  extensively  for  analytical  purposes. 

(5)  Technology  department  classified  catalog, 
with  author  and  subject  indexes. 

A  catalog  of  all  reference  and  circulating 
books  on  the  subjects  of  useful  arts  and  nat- 
ural science.  Contains  many  analyticals. 

Special  card  lists,  (i)  Classified  card  cata- 
log, under  language,  of  books  printed  in  all 
foreign  languages.  There  are  two^  such  cata- 
logs, one  kept  in  the  central  lending  depart- 
ment and  a  duplicate  kept  in  the  central  ref- 
erence room.  (2)  Author  catalog  of  all  fic- 
tion, kept  in  the  central  lending  department. 

All  these  catalogs  duplicate  each  other  in 
certain  particulars,  e.  g.}  all  technical  books 
are  also  cataloged  in  the  dictionary  catalogs, 
and  all  books  in  foreign  languages  appear  in 
their  proper  places  in  the  other  catalogs. 

Branch  catalogs,  (i)  A  dictionary  catalog 
is  kept  in  each  branch  of  the  adult  circulating 
and  reference  books  in  that  branch.  There 
are  now  (1912)  eight  of  these.  (2)  A  diction- 
ary catalog  is  kept  in  the  children's  room  of 
each  branch  of  the  juvenile  books  in  that 
branch.  (There  are  now  (1912)  eight  of 
these.)  This  supplements  the  book  catalog 
and  is  like  the  catalog  in  the  central  children's 

Cards  in  all  these  catalogs,  except  the  offi- 
cial one,  are  printed.  In  the  latter  they  are 
typewritten.  The  printed  cards  for  all  the 
catalogs  are  set  from  the  same  copy  and 
printed  from  the  same  linotype  slugs.  The 


[January,  1913 

possibility  of  unlimited  duplication  of  cards, 
after  the  copy  is  in  lead,  permits  us  to  make 
an  exhaustive  catalog  of  the  whole  collection, 
and  place  necessary  parts  of  the  catalog  with- 
in easy  access  of  specific  collections  which  we 
wish  to  catalog. 

After  the  cards  have  been  printed,  the  lino- 
type slugs  are  rearranged  and  used  to  print 
the  monthly  bulletin.  The  slugs  are  then  filed 
by  call  number  and  held  for  five  years,  when 
they  are  again  used  to  print  the  classified  book 
catalog.  By  this  method  the  cost  of  compo- 
sition is  divided  among  the  card  catalogs,  the 
monthly  bulletin  and  the  classified  catalog,  and 
full  entries,  with  annotations,  are  obtained  for 
both  of  these  book  publications. 

The  classified  book  catalog,  which  includes 
all  books  cataloged  in  1912  (the  supplement 
covering  1907  to  1912  is  now  in  preparation), 
gives  the  library  agencies  outside  of  the  cen- 
tral building  a  complete  catalog  of  books  in 
the  central  library.  This  is  supplemented  by 
the  monthly  bulletin,  which  has  an  annual 

Catalog  cards  are  shipped  from  the  catalog 
department  to  the  branch  libraries  ready  to 
file.  All  details  of  tracing,  reference  cards, 
etc.,  have  been  completed  before  the  cards 
leave  the  central  library,  so  that  the  cataloging 
for  each  individual  branch  is  complete. 

The  system  of  cataloging,  as  above  outlined, 
meets  our  needs  most  satisfactorily.  We  get 
by  this  means  a  uniform  catalog  which  can 
be  freely  distributed,  and  which  can  in  a 
measure  duplicate  itself  after  the  necessary 
routine  has  once  been  thoroughly  worked  out. 
The  greatest  complications  met  with  arise  in 
connection  with  the  subject  headings.  To  care 
properly  for  the  references  to  and  from  the 
varying  subject  headings  has  necessitated 
some  variations  from  the  usually  accepted 
ways  of  handling  references  in  a  dictionary 

No  "see  also"  cards  are  included  in  the 
branch  catalogs.  "See"  references  are  sup- 
plied, and  a  complete  union  list  of  branch 
subject  headings  is  kept  in  the  catalog  depart- 
ment on  which  these  "see"  references  are  in- 
dicated. To  answer  the  demand  for  analytical 
work  which  comes  from  the  smaller  collec- 
tions, and  to  take  the  place  of  the  "see  also" 
card,  we  use  a  printed  form,  which  reads  as 
follows:  "Chapters  on  this  subject  will  often 
be  found  in  books  entered  under  the  heading." 
On  the  top  of  this  card  is  written  the  specific 
subject,  such  as  Stencilling,  and  the  large  sub- 
ject is  added  below,  as  Arts  and  crafts.  We 
find  it  almost  impossible  to  keep  a  union  list 
of  "see  also"  references  when  subject  headings 
appear  in  some  of  our  catalogs,  and  the  same 
headings  are  eliminated  in  others.  This  print- 
ed form  is  an  inexpensive  way  of  covering 
the  need  and  simplifies  the  records. 

Cards  from  other  libraries. — Library  of  Con- 
gress and  A.  L.  A.  cards  are  purchased  for 
many  sets  of  periodicals  and  continuations, 
which  we  analyze.  These  are  filed  into  our 

own  catalogs.  The  agricultural  series  of  Li- 
brary of  Congress  cards  is  kept  in  a  separate 
file  in  the  technology  department. 

The  depository  catalog  of  the  Library  of 
Congress  is  kept  filed  for  public  use.  While 
it  is  chiefly  of  use  to  the  catalogers,  it  is  gain- 
ing appreciation  among  the  public  as  it  be- 
comes better  known,  and  will  prove  more  and 
more  valuable.  MARGARET  MANN, 

Chief  Cataloger. 

A  LIBRARY  in  a  penal  institution  differs 
from  a  public  library  only  as  there  is  a  dif- 
ference in  its  readers.  This  difference  is  not 
so  marked  as  it  is  sometimes  supposed.  The 
young  men  who  make  up  the  body  of  inmates 
of  the  New  Jersey  Reformatory  are  between 
sixteen  and  thirty  years  of  age,  and  are  not 
different  from  other  young  men  of  their  age. 
Contrary  to  what  many  think,  there  is  no 
distinct  criminal  class,  especially  among  young 
men.  Inhabitants  of  penal  institutions  are 
made  of  the  same  clay  as  the  rest  of  man- 
kind. The  difference  is  only  in  the  molding 
of  the  clay.  In  young  men  the  clay  is  always 
pliable  until  age  and  habit  change  it  to  its 
hardened  condition.  The  study  of  young  men 
in  our  institution  is  simply  the  study  of 
young  men  as  they  may  be  found  anywhere 
else,  except  that  here  they  are  closely  grouped, 
and  the  study  of  them  is  more  readily  made 
than  if  they  were  scattered  over  a  large  area. 
In  our  reformatory  a  scientific  analysis  of 
the  inmates  has  been  made.  Each  inmate  who 
has  been  received  has  been  tested  concerning 
his  mentality  by  Bimet's  admirable  psycholog- 
ical system,  with  the  result  that  46  per  cent, 
were  found  to  be  deficient.  These  figures 
were  not  dependent  upon  the  schooling  of 
the  boy,  but  upon  the  mental  capacity  that 
he  possessed.  A  further  search  would  reveal 
also  a  like  deficiency  in  educational  develop- 
ment. Of  the  present  population  of  514,  we 
have  but  one  young  man  who  has  ever  en- 
tered college,  and  very  few — a  score,  at  most 
— who  have  ever  entered  high  school.  A  very 
large  per  cent,  are  below  the  fifth  grade  in 
the  grammar  school.  Both  of  these  facts 
make  it  necessary  that  a  library  chosen  to 
meet  the  demands  of  our  readers  must  be,  to 
a  large  extent,  of  a  juvenile  character.  And 
yet,  at  the  same  time,  we  must  also  provide 
for  the  50  per  cent,  normal-minded  young 
men  who  desire  purposeful  fiction,  biography, 
travel  and  industry.  In  order  to  accomplish 
these  ends,  we  have  striven  to  secure  strong 
masculine  stories  and  such  biography  ^and 
trade  books  as  appeal  to  young  men  of  vigor. 
Thus  far  we  have  made  75  per  cent,  of  our 
books  fiction,  10  per  cent,  industry  or  trade 
books,  10  per  cent,  history,  and  5  per  cent, 
books  of  a  religious  character.  Many  of  our 
critics  will  probably  feel  that  there  should 
be  a  reversal  of  these  percentages,  but  we 

From  a  brief  talk  at  the  N.  J.  L.  A.  meeting,  Oct. 
16,  1912. 

January,  1913] 


insist  that  it  is  necessary  to  work  from  the 
known  to  the  unknown — from  the  desire  to 
the  ideal.  In  this  we  are  striving  to  make 
the  question  of  reading  and  study  as  attrac- 
tive as  possible.  Pictures  and  magazines,  maps 
and  globes,  stereoscopes  and  stereopticons  are 
being  woven  more  and  more  into  the  life  of 
.those  who  before  have  shunned  reading  more 
than  they  have  vice.  Of  the  last  200  incom- 
ing inmates  who  have  been  questioned  as  to 
their  practice  of  reading,  not  a  single  one 
has  said  that  he  was  in  the  habit  of  drawing 
books  from  the  public  library.  This  condi- 
tion we  hope,  through  the  attractiveness  of 
our  library,  to  change,  so  that  when  our  young 
men  again  enter  society  they  may  appreciate 
their  opportunities  in  this  respect,  and  will 
find  it  easy  and  natural  to  use  the  public 
library.  G.  E.  ROBBINS. 


"THE  imperishable  records  of  the  ancients, 
compared  with  methods  in  use  up  to  the  pres- 
ent time,"  by  George  Frederick  Kunz,  is  an 
interesting  survey  of  records  which  have  ex- 
isted and  been  handed  down  from  the  days 
of  the  temple  libraries  of  Assyria  and  Baby- 
lonia, and  of  the  Egyptians  and  the  Semites, 
up  to  the  present  time.  The  clay  tablets  were 
excellently  adapted  for  preservation.  The 
papyrus  of  the  Egyptians  are  clear  and  legible 
when  found  in  dry  places.  The  tablets  of  thin 
sheet-lead,  dating  1400  to  1800  years  back,  are 
still  legible.  But  the  deterioration  of  coins 
and  gems  have  shown  the  impossibility  of 
preserving  metals,  as  iron  and  copper,  and 
their  inscriptions.  To  create  the  modern 
tablet,  which  should  weather  all  ages,  Mr. 
Kunz  suggests  a  linotype  machine,  the  type 
to  be  run  off  as  though  for  the  purpose  of 
being  electrotyped  from  right  to  left.  From 
a  papier-mache  impression  of  this,  a  clay  im- 
pression could  be  made,  the  papier-mache 
being  withdrawn,  the  copy  reversed  in  order 
to  have  the  characters  in  proper  order,  and 
the  tablet  baked.  This  article  is  in  the  seven- 
teenth annual  report  of  the  American  Scenic 
and  Historic  Preservation  Society  (p.  367- 
385),  and  a  plate  reproduces  a  "modern  im- 
perishable tablet,"  for  "hard,  well-burnt  clay 
endures  forever  in  the  ancient  landmarks  of 
mankind,"  which  reads,  in  raised  letters  :  "The 
relics  of  the  ancients  having  demonstrated 
that  baked  clay  is  the  most  endurable  medium 
for  the  perpetuation  of  written  annals,  the 
American  Scenic  and  Historic  Preservation 
Society  makes  this  tablet  as  an  example  of  a 
record  which  is  invulnerable  by  the  ordinary 
agencies  of  change  and  decay,  and  which  will 
last  practically  as  long  as  the  world  shall 
endure.  This  tablet,  believed  to  be  the  first 
of  its  kind,  is  impressed  with  a  stereotype 
made  from  movable  type,  a  process  which  is 
simpler  than  that  of  old,  and  can  be  repro- 
duced indefinitely.  Done  in  the  city  of  New 
York,  December  4,  1911.  G.  F.  Kunz." 


THE  following  paragraphs  on  administra- 
tive organization  and  departmental  libraries 
are  quoted  from  the  report  of  Mr.  W.  Daw- 
son  Johnston,  librarian  of  Columbia  Univer- 
sity, for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1912,  which 
has  just  been  printed.  For  the  usual  sum- 
mary of  this  report,  see  page  55. 

"The  experience  of  the  past  year  has  again 
shown  the  necessity  of  more  thorough  train- 
ing of  library  assistants.  Few  of  the  more 
important  appointments  made  during  the  year 
have  been  from  among  library  school  grad- 
uates or  by  promotion  in  the  staff.  .It  is  still 
unfortunately  true  that  library  schools  are 
separate  from  universities,  and  are  not,  there- 
fore, able  to  offer  as  thorough  training  nor 
attract  as  able  men  as  university  schools  can. 
It  is  also  true  that  library  work  tends  to  be- 
come merely  mechanical.  In  a  small  library, 
where  the  reader  may  help  himself,  or  in  a 
library  intended  primarily  for  popular  enter- 
tainment, where  the  reader,  perhaps,  desires 
no  help,  the  lack  of  initial  training  and  the 
want  of  opportunity  for  continued  study  may 
not  be  felt ;  but  in  a  university  library  cer- 
tainly, and,  indeed,  in  any  large  reference 
library,  it  must  be  felt,  and  felt  keenly,  and 
the  standards  of  appointment  to  the  several 
grades  in  the  staff  of  the  library  must  tend 
to  become  the  same  as  those  in  the  cor- 
responding grades  'of  the  staff  of  instruc- 

"During  the  year  this  has  been  definitely 
recognized  in  the  decision  to  employ  skilled 
bibliographers  as  librarians  of  the  several 
schools  of  the  university,  instead  of  student 
assistants.  The  duties  of  the  latter,  as  stu- 
dents, make  them  irregular  in  attendance  in 
the  reading  rooms,  and  their  absorption  in 
their  own  work  makes  them  almost  useless 
while  they  are  in  attendance.  Indeed,  even 
if  they  were  able  to  take  their  duties  as  libra- 
rians seriously,  they  could  not  become  ac- 
quainted with  them  during  the  short  period 
of  their  residence  in  the  university.  The  re- 
sult is  that  as  many  books  are  improperly 
removed  from  rooms  which  have  such  polic- 
ing as  from  rooms  which  are  without  it,  books 
which  would  be  useful  in  the  department  are 
not  taken  there,  or  if  they  are  taken  there, 
it  is  done  so  tardily  that  they  lose  much  of 
their  potential  usefulness,  and  proper  use  is. 
not  made  of  the  books  which  are  there ;  nor, 
indeed,  of  the  rooms  devoted  to  department 
reading-room  service.  While,  then,  we  shall 
continue  to  employ  students  as  temporary 
assistants  in  clerical  work  of  a  mechanical 
character,  we  shall  not  in  the  future  employ 
them  in  any  of  the  higher  grades  of  the  li- 
brary service. 

"Department  librarians  in  most  universi- 
ties are  only  librarians  in  name.  As  a  rule, 
they  are  either  needy  students  or  unsuccessful 
and  equally  needy  professors.  In  an  institu- 



[January,  1913 

tion  with  few  books  or  few  readers  this  mat- 
ters little,  perhaps,  but  in  an  institution  with 
hundreds  of  thousands  of  volumes  and  thou- 
sands of  students,  there  can  be  no  question 
as  to  the  importance  of  the  office  of  depart- 
ment librarian,  and  no  question  as  to  the  de- 
sirability of  securing  the  best  men  in  the  pro- 
fession to  fill  these  offices. 

''Nor  is  there  any  reason,  in  the  nature  of 
things,  why  the  department  librarian  or  the 
special  librarian  should  be  an  Ishmaelite  in 
the  profession.  Indeed,  with  proper  profes- 
sional training,  together  with  special  scientific 
equipment,  he  should  be  a  leader;  and  it 
should  be  as  high  an  ambition  in  a  junior 
assistant  to  become  a  department  librarian  as 
it  is  to  become  supervisor  of  the  order  de- 
partment, the  catalog  department,  or  any 
other  department  of  the  general  library  ser- 
vice. There  is  always  the  danger  in  library 
work,  as  in  other  work,  of  making  it  an  end 
in  itself,  and  of  looking  upon  service  on  the 
general  staff  as  the  goal  of  professional  am- 
bition. This,  of  course,  it  may  be  in  a  library 
intended  to  meet  only  elementary  needs,  but 
in  the  library  of  a  metropolitan  university 
members  of  the  general  staff  should  look  for- 
ward not  to  general  service  only,  but  also  to 
special  service.  Bibliographical  research  be- 
comes expert  only  as  it  is  specialized,  and  the 
results  of  such  research  become  practical  only 
as  they  are  made  available  for  specific  pur- 

"For  this  reason,  it  seems  to  me,  assistants 
should  be  given  opportunity  for  specialization 
in  their  work  and  also  for  extra-official 
studies  of  an  advanced  character,  and  with 
this  in  view,  I  recommend  that  junior  assist- 
ants ranking,  as  bibliographers,  be  allowed 
time  each  year  to  pursue  at  least  one  course 
of  study  in  the  university.  Such  training  of 
assistants  for  department  library  service  must 
do  much  not  only  to  further  the  development 
of  these  organizations,  but  also  to  preserve 
that  unity  of  the  service  as  a  whole  which  is 
the  condition  of  efficient  and  economical  ad- 

"And  the  unification  of  the  service  is  fully 
as  important  as  its  specialization.  That  de- 
partment librarian  is  most  efficient  who  enlists 
the  service  of  the  entire  library  staff,  and 
serves  not  merely  his  own  school,  but  all  the 
schools  of  the  university,  and  his  efficiency 
as  a  librarian  is  to  be  measured  not  by  the 
standards  of  the  teacher,  or  the  lawyer,  or 
the  physician,  but  by  the  standards  of  his 
own  profession.  It  is  for  the  purpose  of  pre- 
serving the  unity  of  the  library  service  that 
a  monthly  staff  meeting  of  heads  of  depart- 
ments has  been  instituted  during  the  past  year 
and  the  publication  of  a  staff  bulletin  begun. 
The  staff  meetings,  like  the  journal  clubs  in 
other  departments  of  the  university,  have  been 
devoted  primarily  to  the  discussion  of  current 
professional  literature,  American  and  foreign, 
and  have  done  much  to  stimulate  the  reading 
of  professional  literature,  and  make  the  staff 
acquainted  with  the  work  of  other  libraries 

and  other  librarians.  The  staff  bulletin  is  a 
brief  record  of  current  events  in  the  history 
of  the  university  library,  intended  to  keep 
members  of  the  staff  in  each  of  the  libraries 
acquainted  with  the  progress  of  all." 

"To  many  it  will  seem  that  this  [provision 
of  four  new  departmental  librarianships  by  the 
actions  of  the  trustees]  is  only  another  step 
in  the  decentralization — to  them,  unfortunate 
decentralization — of  the  library  service.  And, 
indeed,  it  may  prove  unfortunate  in  some 
cases,  but  wherever  trained  and  experienced 
librarians  can  be  secured  for  these  positions, 
and  wherever  the  library  administration  i£ 
allowed  to  carry  on  its  work  unhampered,  in 
accordance  with  the  best  library  procedure 
and  practice,  the  new  library  officials  cannot 
fail  to  assist  greatly  in  more  rapid  and  more 
thorough  research  work  on  the  part  of  all 
members  of  the  university.  Indeed,  so  far  as 
the  control  of  administrative  policies  and  the 
supervision  of  technical  processes  is  con- 
cerned, there  should  be  no  change;  so  far  as 
it  is  a  reinforcement  of  the  present  staff  em- 
ployed in  the  direct  service  of  readers,  it  is 
wholly  necessary  and  desirable;  and,  so  far 
as  the  smaller  department  libraries  are  con- 
cerned, it  is  a  movement  toward  centraliza- 
tion, rather  than  the  opposite. 

"There  is,  of  course,  the  possibility  that 
these  department  librarians  may  wish  to  be- 
come mere  administrative  officers,  each  with 
his  own  small  retinue  of  clerical  assistants, 
and  that  the  department  libraries  may  tend 
simply  to  reproduce  on  a  smaller  scale  the 
organization  of  the  general  library.  Strong 
emphasis  must,  therefore,  be  laid  upon  the 
fact  that  these  new  library  officers  are  not  to 
be  primarily  administrators,  but  scholars;  and 
not  primarily  specialists  in  library  economy, 
but  in  other  branches  of  science.  In  fact,  of 
those  already  appointed,  only  one  has  had 
general  library  training;  most  of  them  have 
had  little  time  for  the  study  of  library  econ- 
omy; and  few,  if  any  of  them,  will  have 
much  time  for  it  in  the  future,  that  is,  if  they 
attend  properly  to  the  duties  of  their  present 
offices.  As  a  consequence,  they  will  not  have 
the  ability  to  do  technical  library  work — much 
less  to  supervise  it;  or,  if  they  have  the  abil- 
ity, they  will  not  have  the  time  for  it.  Their 
time  must  be  devoted  to  the  study  of  the 
literature  of  their  respective  subjects  and  the 
needs  of  the  readers  in  their  several  depart- 
ments, and  not  merely  the  needs  of  professors, 
but  also  the  needs  of  students.  A  department 
library  is  not  the  place  for  librarians  who  pre- 
fer to  spend  their  time  with  library  assistants, 
rather  than  with  readers. 

"I  am  aware  that  there  will  be  many  officers 
of  instruction  who  will  agree  with  this  point 
of  view,  but  will  still  urge  that  the  needs  of 
their  departments  are  peculiar,  and  that  these 
cannot  be  satisfied  by  existing  library  meth- 
ods, but  only  by  methods  yet  to  be  discovered. 
I  cannot  but  sympathize  with  this  attitude, 
and  hope  that  every  member  of  the  library 
staff,  capable  of  scientific  work,  may  have 

January,  1913] 


ample  opportunity  for  experiment.  At  the 
same  time,  however,  I  am  certain  that,  in  the 
interests  of  both  efficiency  and  economy,  we 
should  avail  ourselves  of  the  results  of  the 
experiments  of  our  predecessors,  confine  our 
experiments  for  the  most  part  to  fields  which 
are  new,  and  follow  existing  methods  until 
their  inadequacy  has  been  proven. 

"In  short,  in  this  extension  of  department 
library  service  we  look  forward  not  so  much 
to  a  multiplication  of  libraries  as  a  multipli- 
cation of  reading  rooms  and  opportunities  for 
reading;  not  so  much  to  an  increase  in  the 
number  of  library  officials  as  to  a  differentia- 
tion of  function  in  the  existing  staff." 


To  insure  the  largest  usefulness  to  the  com- 
munity, the  library  will  need  to  render  a  spe- 
cial service  in  connection  with  material  pro- 
vided regarding  the  social,  civic,  health  and 
education  topics  which  have  to  do  with  local 

The  average  attractively  written  and  lavish- 
ly illustrated  magazine  article  usually  fails  to 
state,  or  not  infrequently  misstates,  the  fun- 
damental factors  in  the  successful  application 
of  the  idea.  On  the  other  hand,  the  progress 
of  events  is  such  that  even  articles  or  books 
from  authoritative  sources  may  easily  be  out 
of  date  within  a  year  or  so,  or,  at  any  rate, 
such  publications  may  omit  any  reference  to 
recently  discovered  facts  of  significance  when 
a  piece  of  work  is  undertaken  locally. 

Our  suggestion,  then,  is  that,  so  far  as  possi- 
ble, it  be  the  established  policy  of  the  library 
to  caution  clubwomen,  civic  workers  and 
others  who  seek  information  supposed  to 
point  to  the  doing  of  practical  things  in  the 
community.  With  this  warning  should  go,  if 
possible,  the  suggestion  of  the  national  sources 
of  information  which  are  most  likely  to  be  in 
touch  with  the  latest  developments  in  the  do- 
ing of  practical  things.  For  this  purpose,  those 
members  of  the  staff  who  deal  with  the  public 
should  at  least  know  that  there  is  a  national 
organization  or  a  national  headquarters  for 
every  welfare  idea  of  any  significance. 

Moreover,  it  would  not  be  a  difficult  un- 
dertaking to  compile  a  comparatively  complete 
list  of  such  national  sources  of  information. 
As  a  foundation  for  this,  secure  free  copies  of 
"What  every  social  worker  should  know  about 
his  own  city,"  and  "Inter-relation  of  social 
movements"  may  be  secured  by  addressing  the 
Sage  Foundation,  New  York  City.  Another 
extensive  list  of  organizations  having  to  do 
with  education  may  be  secured  of  the  Bureau 
of  Education,  at  Washington.  The  Brooklyn 
Eagle  Almanac  probably  contains  a  more  com- 
plete list  of  organizations  than  any  similar 
publication.  It  should  also  be  known  that  the 
editors  of  The  Survey,  105  East  22d  street, 
New  York,  endeavor  to  serve  as  a  clearing 
house  for  inquiries  regarding  any  phase  of  so- 
cial endeavor.  E.  G.  ROUTZAHN. 



PUBLIC  libraries  must  frequently  allay  the 
fears  of  timid  people,  which  are  also  in- 
creased sometimes  by  sensational  newspaper 
accounts,  regarding  books  as  carriers  of  dis- 
ease. The  following  quotations  from  the  fore- 
going article  by  the  president  of  the  Board 
of  Health,  of  Valparaiso,  Ind.,  are  significant, 
and,  at  the  same  time,  are  in  line  with  pre- 
vious investigations  to  the  effect  that  the 
danger  of  contagion  through  public  library 
books  is  a  very  great  improbability.  The 
following  quotations  explain  the  matter  in 
greater  detail: 

"Scarlet  fever  made  its  appearance  in  Val- 
paraiso, Ind.,  September,  1908,  and  continued 
until  June,  1911.  It  is  estimated  that  during 
this  time  there  were  400  cases,  of  which  only 
255  were  reported  to  the  city  board  of  health ; 
145  were  not  reported,  and  most  of  them 
were  not  subjected  to  quarantine  regulations. 
Beginning  in  February,  1911,  a  special  study 
of  the  epidemic  was  begun  to  determine,  if 
possible,  what  steps  were  necessary  to  ter- 
minate this  epidemic. 

"The  question  whether  the  infection  was 
being  spread  through  the  medium  of  books 
was  considered.  If  books  were  carriers  of 
scarlet  fever  infection,  the  opportunity  for 
the  spread  of  the  disease  in  this  city  by  them 
was  very  great,  as  Valparaiso  is  a  residence 
and  school  city,  with  about  10,000  population. 
It  supports  two  libraries,  one  a  public  city 
library,  the  other  a  public  library  in  connec- 
tion with  the  Valparaiso  University.  The 
libraries  are  both  extensively  used,  the  public 
library  by  the  public  school  children,  the  citi- 
zens and  the  university  students.  The  uni- 
versity library  was  used  largely  by  the  uni- 
versity students.  Two  book  stores  situated 
near  the  university  made  a  practice  of  renting 
text-books  used  at  the  university;  two  de- 
partment stores  in  the  city  were  maintaining 
circulating  libraries,  and  in  the  lower  grades 
of  the  public  schools  a  large  number  of  sup- 
plemental books  were  furnished  the  pupils  by 
the  school  authorities,  and  these  books  were 
passed  from  class  to  class.  This  showed  the 
importance  of  determining  whether  books 
were  mediums  of  the  spread  of  the  disease 
or  not,  and,  if  so,  what  was  the  practical 
method  for  rendering  them  harmless. 

"The  popularity  of  the  juvenile  department 
and  the  attendance  of  children  suffering  from 
a  mild  attack  of  scarlet  fever,  or  those  who 
had  been  too  early  released  from  quarantine, 
undoubtedly  was  a  source  of  direct  contact, 
and  doubtless  some  cases  resulted ;  yet  no 
specific  case  was  traced  to  the  library.  The 
management  is  alert  and  desirous  of  making 
the  library  a  perfectly  safe  and  sanitary 
"At  the  beginning  of  this  investigation  of 

*  B.  Nesbit  Otis,  M.D.,  president  Valparaiso  Board  of 
Health,  in  the  Journal  of  the  American  Medical 
Association  for  Oct.  26,  1912.  p.  1526-1528. 



[January,  1913 

the  public  library,  as  fast  as  any  suspicious 
book  was  discovered  it  was  taken  from  the 
shelves  and  put  in  the  storeroom  and  kept 
there  until  the  study  had  been  completed. 
The  weight  of  evidence  indicated  clearly  that 
the  books  were  not  an  important  factor  in 
the  spread  of  the  disease,  and  they  were 
placed  back  on  the  shelves  without  being 
fumigated  and  again  put  in  circulation,  with- 
out producing  the  disease,  and  no  scarlet 
fever  developed  in  the  city  between  July,  1910, 
and  April,  1911. 

"If  books  act  as  carriers,  it  is  only  imme- 
diately after  being  contaminated  with  the 
discharges  of  the  patient;  yet  this  investiga- 
tion has  failed  to  reveal  a  single  instance  of 
this  kind. 

"Books  that  have  been  used  by  scarlet  fever 
patients  do  not  long  contain  the  infection  in 
such  a  way  as  to  transmit  the  disease  to  man. 

"Any  book  which  has  been  handled  by  a 
scarlet  fever  patient  should  be  burned  or 
fumigated.  The  most  practical  method  for 
general  book  disinfection  at  this  time  is  the 
Beebee  carbogasoline  method.  This  consists 
in  using  gas-machine  gasoline  and  two  per 
cent,  phenol  crystals;  the  books  are  immersed 
in  this  mixture  for  twenty  minutes,  removed 
and  placed  before  an  electric  fan  for  two 
minutes,  and  then  set  on  end  for  from 
twenty-four  to  forty-eight  hours." 


THE  volumes  of  Stanford  University's  de- 
partment of  medicine  are  now  shelved  in  the 
new  Lane  Memorial  Library,  the  gift  by  will 
of  Mrs.  Levi  Cooper  Lane,  which  was  dedicated 
November  3.  The  building,  constructed  on  a 
steel  frame,  is  of  smooth  Colusa  sandstone, 
of  a  soft  gray  color.  The  general  reading 
room,  with  its  open  shelves,  broad  tables  and 
quiet  green  walls,  is  enriched  by  mural  paint- 
ings by  Arthur  F.  Mathews,  of  San  Fran- 
cisco. The  stockrooms  are  absolutely  fire- 
proof and  can  be  cut  off  from  the  rest  of 
the  building  by  metal  doors.  There  is  no 
wood  at  all  in  the  construction  of  this  part 
of  the  building.  All  the  electric  wires  are 
separately  enclosed  in  metal  channels.  The 
heating  plant,  vacuum-cleaning  machinery  and 
similar  equipment  are  in  a  sub-basement. 
Although  the  library  is  the  largest  of  any 
of  the  university  medical  libraries  in  America, 
its  forty  thousand  volumes  are  easily  accom- 
modated on  the  shelves,  which  can  hold  as 
many  more  without  addition.  Indeed,  the 
capacity  of  the  building  could  be  brought  up 
to  something  like  three  times  the  number  of 
volumes  the  university  now  owns,  after  which 
an  extension  could  be  built  on  the  adjacent 
lot.  The  architect  is  Albert  Pissis,  of  San 

The  medical  collection  was  originally  the 
library  of  the  Cooper  Medical  College,  recent- 
ly consolidated  with  Stanford  University.  It 
is  now  a  department  of  the  university  library. 


THE  president,  Mr.  Osius,  of  the  board  of 
library  commissioners  of  Detroit,  has  pre- 
sented an  outline  of  a  projected  pension  fund 
system  for  the  library  staff.  With  the  princi- 
ple that  the  amount  to  be  set  aside  must  meet 
the  most  necessary  requirements  for  advanced 
years  and  be  sufficient  to  offer  at  least  a  sim- 
ple existence,  in  mind,  the  proposal  is  for  a 
fixed  contribution  by  the  employees,  the  ba- 
lance to  be  provided  from  certain  incomes  of 
the  library.  This  plan  would  cover  the  two 
important  questions  of  stability  and  a  reason- 
ably sufficient  income  to  the  beneficiary, 
coupled  with  reasonable  economy  for  both 
the  contributor  and  the  community : 

"The  sum  of  $8406.50  per  annum  is  re- 
quired to  provide  the  following  benefits  under 
Plan  No.  i : 

"A  60-years'  age  limit  of  service. 

"A  pension  of  $600  per  annum  at  the  age 
of  60  and  thereafter,  for  each,  receiving  at 
the  time  an  annual  salary  up  to  $1000. 

"A  pension  at  the  age  of  60,  of  60  per  cent, 
of  an  annual  salary  of  over  $1000  up  to  $2000 
per  annum. 

"At  the  beginning  of  each  year  following 
adoption,  an  amount  will  be  placed  into  the 
pension  fund,  based  on  the  employee's  age  at 
time  of  entering  the  service.  For  instance,, 
an  assistant  enters  at  the  age  of  20  years,  an 
amount  of  $42.95  per  annum,  less  his  own 
contribution,  will  be  placed  in  this  fund  until 
he  reaches  the  age  of  60  years.  If  an  em- 
ployee dies,  an  amount  corresponding  to  his 
year  of  entry  will  be  dropped.  This  also  re- 
fers to  persons  leaving  the  service  for  any 

"Plan  i  intends  to  make  each  employee 
within  the  classified  service  including  libra- 
rian, assistant  librarian,  secretary  and  sten- 
ographer, compulsory  contributors  to  the  pen- 
sion fund  to  the  extent  of  3  per  cent,  of  their 
annual  salaries.  The  balance  is  to  be  provided 
from  certain  funds  now  available  for  library 
purposes,  such  as  miscellaneous  receipts,  pa- 
per sold,  catalogs  sold,  library  fines  and  bal- 
ances of  salary  fund.  The  estimated  total  of 
these  items  for  the  year  1913  will  probably 
reach  $5000,  with  a  normal  increase  from 
year  to  year.  The  contribution  of  3  per  cent, 
of  the  beneficiaries'  salaries  will  be  approxi- 
mately $2000,  making  a  total  of  approximately 
$7000  available  from  this  source.  This  would 
leave  about  $1400  to  be  provided  elsewhere. 

"We  now  come  to  the  question  of  pension- 
ing such  employees  as  have  not  reached  the 
age  of  60  years  but  may  for  reason  of  ina- 
bility or  otherwise,  be  considered  desirable 
pensioners.  Decision  of  this  feature  should 
be  entirely  in  the  hands  of  the  commissioners, 
and  they  should  be  considered  the  sole  judges 
whether  such  employees  should  be  relieved  of 
further  service.  Inasmuch  as  it  is  not  desir- 
able that  this  class  of  pensioners  is  unduly 
enlarged,  and  since  the  uncertainty  of  this 
feature  cannot  be  anticipated  by  any  statis- 

January,  1913] 


tical  calculation,  I  would  create  a  'special  pen- 
sion fund,'  which  is  maintained  from  year  to 
year  by  placing  into  this  fund  an  amount 
equal  to  the  annual  pension  to  be  paid  to  the 
beneficiary.  This  contribution  to  that  fund 
is  to  cease  on  the  death  of  the  beneficiary. 
We  would,  therefore,  have  two  funds — the 
'regular  pension  fund/  consisting  of  3  per 
•cent,  salary  contributions  by  all  employees 
concerned  (less  than  25  per  cent,  of  the  to- 
tal), and  of  the  additional  revenues  as  stated. 
We  would  also  have  a  'special  pension  fund,' 
consisting  of  the  amounts  placed  annually 
therein  for  the  two  oldest  employees,  to  begin 
with,  and  such  others  as  may  be  added  from 
time  to  time  by  the  action  of  the  commission. 
In  the  above  plan,  a  service  limit  at  the  age 
of  60  years  has  been  considered  which  in- 
volves a  total  provision  of  $8406.50  per  an- 
num. If  the  age  limit  is  increased  to  65  years 
the  above  amount  can  be  decreased  about  35 
per  cent.  If  the  service  limit  is  decreased 
to  the  age  of  55  years,  the  above  sum  would 
have  to  be  increased  about  30  per  cent,  per 
annum.  If  the  employees'  contribution  is  re- 
turned in  part  or  all  on  leaving  the  service, 
above  amount  is  to  be  increased  about  50  per 

A  special  staff  meeting  was  held  late  in 
November,  at  which  Mr.  Osius  explained  the 
scheme  and  met  questions  and  criticism.  The 
scheme  was  considered  a  generous  one,  and 
all  that  could  be  desired  for  the  amount  of 
the  premium  or  contribution  enforced.  The 
library  commissioners  will  have  to  be  given  a 
special  enabling  act  from  the  legislature  in 
order  to  have  authority  to  install  the  plan, 
which  was  expected  to  be  ready  for  presenta- 
tion during  December. 


THE  conference  of  Eastern  College  Libra- 
rians was  held  in  Earl  Hall,  Columbia  Univer- 
sity. Saturday,  Nov.  30, 1912.  The  first  session 
was  at  10.30  a.m.,  with  Mr.  W.  C.  Lane,  of 
Harvard  University,  acting  as  chairman. 

"Bibliographical  instruction  in  colleges"  was 
the  topic  for  papers  by  Dr.  Kendrick  C.  Bab- 
cock,  specialist  in  higher  education,  U.  S.  Bu- 
reau of  Education,  and  Mr.  Willard  Austen, 
reference  librarian,  Cornell  University. 

"A  new  way  to  deal  with  old  books"  was 
discussed  by  Dr.  H.  L.  Koopman,  librarian, 
Brown  University.  Dr.  L.  N.  Wilson,  librarian, 
Clark  University,  spoke  on  "A  model  private 
library  for  college  students." 

At  the  second  session,  at  2.30  p.m.,  Dr.  E.  C. 
Richardson,  Princeton  University,  presided. 
The  topics  were:  "The  library  in  relation  to 
other  departments  of  the  university,"  by  Dr.  T. 
F.  Crane,  acting  president,  Cornell  University ; 
"The  bibliographical  value  of  the  syllabus,"  by 
Mr.  Andrev/  Keogh,  assistant  librarian,  Yale 
University;  and  "Inter-library  loans,"  by  Mr. 
F.  C.  Hicks,  assistant  librarian,  Columbia  Uni- 


IT  has  come  to  few  men  to  enter  a  new 
work,  carve  out  a  career  and  win  a  national 
professional  reputation  after  the  age  of  ^fifty- 
five.  This  has  been  done  by  Mr.  William 
Reed  Eastman,  who,  after  twenty  years  of 
continuous  and  devoted  service  in  behalf  of 
the  libraries  of  New  York  state,  presented  his 
resignation,  in  October  last,  as  chief  of  the 
division  of  educational  extension  in  the  New 
York  State  Library,  to  take  effect  Dec.  31, 
1912.  WTith  cordial  expressions  of  regret  and 
of  high  regard  for  the  distinguished  service 
l-.e  has  rendered  the  state,  the  resignation  has 
been  accepted  by  the  Education  Department. 
The  regret  and  regard  thus  expressed  in  offi- 
cial way  will  be  shared  by  everyone  who  has 
had  any  professional  or  official  relation  with 
Mr.  Eastman  during  his  twenty  years  of  li- 
brary activity,  and  by  innumerable  librarians 
and  trustees  throughout  the  state  who  have 
been  aided,  stimulated  and  directed  in  their 
work  by  his  counsel,  sympathy  or  active  co- 
operation. The  regret  will  be  modified,  how- 
ever, by  the  thought  that  the  severing  of 
official  connection  with  the  work  will  make 
little  or  no  difference  in  his  personal  interest 
in  or  devotion  to  the  cause  to  which  he  has 
so  long  given  his  heart,  and  by  the  knowledge 
that,  in  spite  of  advancing  age,  his  health, 
vigor  and  youthful  spirit  seem  to  assure  many 
years  yet  of  fellowship  and  helpful  counsel 
in  the  library  work  of  the  state. 

Taken  as  a  whole,  Mr.  Eastman's  career  is 
one  of  the  most  interesting  to  be  found  in 
modern  library  annals,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped 
that,  as  leisure  now  comes  to  him,  he  will 
find  the  time  and  impulse  to  put  in  the  form 
of  a  personal  memoir  a  connected  narrative 
of  the  events,  scenes  and  developments  in 
which  he  has  had  a  part.  He  was  born  in 
New  York  City  in  1835,  graduated  from  Yale 
College  in  1854  with  high  honors,  the  young- 
est man  in  his  class;  for  several  years  he 
was  engaged  in  surveying  and  engineering 
work,  being  one  of  the  force  to  survey  and 
lay  out  one  of  the  earliest  railways  in  Mexico. 
In  1859  he  entered  Union  Theological  Semin- 
ary, of  New  York  City,  from  which  he  was 
graduated  in  1862  and  ordained  a  Presbyte- 
rian minister.  During  the  years  1863-64,  he 
served  as  chaplain  of  the  72d  New  York 
Volunteers,  gaining  thus  experience  and  knowl- 
edge of  events  and  personalities  which  have  en- 
abled him  to  make  positive  and  interesting 
contributions  to  the  history  and  reminiscences 
of  that  period.  From  1864  to  1888  he  served 
continuously  as  pastor  of  various  churches  in 
Connecticut  and  Massachusetts.  In  1890 — the 
year  in  which  the  first  state  library  commis- 
sion was  formed — he  was  caught  in  the  rap- 
idly rising  tide  of  the  modern  library  move- 
ment, and  with  all  the  enthusiasm  and  devo- 
tion of  youth,  embarked  on  his  new  career. 
His  scholarly  ideals  and  professional  stan- 
dards would  permit  of  nothing  less  than  a 
most  thorough  and  systematic  preparation  for 


[January,  1913 

this  career ;  so,  with  the  zest  of  a  schoolboy, 
he  entered  the  New  York  State  Library 
School  for  a  two-year  course,  completing  this 
with  the  class  of  1892.  He  was  immediately 
appointed  to  the  work  of  inspecting,  organiz- 
ing and  supervising  libraries  in  New  York 
state,  a  work  to  which,  in  various  capacities, 
he  has  continued  to  give  his  whole  energy  up 
to  the  present. 

What  he  has  done  for  library  development 
in  this  state  during  these  twenty  years  can 
never  be  measured  or  weighed  by  any  avail- 
able statistics.  It  is  true  his  work  has  been 
but  one  of  many  factors  entering  into  the 
product.  The  spirit  of  the  times,  favorable 
laws,  public  library  money,  the  development 
and  activities  of  the  State  Library  and  its 
traveling  library  system,  broad-minded  poli- 
cies of  the  Education  Department,  these  and 
many  other  forces  have  been  at  work  in  the 
field  during  this  period,  but  they  have  wrought 
their  effects  largely  through  the  mind,  spirit 
and  energy  of  Mr.  Eastman. 

The  statistics  of  library  growth  in  New 
Yoik  state  during  Mr.  Eastman's  connection 
with  the  field  are,  in  the  words  of  the  Book- 
man, "nothing  less  than  amazing,"  and  have 
perhaps  never  been  paralleled  by  those  of 
any  social,  educational  or  philanthropic  move- 
ment. Thus  in  1893,  there  were  in  the  state 
238  free  libraries,  including  school  libraries 
free  to  the  public;  in  1912  there  are  800  such 
libraries.  In  1893  there  were  in  free  libraries 
849,995  volumes;  in  1912  there  are  4,721,000 
volumes  in  such  libraries.  In  1893  there  was 
a  free  library  circulation  of  2,293,861  vol- 
umes; in  1912  a  circulation  of  20,309,176  vol- 
umes. These  figures  mean  that  there  has  been 
in  this  interval  a  threefold  growth  in  the 
number  of  free  libraries,  a  fivefold  growth 
in  the  number  of  volumes  in  these  libraries, 
and  a  ninefold  growth  in  their  circulation. 
Limiting  the  period  to  the  time  when  nearly 
all  of  both  field  and  office  work  was  done 
by  Mr.  Eastman,  from  1892  to  1901,  there 
was  a  growth  from  238  to  529  free  libraries, 
from  849,995  to  2,425,260  volumes  in  them, 
and  from  2,293,811  to  9,232,697  circulation. 

But  his  activities  and  influence  have  by  no 
means  been  confined  to  the  duties  connected 
with  his  office.  His  work  in  the  State  Library 
School,  as  instructor  in  the  theory  and  plan- 
ning of  library  buildings,  has  given  him  a 
foremost  place  among  authorities  in  this  field 
in  the  United  States,  and  has  been  an  influen- 
tial factor  throughout  the  whole  country  for 
economy  and  efficiency  in  library  construction. 
In  the  origin  and  development  of  the  New 
York  Library  Association,  which  he  has  served 
in  nearly  every  capacity,  his  steady,  systematic 
and  constructive  work  has  been  the  strongest 
single  factor.  What  Mr.  Dewey  was  to  the 
National  Association  Mr.  Eastman  has  been 
to  the  State  Association.  In  the  planning  and 
carrying  out  of  the  work  of  library  institutes, 
a  work  that  has  an  untold  and  immeasurable 
influence  in  the  library  development  of  the 

state,  he  was  from  the  first  the  leader  and 
director.  Through  the  development  of  this 
work  and  that  of  the  association,  he  has  seen 
during  his  twenty  years  of  active  service  the 
number  of  libraries  gathered  in  annual  con- 
ference and  cooperation  increased  from  15 
or  20  to  450,  and  the  number  of  persons  par- 
ticipating in  these  conferences  increased  from 
40  to  1250! 

Surely,  in  the  contemplation  of  such  ad- 
vances in  his  field  of  work  and  limitless  possi- 
bilities for  enlarged  and  enriched  living  for 
the  people  of  the  state  which  they  suggest, 
he  must  now  have  a  reward  and  satisfaction 
such  as  is  given  to  few  of  the  world's  suc- 
cessful workers. 


THE  contents  of  the  library  have  now 
reached,  with  the  close  of  the  last  fiscal  year,, 
June  30,  1912,  the  two-million  mark — our  na- 
tional library  being  third  in  size  of  the  libra- 
ries of  the  world.  The  gain  in  books,  accord- 
ing to  the  report  of  the  librarian,  just  issued 
(235  pages),  was  120,664,  making  the  total 
2,012,393.  Maps  and  charts  now  number  5177 ', 
music,  34,622;  prints,  10,731.  Books  were  ob- 
tained: 18,099  by  purchase,  23,591  by  gift,  20,- 
709  by  transfer  from  government  libraries, 
11,332  by  international  exchange,  9318  from 
state  governments,  19,835  by  copyright. 

The  purchases  have  included  but  one  of  an 
important  collection  en  bloc — the  Hoes  collec- 
tion relating  to  the  Spanish-American  warr 
of  about  43,866  pieces  (1405  volumes).  The 
collections  on  the  literature  of  art  and  archi- 
tecture were  systematically  developed  through 
the  expert  counsel  of  Prof.  R.  A.  Rice.  Em- 
phasis has  also  been  laid  upon  the  fundamen- 
tal source  material  in  history.  Dr.  Richardson's 
check  list  of  European  history,  showing  1226 
gaps,  and  work  on  covering  the  important 
deficiencies,  has  already  been  begun.  Special 
attention  was  also  given  to  the  literature  of 
contemporary  foreign  law,  the  first  fruit  be- 
ing the  guide  to  the  legal  literature  of  Ger- 

Transfers  and  exchanges  included  as  impor- 
tant items  1299  bound  volumes  of  periodicals 
and  newspapers  from  the  State  Department. 
Gross  receipts  were  22,253  volumes  and 
pamphlets;  gross  deductions,  20,669.  1243 
volumes  on  medicine  were  withdrawn  from 
the  copyright  files  and  sent  on  exchange  to 
the  John  Crerar  Library  and  the  Baltimore 
Medical  Library  Association,  and  nearly  4500 
numbers  of  unbound  periodicals  to  the  New 
York  State  Library. 

The  most  notable  event  of  the  year  was 
the  foundation  of  a  department  of  Judaica 
through  the  gift  by  Mr.  Jacob  H.  Schiff  of 
the  Deinard  collection,  numbering  9936  vol- 
umes and  pamphlets,  and  covering  a  period  of 
nearly  three  and  a  half  millenniums  from  the 
beginning  of  Jewish  national  life  to  the  pres- 

January,  1913] 


ent  day.  Another  important  gift  is  the  Bolton 
library  of  chemistry,  alchemy  and  related 
topics ;  another,  the  Karow  collection  of 
works  relating  to  Napoleon,  about  300  vol- 

The  division  of  manuscripts  describes  the 
important  gifts  received,  including  the  Maury 
papers,  the  additional  Van  Buren  papers,  the 
Mexican  Inquisition  papers,  the  Edwin  M. 
Stanton  papers,  the  Louise  Chandler  Moulton 
collection.  The  War  Department  records  are 
now  open  to  persons  properly  recommended. 
Executive  departments  of  the  government  now 
have  to  submit  their  lists  of  useless  papers 
before  disposing  of  them  to  the  librarian  for 
his  views  as  to  the  wisdom  of  preserving 
such  papers.  As  a  solution  to  the  proper 
housing  of  this  material,  the  erection  of  a 
central  archives  building  is  considered  neces- 
sary. The  division  of  documents  acquired 
26,111  volumes,  15,181  pamphlets,  930  maps 
and  charts.  The  division  has  rendered  special 
assistance  to  the  bibliographical  division. 

The  law  library  was  increased  by  7055  vol- 
umes. Publications  have  included  headings 
for  subject  catalog,  guides  to  law  of  Ger- 
many, the  first  of  the  guides  to  foreign  law. 
During  the  year  the  work  (of  the  period- 
ical division)  on  the  check  list  of  American 
eighteenth-century  newspapers  in  the  library 
was  completed.  Considerable  progress  was 
made  on  the  check  list  of  eighteenth-century 
American  magazines. 

The  division  of  prints  added  10.731  to  its 
collection.  It  supplied  16,050  photographs  of 
paintings,  sculpture  and  architecture  to  edu- 
cational institutions  and  art  classes. 

The  number  of  books  bound  was  30,601, 
27,278  by  the  library  bindery.  Of  leather  bind- 
ings, 6043  were  in  morocco,  8985  in  cowhide. 
The  bindery  pays  $48  a  dozen  skins. 

The  cataloging  division  cataloged  70,885 
volumes,  and  recataloged  60,084.  Two  addi- 
tional rules  on  cards  have  been  printed:  38, 
Libraries— France ;  39,  Regimental  histories- 
United  States.  A  new  series  of  rules  has  been 
started,  23  rules  having  been  issued.  Those 
of  general  interest,  when  tested  in  practice, 
will  be  printed  and  distributed.  Plans  for  the 
systematic  handling  and  cataloging  of  the  doc- 
tors' dissertations  of  American  universities 
were  formulated. 

The  number  of  volumes  classified  was  no,- 
102;  reclassified,  36,046;  new  accessions,  74,- 
056;  shelf-listed,  102,141. 

Card  section  subscribers  have  increased 
from  1572  to  1774.  Cash  sales  of  cards  (and 
proofsheets)  amounted  to  $41,745.17.  Cards 
for  about  47,000  different  titles  were  added 
to  the  stock.  The  total  stock  is  now  about 
539,000.  The  United  States  Catalog  was  sup- 
plied with  card  numbers. 

The  division  of  bibliography  reports  much 
cooperative  work,  extended  to  four  of  the 
larger  libraries.  "Evidently  a  clearing  house 
for  bibliographical  information  is  needed  [to 
avoid  duplication],  and  the  division  of  bibliog- 

raphy may  undertake  to  act  as  such  a  clear- 
ing house;  certainly  within  the  circle  formed 
by  the  state  libraries  and  the  legislative  refer- 
ence libraries." 

Books  for  the  blind  were  recalled  from  the 
District  of  Columbia  Public  Library  in  Janu- 
ary, and  the  service  for  the  blind  resumed  in 
the  Library  of  Congress. 

Expenditures  for  1912  were  $481,804;  gen- 
eral service  salaries,  $246,233;  distribution  of 
card  indexes,  $22,423;  Copyright  Office,  $95,- 
058  (offset  by  fees  covered  into  Treasury, 
$116,685)  ;  increase  of  library,  $98,000.  Build- 
ing and  ground  expenditure  was  $598,786; 
maintenance,  $71,558;  fuel,  light,  $17,897;  fur- 
niture and  shelving,  $19,953.  Card  index  dis- 
tribution cost  $22,423.  The  library  appropria- 
tion for  1913  is  $488,995,  such  recommenda- 
tions as  the  librarian's  salary  increase  from 
$6500  to  $7500,  book  purchase  increase  from 
$90,000  to  $110,000,  and  the  special  appropria- 
tion for  the  division  of  the  blind  of  $7500, 
not  being  granted. 

Visitors  to  the  library  building  numbered 
722,039,  a  daily  average  for  364  days  of  1984. 
A  new  stack  section  was  added  in  the  division 
of  music,  containing  5490  feet  of  shelving  and 
costing  $8887.49.  Improved  automatic  time 
(eight  minutes)  switches  for  controlling  the 
electric  lighting  were  substituted  in  the  north 
and  south  stacks  for  the  push-button  switches, 
reducing  the  consumption  of  current  and 
lamps  one-half. 

The  report  of  the  Register  of  Copyrights 
includes  text  of  the  ten  copyright  bills  intro- 
duced in  the  second  session  of  the  62d  Con- 
gress, court  decisions  and  text  of  the  United 
States  and  Hungary  convention.  Total  fees 
received,  $116.685;  includes  $108,393  for  $x 
certificates,  $5594  for  photographs.  Total  de- 
posits were  219,521,  with  120,931  registrations. 
To  the  Library  of  Congress  collection,  22,374 
volumes  were  transferred,  while  15,755  books 
were  sent  to  governmental  libraries  in  the 
District  of  Columbia,  and  43,137  articles  (in- 
cluding 16,353  books)  were  returned  to  copy- 
right claimants. 

BERLIN,  1911-12 

THE  library  celebrated  its  25Oth  anniversary 
during  the  past  year,  1911-12,  although  no 
exercises  were  held,  because  of  the  unfinished 
condition  of  the  new  building.  The  removal 
into  new  quarters  of  part  of  the  music  col- 
lection was  accomplished.  An  important  event 
of  the  year  was  the  publication  of  catalog 
cards,  for  sale,  separately,  at  2  pf.  At  the 
close  of  the  fiscal  year,  subscriptions  had  been 
taken  for  25  complete  sets  of  A  cards  (Ger- 
man books),  22  of  B  (foreign  books),  and 
26  of  C  (Oriental  titles)  ;  and  35  libraries  and 
individuals  made  selections.  Late  in  1911,  at 
a  conference  of  Prussian  library  directors,  it 
was  decided  to  push  the  union  catalog  to  im- 
mediate completion  and  publication  in  book- 


[January,  1913 

form — if  possible,  also  on  cards.  In  case  this 
is  practicable,  the  international  size  card  will 
be  used.  Contents  are  to  be  noted  on  each 

Accessions  for  the  year  were  47,111  vol- 
umes— 16,928  by  purchase,  13,293  by  gift,  13,- 
443  by  compulsory  deposit,  and  3447  from 
official  sources.  New  books  (4702)  cost  31,- 
993  marks;  continuations  (1758),  19*723  m. ; 
periodicals  (2689),  48,251  m.  By  subjects,  the 
largest  expense  was  for  historical  material, 
with  31,103  m.  General  works  were  second, 
with  16,048  m.  15,636  books  were  rebound 
outside  the  library,  while  the  new  library 
bindery  had  an  output  of  13,005.  Cost  of  the 
library  bindery  was  30,653  m.  for  salaries, 
and  8164  m.  for  material.  Total  cost  of  all 
binding  was  59,799  m.  The  library  bindery 
has  been  extended.  When  the  number  of  as- 
sistants, however,  reached  25,  it  was  officially 
decided,  on  social-political  grounds,  that  no 
further  increase  was  to  be  made. 

The  number  of  leaves  added  to  the  alpha- 
betic catalog  was  5903.  To  the  subject  cata- 
logs were  added  39,879. 

Loan  cards  issued,  14,592;  cards  for  reading 
room,  8355.  There  were  704,854  calls  for 
books,  of  which  539,757,  or  76.5  per  cent.,  were 
filled,  only  5  per  cent,  not  being  in  the  library. 
Students  and  candidates  for  degrees  consti- 
tute the  largest  class  of  borrowers  (6005) 
while  lawyers  and  higher  officials  were 
next  with  784,  except  that  there  were  786 
women  borrowers.  Interlibrary  loan  was  49,- 
986  volumes  to  1394  borrowers.  To  other 
countries:  Austria-Hungary,  1112;  Switzer- 
land, 124;  Belgium,  39;  Holland,  35;  Den- 
mark, 32;  Italy,  17;  Sweden,  15.  There  were 
none  sent  to  the  United  States. 

The  Prussian  union  catalog  contains  now 
about  600,000  slips,  of  which  about  200,000 
have  been  added  by  the  university  libraries. 
The  use  of  the  information  bureau  has  in- 
creased 16  per  cent. ;  there  were  4593  requests, 
12,430  books  sought. 


THE  Department  of  Libraries  of  the  South- 
ern Educational  Association  held  a  very  in- 
teresting session  in  the  Louisville  Free  Public 
Library,  Nov.  29,  1912,  at  2  p.m. 

The  president  of  this  department,  Mr. 
Ernest  W.  Winkler,  librarian  of  the  State 
Library,  Austin,  Tex.,  was  unavoidably  ab- 
sent, and  Mr.  George  T.  Settle,  librarian  of 
the  Louisville  Free  Public  Library,  presided 
in  his  stead.  Mr.  S.  J.  Duncan-Clark,  editor 
of  the  Louisville  Herald,  delivered  the  ad- 
dress of  welcome.  A  very  splendid  paper  on 
"A  suggestive  outline  of  a  course  for  train- 
ing teachers  in  the  use  of  books"  was  pre- 
sented by  Miss  Lucy  E.  Fay,  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Tennessee.  Miss  Adelaide  F.  Evans, 
of  the  Louisville  Free  Public  Library,  pre- 
sented the  paper  on  the  "Evaluation  of  books 

for  pupils  in  the  grades,"  which  was  prepared 
by  Miss  Adeline  B.  Zachert,  of  the  Rochester 
Public  Library,  Rochester,  N.  Y.  Prof.  J.  P. 
W.  Brouse,  of  Somerset,  Ky.,  read  a  paper  on 
the  "Library  as  seen  by  the  state."  A  paper 
on  "The  need  of  the  library  for  best  results 
in  teaching  the  cultural  subjects  comparable 
to  the  need  of  the  laboratory  in  teaching  the 
science  courses"  was  read  by  Prof.  St.  George 
L.  Sioussat,  of  Vanderbilt  University.  In  this 
paper,  the  writer  urged  the  need  of  greater 
attention  to  the  development  of  school  libra- 
ries for  the  sake  of  better  work  in  history 
and  other  cultural  subjects.  To  history  teach- 
ing, the  library  stands  in  much  the  same  re- 
lation as  that  held  by  the  laboratory  in  the 
work  of  the  natural  sciences.  Teaching  his- 
tory with  the  use  of  a  single  text-book  is  an 
out-of-date  method,  but  under  present  condi- 
tions that  is  often  all  that  can  be  done.  The 
speaker  called  attention  to  the  recommenda- 
tions of  all  the  important  committees  and 
conferences  of  teaching  of  history  held  in 
recent  years,  and  pointed  out  their  unanimity 
in  the  demand  for  a  library  for  history  work. 
He  gave  examples  and  statistics  showing  the 
dearth  of  school  libraries,  and  mentioned  as 
notable  beginnings  of  an  effort  to  meet  the 
want  the  establishment  of  local  school  libra- 
ries by  state  aid,  and  the  initiation  of  the 
system  of  traveling  libraries  now  in  effect 
in  some  states,  including  Kentucky  and  Ten- 
nessee. Prof.  Sioussat  closed  with  a  plea  for 
greater  interest  in  school  libraries  and  for 
an  increased  expenditure  for  this  purpose, 
along  with  the  sums  spent  for  buildings,  sala- 
ries and  equipment. 

A  very  excellent  paper  on  the  "Coordina- 
tion of  the  administration  and  work  of  pub- 
lic libraries  and  high  school  libraries"  was 
presented  by  Miss  Marilla  Waite  Freeman,  of 
Goodwyn  Institute,  Memphis,  Tenn. 



THE  meeting  was  called  to  order  at  9.50 
a.m.  by  the  president,  Mr.  F.  K.  Walter,  with 
about  75  members  in  attendance.  Owing  to 
the  absence  of  the  secretary,  Miss  A.  E.  Hat- 
field,  Miss  Higgins,  of  Utica,  was  made  secre- 
tary pro  tern. 

Dr.  Sherman  Williams,  chief  of  the  School 
Libraries  Division,  was  introduced  as  the  first 
speaker  and  read  a  paper  on  "School  libra- 
ries ;  the  aim  of  the  Education  Department  in 
regard  to  them." 

The  chair  was  asked  how  much  library 
training  a  school  librarian  in  a  secondary 
school  should  have.  He  gave  as  his  opinion 
that  it  should  be  graduation  from  a  library 
school  or  its  equivalent.  He  also  announced 
plans  for  a  free  summer  school  at  the  State 
Library  School  in  Albany,  with  sessions  in 
June  and  July.  These  months  were  chosen 
so  that  the  summer  students  might  have  the 

January,  1913] 



benefit  of  the  lectures  on  children's  books 
and  reading  given  to  students  in  the  regular 
course  in  June.  The  school  is  to  be  open 
without  tuition  for  school  librarians  now  em- 
ployed as  such,  or  to  teachers  actually  doing 
library  work  who  wish  the  advantage  of  li- 
brary training. 

Miss  May  Massee,  of  Buffalo  Public  Li- 
brary, spoke  on  "Books  that  children  like." 

Owing  to  the  absence  of  Miss  Ahern,  Miss 
Reynolds  read  her  paper  on  "Professional 
training  for  school  librarians." 

The  question  was  brought  up  as  to  whether 
teachers  should  have  library  training  at  nor- 
mal schools  or  library  schools.  In  the  discus- 
sion which  followed,  Dr.  Williams  expressed 
a  fear  that  school  libraries  would  take  as 
their  aim  the  supplementing  of  classroom 
work,  whereas  his  conviction  was  that  they 
should  only  foster  a  love  of  reading  and  in- 
culcate the  reading  habit  among  the  pupils. 
Miss  Viele,  of  the  Buffalo  Normal;  Miss 
Massee,  of  Buffalo  Public  Library;  Miss 
Webster,  state  library  organizer,  discussed 
these  questions,  the  consensus  of  opinion  be- 
ing that  the  training  in  library  methods  and 
the  use  of  books,  if  given  at  normal  schools, 
could  help  very  materially  in  teachers'  corre- 
lating the  work  of  public  schools  and  public 

Miss  Hiemens,  of  the  Geneseo  Normal 
School,  spoke  of  two  required  courses  given 
there.  The  first  is  one  of  ten  lessons  on  li- 
brary methods,  showing  how  to  use  a  library. 
The  second  is  devoted  to  gaining  a  knowledge 
of  books. 

Miss  Viele  then  gave  the  report  of  the 
nominating  committee,  as  follows :  President, 
Miss  C.  M.  Underbill;  secretary,  Miss  Addie 
E.  Hatfield.  The  nominees  were  unanimously 
elected.  « 

Dr.  Williams  then  moved  that  the  library 
section  send  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Russell 
Forbes  for  his  work  in  making  the  exhibition 
of  library  work  with  schools  so  great  a  suc- 
cess, which  was  seconded  and  passed. 

The  announcement  was  made  that  certain 
material  in  the  exhibition  was  owned  by  the 
Library  Section.  A  motion  to  authorize  Mr. 
Forbes  to  ship  this  to  the  School  Library 
Division  of  State  Education  Department  at 
Albany  was  seconded  and  passed. 

The  afternoon  session  of  the  Library  Sec- 
tion was  held  with  the  Rural  Education  Sec- 
tion, and  was  attended  by  two  hundred  or 
more.  The  first  speaker  was  Superintendent 
W.  E.  Pierce,  of  East  Aurora,  who  spoke 
about  his  experience  in  conducting  teachers' 
institutes,  and  argued  in  favor  of  the  smaller, 
less  formal  and  specialized,  meetings. 

Miss  Jean  Y.  Ayer,  of  the  State  Normal 
School  at  Cortland,  gave  a  delightful  paper 
on  "Books  and  the  love  of  books."  Three  of 
her  points  were  that  superintendents  should 
require  of  teachers  that  they  have  a  sense  of 
humor  and  be  well  read;  that  teachers  cannot 
teach  with  enthusiasm  what  they  do  not 

love,  and  should,  therefore,  acquire  an  ap- 
preciation of  good  reading  in  order  to  culti- 
vate the  right  reading  habits  among  children; 
and  that  no  good,  unselfish  work  is  ever  lost. 

At  the  end  of  her  paper,  Mr.  Walter  took 
the  chair  and  introduced  Superintendent  W. 
S.  Clark,  of  West  Albany,  who  read  a  paper 
on  "What  district  superintendents  can  do  for 
school  libraries."  He  said  that  cultivating  the 
reading  habit  among  pupils  was  the  most  im- 
portant thing  the  school  could  do  for  them. 
He  made  a  strong  plea  for  the  teacher  to 
try  to  create  a  yearning  for  knowledge  among 
the  boys  and  girls,  and  to  take  as  her  joint 
aim  instructing  them  in  how  and  what  to 
read.  He  then  outlined  the  help  which  the 
district  superintendent  could  give  in  aiding 
the  teachers  in  rural  schools  to  get  an  ade- 
quate supply  of  well-selected  books.  He  said 
that  the  superintendent  should  familiarize 
himself  with  good  books  for  children,  have 
some  knowledge  of  the  details  of  library  or- 
ganization and  arrangement. 

The  discussion  which  followed  was  opened 
by  Superintendent  Henry  A.  Dann,  of  Lan- 
caster, N.  Y.  He  read  a  carefully  prepared 
paper,  which  was  of  practical  interest  and 
which  received  the  closest  attention.  Among 
other  points  emphasized,  he  said :  "The  ma- 
jority of  books  in  the  smaller  schools  of  one 
supervisory  district  should  be  the  same  .  .  ." 
and  to  bring  this  about  he  would  have  the 
superintendent  make  out  a  general  list  of 
books  each  year;  then,  in  a  personal  inter- 
view with  the  teacher  in  each  school,  check 
those  needed  to  meet  the  special  needs  of  each 
district.  A  blank  application  for  state  money 
should  be  filled  out,  and  also  an  authorization 
for  the  teacher  to  buy  the  books.  Then  let 
the  trustee  be  summoned  to  the  conference 
and  the  importance  of  the  purchase  be  urged 
upon  him.  A  very  desirable  point  gained  by 
the  plan  of  having  books  alike  in  the  libraries 
of  one  district,  at  least,  is  that  the  work  at 
teachers'  meetings  will  be  greatly  facilitated, 
and  efforts  to  aid  teachers  to  fuller  apprecia- 
tion of  the  books  in  their  libraries  would  be 
much  more  effective. 

Mr.  Dann  suggested  as  a  "foundation  cause" 
for  the  complaint  mentioned  by  Superinten- 
dent Clark  that  the  rural  schools  turned  out 
such  poor  readers,  is  the  monotonous  round 
of  selections,  poems  and  stories  which  these 
children  hear  year  after  year,  from  the  time 
they  are  six  until  they  are  fourteen  years  of 
age.  He  would  have  the  district  purchase 
sets  of  books  for  classwork  in  such  schools 
as  are  pretty  well  equipped,  as  far  as  the 
library  is  concerned,  and  presented  a  list  of 
16  sets — a  total  of  86  books,  which  can  be 
purchased  for  $29.26  net,  or  at  an  expense  to 
the  district  of  $14.63.  Such  additions  "would 
be  a  great  help  to  the  teaching  of  reading,  to 
the  enlarging  of  the  vocabulary,  and  the  pleas- 
ure the  child  would  get." 

The  discussion  of  Mr.  Clark's  paper  was 
continued  in  the  paper  prepared  by  Miss 



[January,  1913 

Webster.  She  said  the  work  of  the  schools 
is  to  make  the  library  effective,  and  that  of 
the  state  is  the  extension  of  library  service. 
"When  the  country  school  library  is  made 
effective,  the  people  in  the  open  country  will 
have  library  service,  and  our  problem,  as  well 
as  yours,  will  be  solved."  "There  are  still  one 
million  people  in  the  state  who  are  without 
library  privileges  (report  of  committee  on 
libraries  in  rural  communities,  New  York 
State  Library  Association).  There  are  about 
two  million  books  in  the  country  schools  of 
the  state,  but  practically  no  judgment  has 
been  used  in  the  selection  of  these  books,  and 
75  per  cent,  of  the  books  are  for  children 
above  the  sixth  grade,  while  80  per  cent,  of 
the  children  in  these  schools  never  go  beyond 
the  sixth  grade."  "There  are,  of  course,  many 
teachers  in  the  country  schools  to-day  who 
take  great  pride  in  their  libraries — have  made 
great  effort  and  many  sacrifices  to  get  a  good 
library — and  to  these  we  want  to  give  due 
credit.  On  the  other  hand,  there  are  many 
who  have  no  knowledge  of  children's  books 
beyond  a  few  titles  that  they  have  met  in 
the  syllabus.  This  is  largely  because,  in  their 
training  or  in  their  lives,  they  have  never 
been  exposed  to  books."  It  should  be  the 
aim  of  the  superintendent  "that  every  teacher 
is  exposed  to  good  children's  books,"  and  it 
is  here  that  the  traveling  libraries  are  of 
great  assistance  in  bringing  this  about.  Books 
suitable  for  district  schools;  attractive  edi- 
tions of  old  favorites,  nature  books,  picture 
books,  etc. — all  these  are  possible  and  others; 
but  a  traveling  library  is  not  effective  unless 
there  is  a  librarian,  who,  in  most  cases,  must 
be  the  teacher  of  the  school.  "It  is  the  man 
behind  the  gun  who  counts.  In  the  fight  we 
are  making  together,  the  teacher  is  the  marks- 
man, the  district  superintendent  the  com- 
manding officer  (or  should  be  rather  than  the 
book  agent),  and  the  library  merely  furnishes 
the  ammunition." 

The  library  exhibit  in  charge  of  Mr.  Rus- 
sell J.  Forbes,  Buffalo  Public  Library,  and  his 
assistants — Miss  Grace  Viele,  Buffalo  State 
Normal  School,  and  Mr.  Raymond  F.  O'Hara, 
Buffalo  Public  Library — attracted  most  favor- 
able attention.  It  was  well-placed  and  had 
plenty  of  room.  Expressions  of  appreciation 
of  the  work  of  the  committee  were  heard 
from  all,  particularly  those  of  experience  in 
this  work. 

The  object  of  the  exhibit  was  to  make 
known  to  teachers  and  librarians  of  New  York 
state  various  aids  which  have  been  found  use- 
ful in  school  work.  Attention  was  called  to 
the  special  reading  lists  for  boys  and  girls, 
to  the  outlines  of  instruction  in  the  use  of 
books,  and  to  the  collection  of  books  for 
classroom  libraries  and  home  use.  Many  of 
these  lists  were  distributed  free.  Though 
the  exhibits  are  largely  from  New  York 
state  libraries — Binghamton,  New  York  City, 
Utica,  Brooklyn,  Buffalo  and  Geneseo  con- 
tributing— the  character  of  the  work  of  out- 
side libraries  which  specialize  in  school  aids 

was  shown  in  displays  by  the  libraries  of 
Chicago,  111.,  Cleveland,  O.,  Newark,  N.  J.> 
Springfield,  Mass.,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.  ADDIE  E.  HATFIELD,  Secy. 

State  !E4brai:2  Commissions 


The  sixth  biennial  report  of  the  commis- 
sion shows  that  the  secretary  has  given  18 
public  talks,  and  the  institution  librarian  sev- 
eral. Visits,  varying  in  length  from  two 
hours  to  two  weeks,  were  made  to  libraries. 
Help  in  cataloging  and  organizing  has  been 
given  to  18  libraries.  Book  lists  and  printed 
helps  have  been  sent  wherever  needed — the 
A.  L.  A.  Booklist  and  Wisconsin  Library  Bul- 
letin to  all  libraries.  The  secretary  has  trav- 
eled almost  10,000  miles  in  the  interests  of 
the  libraries.  Libraries  in  the  state  now  total 
91.  Only  three  towns  over  2000  population 
have  not  taken  steps  to  provide  libraries. 
30,225  volumes  have  been  sent  out  in  response 
to  1306  requests;  the  former  figure  represents 
an  increase  of  32  per  cent,  over  the  last  bi- 
ennium.  Work  on  institutional  libraries  has 
begun  most  successfully.  All  work  of  prepa- 
ration and  ordering  was  done  at  the  commis- 
sion office.  The  commission  now  has  10,064 
books  at  its  disposal.  The  expenditures,  N. 
30,  I9IO-N.  30,  1912,  totaled  $9670.28.  Ex- 
penditure for  state  institutions,  My.  15,  1911- 
N.  30,  1912,  were  $4176.97. 


A  paper,  entitled  "A  night's  repose,"  read 
at  the  recent  N.  D.  Library  Association  meet- 
ing by  Mrs.  Minnie  C.  Budlong,  secretary  of 
the  commission,  summarizes  the  year's  growth 
of  North  Dakota  libraries.  Every  library 
shows  a  substantial  balance  at  the  end  of  the 
year,  12  to  25  per  cent,  being  the  usual  bal- 
ance reported.  This  showing,  however,  has 
been  attained  by  sacrificing  the  purchase  of 
books,  all  but  two  having  spent  less  for  books, 
periodicals  and  binding  than  in  1910-11.  Only 
four  libraries  reported  a  decrease  in  income. 
A  gratifying  increase  in  reading  of  non-fic- 
tion is  reported.  The  number  of  books  loaned 
each  borrower  has  decreased,  explained  in 
some  libraries  by  the  need  of  new  books. 
The  annual  report  for  the  year  ending 
June  30,  1912,  is  a  general  description  of  the 
work  accomplished.  The  usual  extension 
work,  visits,  organizing,  summer  course,  aid 
to  state  institutions,  traveling  libraries,  ex- 
hibits, etc.,  was  undertaken.  There  are  now 
seven  free  public  libraries  and  a  number  of 
flourishing  subscription  libraries.  A  plea  is 
made  for  free  county  libraries.  Expenditures 
were:  Secretary's  salary  $1000;  books  $774; 
office  supplies  $288;  shipping  cases  $125;  and 
travel  and  incidental  expenses  $312,  making 
up  the  more  important  items  of  the  total  ap- 
propriation of  $2500. 

January,  1913] 




The  review  of  the  work  of  the  commission 
during  the  biennial  term  ending  June  30, 1912, 
shows  their  activities  in  selection  of  books 
and  pictures,  in  advice  and  instruction,  and 
in  inspiration  of  public  and  librarians,  with 
a  sense  of  the  dignity  and  scope  of  library- 
work.  58  towns  received  collections  of  35 
volumes  ($25),  238  libraries  were  loaned  to 
157  communities.  105  new  stations  in  69 
towns  were  established  in  the  2  years,  making 
a  total  of  97,  with  157  stations.  Libraries 
were  installed  in  3  state  institutions.  The 
secretary,  Miss  Wright,  has  made  visits  to 
67  towns.  A  two-day  library  school  was  held 
in  Bennington.  Exhibits  were  made  at  agri- 
cultural fairs.  The  board  has  held  public 
meetings  and  exhibits  of  books,  pictures,  etc. 
63  communities  own  their  own  buildings,  only 
4  of  which  are  Carnegie  buildings.  138  towns 
have  free  public  libraries,  owned  and  con- 
trolled by  the  town.  The  report  lists  Ver- 
mont library  donations  and  detailed  statistics. 
A  map,  42  x  26,  locates  Vermont  libraries. 

On  May  7  the  board,  with  the  help  of  the 
Bennington  Library  trustees  and  the  Woman's 
Civic  League,  held  a  public  meeting.  Miss 
Alice  Shepard,  of  the  Springfield  (Mass.) 
City  Library,  spoke  on  "Liberal  rules."  The 
secretary  of  the  commission  told  what  the 
commission  does  to  interest  the  public  — a 
quarterly  bulletin,  public  meetings,  exhibits 
at  fairs,  direct  aid  to  town  libraries  in  the 
shape  of  books,  etc.,  etc.  Miss  Angie  Melden, 
librarian  of  the  Bennington  Free  Library,  told 
about  "Enlisting  the  children"  by  means  of 
a  fairy  play — "Snow-white" — acted  by  the 
children,  the  proceeds  being  used  to  buy 
much-needed  children's  books.  Miss  E.  L. 
Lease,  librarian  of  the  Kellogg-Hubbard  Li- 
brary, of  Montpelier,  spoke  on  "Economy  and 
timeliness  of  purchase."  Miss  Charlotte 
Temple,  librarian  in  North  Adams,  Mass., 
mentioned  many  useful  book  tools  for  libra- 
rians. Miss  Eleanor  Eggleston,  of  Manches- 
ter, gave  brief  reviews  of  recent  books.  Miss 
E.  C.  Hills,  of  Lyndonville,  gave  brief  out- 
lines or  only  mention  by  title  of  17  good  out- 
door books.  "The  library  and  the  young 
people"  was  a  most  interesting  talk  by  Miss 
Hazel  McLeod,  of  the  Bennington  High 
School,  from  the  teacher's  point  of  view  and 
actual  practice. 

In  the  evening,  Dr.  Guy  Potter  Benton, 
president  of  the  University  of  Vermont,  spoke 
on  "Samuel  Adams,  patriot." 

On  May  8  and  9,  seven  librarians  and  trus- 
tees gathered  in  the  library  for  an  informal 
school,  an  attempt  to  reach  the  workers  in 
the  very  small  libraries,  who  had  never  been 
able  to  attend  the  previous  yearly  institutes. 
They  took  up  classification,  cataloging,  shelf- 
listing,  simple  charging  systems  and  book 

In  the  afternoon  of  May  8,  the  school  ad- 
journed to  hear  Mrs.  P.  Wellington  Bragg, 

of  Rutland,  professional  story-teller,  tell  sto- 
ries to  6  grades  of  the  grammar  school  —  one 
set  of  stories  to  the  3  lower  grades,  another 
set  to  the  3  upper  grades. 

Meetings  on  October  2-3  were  held  with 
the  Vermont  Library  Association,  of  which  a 
report  was  printed  in  the  December  LIBRARY 

October  23-26,  at  the  Vermont  Teachers' 
Association  annual  meeting  in  Rutland,  the 
board  exhibited  a  school  traveling  library  and 
pictures  from  its  different  sets,  to  show  dis- 
trict school  teachers  in  particular  how  the 
state  will  help  them  and  their  pupils  with 
good  books. 

In  Bradford,  at  a  meeting  of  all  the  teach- 
ers and  the  teacher  training  class  of  10  girls, 
Miss  F.  B.  Fletcher,  of  the  board,  told  about 
school  traveling  libraries  and  pictures  and 
how  to  obtain  them  ;  and  Miss  Alice  A.  Blan- 
chard,  formerly  of  the  Seattle  (Wash.)  Pub- 
lic Library,  told  of  the  best  methods  of  co- 
operation between  library  and  school,  and 
how  the  school  children's  needs  in  Bradford 
and  its  district  schools  might  be  satisfied. 





The  9th  annual  meeting  of  the  Alabama 
Library  Association,  held  in  Union  Springs 
and  Troy,  November  25-27,  was  an  acknowl- 
edged success. 

The  habit  of  the  association  has  been  to 
hold  the  sessions  of  the  annual  meetings  in 
two  or  more  neighboring  towns,  thus  giving 
the  librarians  of  the  state  the  privilege  of 
becoming  personally  acquainted  with  a  greater 
number  of  libraries  and  library  communities. 
The  result  is  most  happy,  being  one  of  two- 
fold benefit.  First,  on  the  part  of  the  visiting 
librarians,  there  is  a  keener  interest  in  and 
appreciation  of  the  libraries  visited;  and,  sec- 
ond, on  the  part  of  the  entertaining  libraries 
and  communities,  there  is  an  inspiration  to 
greater  and  deeper  library  enthusiasm. 


The  first  session,  held  on  the  evening  of  the 
25th  in  Union  Springs,  was  devoted  to  the 
dedicatory  exercises  of  the  beautiful  new 
Union  Springs  Library.  Dr.  Thomas  M. 
Owen,  president  of  the  association,  presided 
at  this  and  subsequent  sessions.  The  dedi- 
catory address  was  made  by  Prof.  J.  R.  Rut- 
land, librarian  of  the  Alabama  Polytechnic 
Institute  at  Auburn.  His  subject  was  "The 
value  of  books  and  reading." 

The  interesting  program  was  followed  by 
an  informal  reception,  given  in  the  audi- 
torium. The  people  of  Union  Springs  and 
the  county,  for  the  library  is  a  county  library,  , 
may  well  be  proud  of  their  new  building.  It. 
has  been  planned  not  only  with  an  eye  to  in- 
terior beauty,  but,  at  the  same  time,  effective 


[January,  1913 

The  session  of  the  following  morning  was 
given  over  to  round-table  discussion.  The 
live,  animated  way  in  which  the  best  and  most 
helpful  ideas  were  interchanged  proved  their 
worth.  These  topics  were:  "Qualifications  of 
librarians,"  "Library  apprentices,"  "Training 
the  patron,"  "How  to  attract  the  children," 
"Men  and  the  library,"  "Library  advertising," 
"The  librarian's  vacation,"  "The  library  as  a 
social  center,"  and  "Some  things  that  interest 
or  perplex  the  librarian." 


The  main  thought  running  through  the 
whole  of  the  meetings  was  brought  out  fully 
and  clearly  in  a  paper  read  by  Miss  Katherine 
Hinton  Wootten,  librarian  of  the  Carnegie 
Library,  of  Atlanta,  at  the  night  session  held 
in  Troy,  November  26.  The  subject,  "Trained 
librarianship,"  as  presented  by  Miss  Wootten, 
dwelt  on  the  decided  need  of.  the  library  for 
the  librarian  who  has  been  especially  trained 
in  library  methods,  the  preparation  necessary 
and  the  natural  qualifications  requisite  for 
effective  librarianship. 

The  second  session  in  Troy,  on  the  27th, 
and  which  was  of  absorbing  interest,  was 
featured  by  an  address  by  Mr.  P.  W.  Hodges, 
secretary  of  the  State  Board  of  Teachers' 
Examiners,  on  "Schools  and  libraries."  The 
address  dealt  with  all  sides  of  the  school 
question,  gave  a  sketch  of  the  birth  and 
growth  of  the  Alabama  school  library  law, 
and  showed  by  actual  statistics  how  the  Ala- 
bama teachers  and  local  school  trustees  were 
reaching  onward  and  upward  toward  higher 
culture,  by  bringing  the  child  in  contact  with 
the  best  in  literature  through  the  medium  of 
the  school  library.  The  discussions  brought 
out  many  points  of  value  for  the  rural  school 
library,  and  encouraged  a  hearty  cooperation 
between  the  trained  librarian  of  the  city  or 
town  library  and  the  school  library. 

The  following  officers  were  elected  for  the 
ensuing  year:  President,  Dr.  Thomas  M. 
Owen,  Montgomery;  first  vice-president,  J. 
R.  Rutland,  Auburn;  second  vice-president, 
Miss  Ora  I.  Smith,  Tuscaloosa;  third  vice- 
president,  Prof.  P.  W.  Hodges,  Montgomery; 
secretary,  Miss  Gertrude  Ryan,  Montgomery; 
treasurer,  Miss  Laura  Elmore,  Montgomery. 
Executive  Council  (in  addition  to  the  offi- 
cers) :  Miss  Lila  May  Chapman,  Birming- 
ham;  Dr.  T.  W.  Palmer,  Mpntevallo ;  Miss 
Frances  Pickett.  Marion;  Miss  Susan  Lan- 
caster, Jacksonville;  and  Mrs.  Corrine  Con- 
ning, Mobile. 

(The  8th  annual  meeting  of  the  association 
was  held  in  the  city  of  Tuscaloosa  and  at  the 
State  University,  Nov.  21,  22  and  23,  1911. 
A  strong  and  varied  program  was  presented. 
The  annual  address  was  delivered  by  Dr. 
Arthur  E.  Bostwick  on  "The  companionship 
of  books."  The  officers  elected  at  that*  time 
were  the  same  as  those  included  in  the  list 
above  given  for  1912-13.  This  memorandum 

is  made,  since  no   formal  report  of  the  8th 
meeting  appeared  in  the  JOURNAL.) 



The  annual  meeting  of  the  Colorado  Li- 
brary Association  was  held  at  the  Public 
Library,  Denver,  on  Tuesday  and  Wednesday, 
November  26  and  27.  The  meetings  were 
well  attended,  and  the  interest  shown  was 

The  meeting  on  Tuesday  evening  was  open- 
ed by  an  address  of  welcome  by  Miss  Anne 
Evans,  president  of  the  Library  Commission 
of  Denver.  Mr.  Manly  D.  Ormes,  of  Colo- 
rado College,  Colorado  Springs,  gave  an  ad- 
dress on  the  "Functions  of  the  librarian,"  in 
which  he  held  for  the  highest  standards  of 
literature  and  intellect,  rather  than  mere 
technical  training  and  experience. 

Fred  B.  R.  Hellems,  Ph.D.,  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Colorado,  delivered  a  lecture  on  "Alice 
and  education."  This  was  a  particularly 
clever,  interesting  and  amusing  study  of 
"Alice's  adventures  in  Wonderland,"  treated 
as  an  allegory  on  educational  methods.  It 
is  one  of  a  series  of  three  papers  that  are 
to  appear  later  in  the  Atlantic  Monthly.  The 
program  was  varied  by  vocal  and  instrumental 
music,  and  followed  by  an  enjoyable  recep- 

On  Wednesday  morning,  Miss  Doris 
Greene,  of  the  McClelland  Public  Library, 
Pueblo,  read  a  paper  on  "Library  publicity," 
describing  a  number  of  plans  and  devices 
adopted  by  different  libraries.  Her  paper 
was  freely  discussed. 

Miss  Rebecca  Day,  of  the  Longmont  Public 
Library,  had  a  paper  on  "A  method  of  binding 
for  a  small  library."  She  described  and  illus- 
trated a  very  simple  and  effective  method. 
It  is  a  variation  of  the  double-gummed  and 
stitched  cloth  method  of  replacing  books  in 
the  original  covers,  with  the  addition  of  a 
simple  method  of  sewing  and  the  necessary 
apparatus  for  the  operation. 

Miss  Janet  Jerome,  of  the  Denver  Public 
Library,  read  a  very  interesting  paper  on 
"Modern  illustrators,"  in  which  she  ably  criti- 
cised and  appreciated  a  number  of  the  more 
prominent  artists. 

A  noon-day  luncheon  was  thoroughly  en- 
joyed by  about  forty  librarians  at  the  Savoy 

On  Wednesday  afternoon,  Miss  Helen  F. 
Ingersoll,  of  the  Denver  Public  Library,  read 
a  paper  on  "Free  reference  material  for  the 
small  library."  Her  talk  was  generously  illus- 
trated by  samples  and  was  rich  in  valuable 
suggestions.  The  business  meeting  followed. 
The  president  and  the  secretary  submitted 
brief  statements  of  the  progress  and  condi- 
tion of  the  association.  Mr.  Albert  F.  Carter 
made  a  statement  of  the  work  of  the  legisla- 
tive committee,  and  Mr.  Chalmers  Hadley 
read  a  report  of  an  investigation  of  library 

January,  1913] 



conditions  in  the  state,  which  showed  a  great 
lack  of  uniformity  in  conditions  and  in  sta- 
tistics available  for  comparison. 

The  following  officers  were  elected  for  the 
ensuing  year:  President,  Manly  D.  Ormes, 
Coburn  Library,  Colorado  College,  Colorado 
Springs;  vice-president,  Elizabeth  McNeal, 
University  of  Denver  Library,  University 
Park,  Denver ;  secretary-treasurer,  Faith  E. 
Foster,  University  of  Colorado  Library,  Boul- 
der. Members  of  the  Executive  Committee: 
Chalmers  Hadley,  Public  Library,  Denver; 
Albert  F.  Carter,  State  Teachers'  College, 

HERBERT  E.  RICHIE,  ex-Secy. 


The  November  meeting  of  the  District  of 
Columbia  Library  Association  was  held  at  the 
Public  Library  of  the  District  on  Wednesday 
evening,  November  13.  Mr.  Juul  Dieserud, 
of  the  catalog  department  of  the  Library  of 
Congress,  read  a  paper  on  "Glimpses  of  liter- 
ary characters,  and  tendencies  in  Norway 
since  Ibsen  and  Bjornson."  In  his  very  in- 
teresting review,  Mr.  Dieserud  characterized 
briefly,  but  clearly,  the  most  prominent  writ- 
ers, and  gave  a  translation  of  some  typical 
verse,  which  not  only  showed  the  beauty  and 
the  spirit  of  the  original,  but  proved  that  the 
translator  himself  had  in  him  much  poetic 

The  association's  annual  meeting  was  held 
at  the  Public  Library,  December  n.  Officers 
for  the  coming  year  were  elected  as  follows: 
President,  Mr.  Paul  Brockett;  first  vice-presi- 
dent, Mr.  Willard  L.  Waters;  second  vice- 
president,  Miss  Eunice  R.  Oberly;  secretary, 
Mr.  C.  S.  Thompson  ;  treasurer,  Miss  Emily  A. 
Spilman.  Executive  committee:  Mr.  Ernest 
Bruncken,  Miss  Clara  W.  Herbert,  Miss  Anne 
G.  Cross.  After  the  election  of  officers,  Mr. 
Brockett  read  a  paper  on  "The  graphic  arts," 
describing  the  evolution  of  printing  and  book 
illustration.  The  paper  was  illustrated  with 
lantern  slides. 

The  4th  annual  meeting  of  the  Indiana 
Library  Trustees'  Association  convened  in 
Indianapolis,  in  the  Claypool  Hotel,  Nov.  12, 
1912.  The  first  session  was  devoted  to  a 
discussion  of  advantages  of  codification  of 
library  laws  and  the  leading  of  a  tentative 
draft  of  a  new  general  library  bill  which  is 
to  be  presented  to  the  next  general  assembly. 
The  discussion  was  led  by  Hon.  Thomas  M. 
Honan,  Attorney-General,  who  stated  that  he 
was  surprised  at  the  multiplicity  of  library 
laws  in  Indiana,  and  emphasized  the  fact  that 
it  behooved  every  library  trustee  to  work  for 
their  codification.  In  the  discussion,  Hon. 
Millard  F.  Cox,  of  the  State  Board  of  Ac- 
counts, pointed  out  that  in  addition  to  laws 
governing  state  and  school  libraries,  there  are 
more  than  20  enactments  regarding  public 

libraries.  The  laws  are  not  very  definite  re- 
garding library  funds,  for  numerous  inquiries 
had  come  to  the  State  Board  of  Accounts 
regarding  the  disposition  of  fines  and  gift 
money.  He  advised  that  it  should  be  pro- 
vided in  the  new  bill  that  every  cent  of 
money  coming  to  the  library  from  whatever 
source  should  be  paid  into  the  library  treasury 
and  be  disbursed  as  other  library  funds. 

The  tentative  draft  of  the  proposed  bill 
was  read  by  Mr.  T.  F.  Rose,  of  Muncie, 
chairman  of  the  legislative  committee.  This 
bill  codifies  all  the  library  laws  of  the  state, 
and  makes  it  mandatory  for  all  the  public 
libraries  of  the  state  to  operate  under  the 
same  general  law.  In  the  discussion  which 
followed,  led  by  Mr.  L.  E.  Kelley,  of  Mont- 
pelier  and  Mr.  W.  A.  Myers,  of  Hartford 
City,  valuable  suggestions  were  given  by 
members  of  various  library  boards  in  regard 
to  the  measure  of  the  bill.  It  was  recom- 
mended that  a  second  draft  of  the  bill  be 
made  and  sent  to  each  library  board  of  the 
state  for  criticism  before  the  bill  is  presented 
to  the  legislature.  A  motion  was  made  and 
carried  that  Carl  H.  Milam,  John  Lapp,  Jacob 
P.  Dunn  and  Millard  F.  Cox  be  added  to  the 
legislative  committee. 

At  the  evening  session,  the  address  of  wel- 
come was  made  by  Jacob  P.  Dunn,  president 
of  the  Indiana  Public  Library  Commission. 
This  was  followed  by  the  president's  address. 
Mrs.  Moffett  urged  the  library  board  mem- 
bers to  realize  the  importance  of  their  work, 
and  to  exercise  the  power  of  levying  funds, 
as  well  as  spending  them. 

The  report  of  the  committee  on  "By-laws 
for  library  boards"  was  given  by  Mrs.  W.  R. 
Davidson,  of  Evansville,  who  read  the  sug- 
gestive by-laws,  as  arranged  by  the  Public 
Library  Commission.  This  was  followed  by 
a  general  discussion.  Mr.  C.  G.  Dailey,  of 
Bluffton,  spoke  of  the  work  of  the  book  com- 
mittee. He  said  four  important  questions  pre- 
sented themselves,  viz.,  who  should  select 
the  books,  what  kind  of  books  should  be 
bought,  when  should  they  be  bought,  and 
what  books  should  be  bought  for  children. 
The  members  of  the  book  committee  should 
be  varied,  should  have  an  intimate  knowledge 
of  the  library,  should  have  knowledge  of  old 
and  new  literature,  and  the  aids  in  book  selec- 
tion, and,  most  of  all,  should  have  sympa- 
thetic touch  with  the  public. 

Dr.  E.  D.  Baily,  of  Martinsville,  took  the 
place  of  Rev.  G.  A.  Little  on  the  program 
and  spoke  on  the  "Election  of  officers."  "The 
librarian  at  board  meetings"  was  discussed 
by  Orville  Simmons,  of  Goshen.  A  round- 
table  discussion  ended  the  business  session, 
and  was  followed  by  a  social  hour. 

At  the  morning  meeting,  November  13,  the 
report  of  the  committee  on  qualifications  of 
librarians  and  assistants  was  read  by  Mrs. 
Elizabeth  C.  Earl,  and  discussed  by  Mrs.  Elva 
T.  Carter,  of  Plainfield  and  M.  J.  Simmons, 
of  Monticello,  and  adopted.  The  next  topic 


[January,  1913 

for  discussion  was  "Hours  and  vacations," 
and  a  committee  of  three  was  appointed  to 
investigate  this  subject  and  to  report  the 
same,  with  recommendations,  at  the  next  an- 
nual meeting. 

The  main  topic  for  the  afternoon  session 
was  "Wider  use  of  the  library  assembly 
room."  The  main  address  was  given  by  Dr. 
Lida  Leasure,  of  Auburn,  who  made  several 
recommendations  for  enlarging  and  widening 
the  field  of  library  service  through  the  assem- 
bly room;  among  these  were  free  lectures  on 
live  topics,  moving-picture  shows,  public  en- 
tertainments given  by  school  children,  civic 
club  meetings  and  educational  exhibits.  The 
question  of  art  exhibits  was  very  ably  treated 
by  Mrs.  Melville  F.  Johnston,  chairman  of 
the  art  committee  of  the  National  Federation 
of  Woman's  Clubs.  Mrs.  Johnston  made  it 
very  clear  that  words  are  not  the  only  ex- 
pression of  ideas,  that  pictures  are  a  means 
of  expression  of  many  great  and  wonderful 
ideas  that  cannot  be  expressed  in  words. 
Many  practical  suggestions  for  the  hanging 
of  exhibits  were  given,  and  several  exhibits 
that  were  available  to  public  libraries  were 
mentioned.  She  urged  that  in  the  construc- 
tion of  assembly  rooms  more  attention  be 
paid  to  the  question  of  light  and  wall  space 
for  art  exhibits.  She  referred  to  three  books 
on  art  that  should  be  in  every  library.  They 
are  as  follow?.  Birge  Harrison's  "Landscape 
painting,"  Carleton  E.  Noyes'  "Enjoyment  of 
art,"  R.  A.  M.  Stevenson's  "Essay  on  Ve- 

Mrs.  John  Lee  Dinwiddie,  of  Fowler,  in 
discussing  the  assembly  room,  said  that  it 
should  serve  three  distinct  purposes:  First, 
it  should  be  a  center  for  all  organized  clubs 
and  societies  of  an  educational  nature ;  sec- 
ond, it  should  serve  as  a  drawing  card  to 
those  persons  who  are  interested  in  special 
line?  of  work,  but  are  not  using  the  library; 
third,  it  should  serve  as  an  advertisement  for 
the  library.  Mr.  Herman  Taylor,  of  Hunt- 
ington,  gave  a  brief  report  of  the  use  of  the 
assembly  room  at  Huntington,  speaking  espe- 
cially of  the  efforts  made  by  the  library  to 
interest  the  workingmen. 

The  following  officers  were  elected:  Presi- 
dent, Judge  Ora  L.  Wildermuth,  Gary;  vice- 
president,  Mrs.  W.  R.  Davidson,  Evansville; 
secretary,  Miss  Adah  E.  Bush,  Kentland; 
treasurer,  Dr.  E.  D.  Baily,  Martinsville. 

The  report  of  F.  L.  Cooper,  treasurer, 
showed  total  receipts  $45-55,  and  disburse- 
ments $34.62,  leaving  a  balance  of  $10.93  *n 
the  treasury. 

Forty-five  trustees  were  registered  and  in 
attendance,  a  considerable  increase  over 
former  years.  Many  libraries  throughout  the 
state  are  failing  to  keep  abreast  of  the  times 
when  they  do  not  send  representatives  to  the 
association  meetings.  No  trustee  can  attend 
these  sessions  without  deriving  much  inspira- 
tion, and  the  mutual  exchange  of  ideas  is 
helpful.  ADAH  E.  BUSH,  Secy. 

The  secretary  of  the  Association,  as  elected 
at  the  recent  meeting,  is  Mrs.  Jean  A.  Hard, 
of  Erie,   Pa.,  and  not  Miss  Pennypacker,  as 
stated  in  the  report  last  month. 

The  i8th  annual  meeting  was  held,  Septem- 
ber 27,  in  the  State  House,  Augusta.  Among 
the  questions  discussed  at  the  round-table 
were:  "How  many  charge  a  fee  for  book 
cards?";  "Best  periodical  for  young  people 
relating  to  mechanics" ;  "Comparison  of  bind- 
ings";  "Best  magazines  for  women";  "Rela- 
tion of  the  public  schools  and  the  libraries"; 
"Recent  books";  "How  many  libraries  loan 
to  non-residents,  and  fees  charged?"  In  the 
afternoon,  a  lecture  was  delivered  by  State 
Librarian  H.  E.  Holmes  on  "The  civic  duties 
of  the  public  librarian." 

Officers  elected:  President,  J.  H.  Winches- 
ter, Corinna;  vice-presidents,  G.  C.  Wilder, 
Bowdoin  College,  Margaret  Foote,  Bath; 
secretary,  Mary  H.  Caswell,  Waterville ;  treas- 
urer, H.  Mabel  Leach,  Portland. 


The  Rhode  Island  Library  Association  held 
its  fall  meeting  at  the  East  Providence  Free 
Library  on  November  n,  the  president,  Mr. 
Harold  T.  Dougherty,  presiding.  The  meet- 
ing was  opened  by  Mr.  Homer  Winslow, 
president  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  the  East 
Providence  Free  Library,  who  gave  a  brief 
history  of  the  library  from  its  beginning,  in 
1819,  when,  as  an  embryo  traveling  library,  a 
small  trunk  full  of  books  was  passed  from 
house  to  house,  to  its  present  development  in  f 
the  Bridgham  Memorial  Library  building. 
During  the  business  session  which  followed, 
the  president  of  the  association  appointed 
Mrs.  Mary  E.  S.  Root,  Miss  Gertrude  Whitte- 
more,  Miss  A.  H.  Ward,  Miss  Luella  K.  Lea- 
vitt,  Miss  Grace  E.  Inman,  Mrs.  Roaldo  Col- 
well  and  Mr.  Joseph  L.  Peacock  to  serve  as 
a  committee  to  arrange  a  library  exhibition 
at  the  Rhode  Island  Child  Welfare  Confer- 
ence, which  is  to  be  held  at  Providence,  Jan. 
6-12,  1913. 

The  program  for  the  morning  had  especial 
reference  to  the  problems  of  small  libraries. 
Mr.  W.  E.  Foster,  of  the  Providence  Public 
Library,  gave  the  first  address  of  the  day, 
and  discussed  the  "Possibilities  of  aid  to  the 
smaller  by  the  larger  libraries,"  by  means 
of  interlibrary  book  loans  and  the  issuing  of 
non-resident  cards  through  the  home  library 
of  the  reader. 

One  of  the  possibilities  of  state  aid  to  small 
libraries  was  brought  home  by  the  announce- 
ment made  by  Mr.  Walter  E.  Ranger,  Com- 
missioner of  Public  Schools  in  Rhode  Island, 
that  courses  in  library  training,  beginning 
November  12,  are  to  be  given  during  the  win- 
ter at  the  Rhode  Island  State  Normal  School 
for  the  benefit  of  those  librarians  throughout 
the  state  who  have  not  had  the  advantage  of 
library  school  training. 

January,  1913] 



Two  methods  of  library  economy — "Short 
entry  cataloging"  and  the  "Printed  cards  of 
the  Library  of  Congress" — were  discussed 
from  the  point  of  view  of  the  "small  library" 
by  Miss  Florence  B.  Kimball,  cataloger  of  the 
Deborah  Cook  Sayles  Library,  of  Pawtucket, 
and  Miss  Laura  R.  Gibbs,  cataloger  of  the 
John  Hay  Library,  Brown  University,  time 
for  general  discussion  being  allowed  after 
each  paper. 

Mr.  George  H.  Evans,  of  the  Woburn 
(Mass.)  Public  Library,  who  was  a  guest  of 
the  association,  gave  a  practical  and  exceed- 
ingly suggestive  paper  on  "Experiments  in 
Library  Extension,"  reprinted  in  part  else- 

The  morning  session  was  brought  to  a  close 
by  a  series  of  brief  talks  by  members  of 
the  R.  I.  Library  Association  who  attended 
the  American  Library  Association  Conference 
at  Ottawa,  in  which  Mr.  Joseph  L.  Peacock, 
Miss  Grace  E.  Inman,  Mr.  Herbert  O.  Brig- 
ham  and  Miss  Marguerite  McL.  Reid  took 

After  luncheon,  Mr.  Herbert  W.  Fison,  of 
the  Maiden  (Mass.)  Public  Library,  also  a 
guest  of  the  association,  gave  a  graphic  ac- 
count of  the  meeting  of  the  Massachusetts 
Library  Club  at  Haverhill,  October  24.  Mr. 
Fison  spoke  particularly  of  the  need  of  de- 
veloping close  relations  between  the  library 
and  the  school,  since  the  library  can  reach  the 
children  best  through  the  school  teacher.  "In 
order  that  those  who  lead  the  children  may 
lead  intelligently,"  he  said,  "librarians  must  be 
school  teachers,  and  school  teachers  libra- 

Apropos  of  the  recent  meeting  at  Haver- 
hill  at  which  various  members  of  the  R.  I. 
Library  Association  were  present,  the  Rev. 
James  D.  Dingwell,  formerly  of  Amesbury, 
Mass.,  in  an  illustrated  lecture,  gave  a  per- 
sonal sketch  of  "Whittier  and  Whittierland." 
At  the  close  of  the  lecture  a  vote  of  thanks 
was  offered  by  the  association  to  the  hosts  of 
the  day,  the  trustees  of  the  East  Providence 
Free  Library,  to  the  guests  and  speakers — 
Mr.  G.  H.  Evans  and  Mr.  H.  W.  Fison— and 
to  the  lecturer. 

Rec.  Secy. 


The  sixth  annual  meeting  of  the  South  Da- 
kota Library  Association  was  held  at  Mitchell, 
Nov.  25-27,  in  connection  with  the  S.  D.  E.  A. 

The  sessions  were  held  in  the  children's 
room  at  the  Carnegie  Library,  the  president, 
Miss  Edla  Lawson,  of  Mitchell,  in  the  chair. 
The  attendance  was  the  largest  in  the  history 
of  the  association,  nineteen  librarians  out  of  a 
possible  forty  being  present. 

The  first  paper  presented  was  entitled  "The 
organization  of  a  small  library,"  by  R.  B.  Mc- 
Candless,  of  Fulton,  who  told  of  his  successful 
experiment  in  founding  a  free  public  library  in 
Fulton,  a  village  of  only  200  people,  the  trad- 

ing place  of  a  farming  community.  Mr.  Mc- 
Candless  is  not  a  librarian,  but  a  banker,  and 
his  story  of  this  little  library,  his  difficulties, 
and  his  simple,  workable  methods  of  conduct- 
ing its  affairs  with  the  minimum  of  expense 
and  the  maximum  of  neighborhood  interest 
was  inspiring  to  all  present,  and  led  to  a  lively 
discussion.  The  books  are  kept  at  the  village 
school  house,  and  the  loaning  is  managed  by 
half  a  dozen  of  the  older  school  girls,  who 
take  turns.  More  than  half  the  borrowers 
live  in  the  country,  and  of  the  400  volumes 
available,  sometimes  200  were  out  at  once  dur- 
ing the  winter  months. 

A  round  table  discussion  was  capably  led  by 
Prof.  Hicks,  librarian  at  Dakota  Wesleyan 
University,  covering  the  following  topics: 
Public  documents,  by  Miss  Mclntire  of  Huron 
College  Library,  read  by  Miss  Miner,  of  the 
Yankton  College  Library;  Cooperation  of  the 
library  and  the  school,  by  Miss  Caile,  assist- 
ant in  the  Sioux  Falls  Public  Library,  read 
by  Miss  Current,  chief  librarian  of  that  in- 
stitution; Library  records  and  time-savers, 
by  Miss  Rowe,  of  the  Spearfish  Normal  Li- 
brary, read  by  Miss  Miner;  and  Advertising 
the  library,  by  Mrs.  Coshun,  of  Huron  Car- 
negie Library.  All  the  papers  contained  help- 
ful suggestions  and  aroused  interesting  dis- 

Tuesday  morning  was  devoted  to  reports  on 
the  working  of  library  commissions  in  various 
states,  leading  to  the  discussion  of  the  commis- 
sion bill  we  are  hoping  our  legislature  will 
pass  at  its  next  session. 

Our  proposed  bill  was  taken  up  and  amended 
in  several  important  particulars,  notably  the 
increasing  of  the  commission  from  three  to 
five  members,  one  of  whom  should  be  nom- 
inated by  the  state  Library  Association,  and 
one  by  the  state  Federation  of  Women's  Clubs, 
increasing  the  appropriation  from  $1500  to 
$3000,  and  taking  over  some  of  the  work  now 
assigned  to  the  state  superintendent  of  public 
instruction  in  regard  to  the  selection  of  books 
for  school  libraries. 

Wednesday's  session  began  with  an  eight 
o'clock  breakfast,  served  by  the  W.  R.  C. 
ladies  in  their  rooms  in  the  basement  of  the 
Carnegie  Library,  at  which  Mr.  Henry  E.  Leg- 
ler,  president  of  the  A.  L.  A.,  was  the  guest 
of  honor.  After  this  pleasant  start,  the  libra- 
rians settled  to  the  business  of  the  morning  at 
the  regular  hour.  The  reports  of  the  secre- 
tary and  treasurer  were  read  and  approved; 
bills  were  allowed;  the  old  officers  were  re- 
elected  by  acclamation;  further  modifications 
were  made  in  the  library  commission  bill. 

Mr.  Powers,  of  the  state  Agricultural  Col- 
lege Library,  then  gave  as  much  as  time  al- 
lowed of  his  paper  on  South  Dakota  library 
progress  statistics,  not  at  all  a  dry  subject 
under  his  handling.  The  figures  will  shortly 
appear  in  printed  form. 

Miss  Richardson,  of  the  state  university  li- 
brary at  Vermillion,  gave  a  delightful  descrip- 
tion of  the  Ottawa  conference  of  last  summer. 


[January,  1913 

Mr.  Legler's  address  on  "The  state's  duty  to 
the  public  library"  was  very  helpful  to  us  just 
at  this  time,  and  he  kindly  answered  numerous 

An  encouraging  report  was  received  from 
Mrs.  A.  Hardy,  of  Pierre,  chairman  of  the 
Library  extension  committee  of  the  State  Fed- 
eration of  Women's  Clubs.  She  has  organized 
two  little  libraries  west  of  the  Missouri,  one  at 
Dupree,  one  at  White  River.  Two  papers  writ- 
ten by  her  for  state  gatherings  have  been  pub- 
lished, and  through  the  Federation's  official 
journal  have  reached  every  club  in  the  state. 
Their  titles  are  "Traveling  libraries"  and 
"Books  of  South  Dakota."  A  printed  bulletin 
had  also  reached  all  the  clubs,  and  about  300 
volumes  have  been  collected  for  traveling  libra- 
ries. Mrs.  Hardy  is  now  a  member  of  the 
national  library  board  of  the  General  Federa- 
tion of  Women's  Qubs. 

The  librarians  accepted  an  invitation  to  meet 
in  Sioux  Falls  in  1913,  and  adjourned. 

At  the  general  session  of  the  state  Educa- 
tional Association  in  the  afternoon,  Mr.  Legler 
gave  his  address  on  "The  library  as  a  factor  in 
education  and  in  citizenship" ;  and  in  the  even- 
ing he  was  the  guest  of  honor,  with  President 
Vincent  of  the  University  of  Minnesota,  at  a 
banquest  given  by  the  women's  clubs  of 
Mitchell  to  the  visiting  librarians.  At  this 
time  Mr.  Legler  spoke  on  "Club  women  and 
libraries,"  thus  closing  a  most  strenuous  day. 
The  South  Dakota  librarians  are  very  grateful 
to  Mr.  Legler  for  his  presence  and  help,  and 
trust  that  it  is  not  often  that  his  official  posi- 
tion forces  him  to  do  so  much  in  one  day. 


The  regular  annual  meeting  of  the  Library 
Association  of  Virginia  was  held  in  connec- 
tion with  the  Virginia  Educational  Conference 
on  the  evening  of  Nov.  27, 1912,  at  8.30  o'clock, 
in  the  State  Library,  Richmond. 

Dr.  J.  C.  Metcalf,  president,  presided  and 
read  his  annual  address.  He  declared  that 
the  association  has  accomplished  much  in  its 
history,  but  it  must  set  itself  to  accomplish 
its  most  important  piece  of  work  in  the  near 
future,  viz.,  the  securing  of  a  library  organ- 
izer to  establish  free  public  libraries  through- 
out the  state.  Plans,  which  will  be  perfected 
and  announced  later,  were  made  whereby  all 
the  different  civic  and  educational  organiza- 
tions of  the  state  may  use  their  influence  and 
financial  aid  toward  the  securing  of  this  or- 
ganizer. The  extension  work,  which  had  been 
begun  by  the  traveling  libraries  and  by  the 
Department  of  Public  Instruction,  whereby 
many  permanent  school  libraries  were  estab- 
lished, would  thus  be  carried  on. 

The  president  appointed  Mrs.  Kate  Plea- 
sants  Minor  and  Miss  E.  B.  Martin  a  com- 
mittee to  get  the  Richmond  Times  Dispath 
to  devote  a  page  to  library  interests  in  the 
stale.  He  also  appointed  Mrs.  K.  P.  Minor, 

Mr.  T.  S.  Settle,  Prof.  W.  A.  Montgomery 
and  Mr.  G.  Carrington  Moseley,  together  with 
himself,  a  committee  to  confer  with  the  Co- 
operative Education  Association  of  Virginia 
in  regard  to  their  willingness  to  help  in  ar- 
ranging for  a  library  organizer  to  go  to  work 
at  once  in  the  state. 

The  following  officers  were  elected  for  the 
ensuing  year  :  Dr.  J.  C.  Metcalf,  of  Richmond 
College,  president;  Mrs.  W.  W.  King,  Staun- 
ton,  Va.,  vice-president;  George  Carrington 
Moseley,  Richmond,  secretary  ;  and  Miss  Ethel 
I.  Nolin,  Richmond,  treasurer. 




The  Chicago  Library  Club  enjoyed  the  de- 
lightful hospitality  of  the  Newberry  Library 
at  its  regular  meeting,  Thursday  evening, 
December  12.  It  was  a  happy  coincidence, 
recalled  by  Mr.  Roden  and  Miss  Mcllvaine, 
that  this  date  was  the  twenty-first  anniversary 
of  the  club,  organized  in  the  old  Newberry 
Library.  The  club  had  the  unexpected  honor 
and  pleasure  of  hearing  Mr.  Edward  E.  Ayer 
tell  the  story  of  how  he  came  to  start  his 
remarkable  Indian  and  Philippine  collection, 
and  later  examine  it  under  his  guidance. 

The  program  was  in  charge  of  Mr.  Roden, 
and  took  the  form  of  a  book  symposium, 
which  covered  a  varied  list  of  the  more  not- 
able books  of  the  year:  "Meredith's  letters," 
Mary  Antin's  "Promised  land,"  "House  of 
Harper,"  "George  Palmer  Putnam,"  Curry's 
"History  of  Chicago,  and  Fort  Dearborn 
Massacre,"  and  Paine's  "Life  of  Mark  Twain," 
which  were  cleverly  reviewed  (with  some  in- 
teresting digressions)  by  Mr.  Carlton,  Miss 
Althea  Warren,  Miss  Mcllvaine,  Mr.  Man- 
chester and  Mr.  Bay.  Mr.  Bay  presented 
the  members  with  copies  of  the  latest  and 
most  characteristic  pictures  of  the  subject  of 
his  talk—  Mark  Twain. 

The  club  adjourned,  to  meet  informally  Mr. 
Ayer  and  Mr.  Burpee,  of  Ottawa,  to  view  the 
special  collections  and  for  a  social  hour. 

Six  new  members  were  added,  and  the  at- 
tendance was  much  larger  than  is  customary 
for  a  December  meeting. 

JESSIE  M.  WOODFORD,  Sec.  pro   tern. 

A  meeting  of  the  Hudson  Valley  Library 
Club  was  held  on  Nov.  15,  1912,  at  the  Young 
Men's  Lyceum,  Tarrytown,  N.  Y. 

The  opening  address  was  to  have  been  made 
by  Miss  Theresa  Hitchler,  president  of  the 
New  York  Library  Association.  She  was  un- 
able to  be  present,  and  the  morning  address 
was  made  by  Mr.  W.  F.  Stevens,  librarian  of 
Pratt  Institute  Library.  Mr.  Stevens  took  for 
his  subject  the  "Library  Movement  of  to-day; 
cooperation  of  the  large  with  the  small  li- 

January,  1913] 


brary;  the  profession  of  librarian."  Libra- 
rians are  public  servants,  in  the  higher  sense. 
In  the  past,  not  recognized  as  a  profession. 
For  many  years  people  drifted  into  it.  Now 
a  vocation  and  a  calling,  for  personal  qualifi- 
cations or  personal  interest.  More  and  more, 
an  act  of  responding  to  the  call  of  public 
service.  Four  or  five  chief  manifestations: 
(i)  Librarian  for  years  a  collector,  curator 
or  caretaker  and  administrator  of  books. 
From  this  period  have  grown  vast  national  li- 
braries, monuments  of  eminent  men.  (2)  In 
1876  a  new  manifestation  added  distribution 
of  books  to  the  former  office  of  custodian, 
and  for  35  years  this  was  the  great  feature 
of  the  work,  and  the  most  hopeful  of  the 
nineteenth  century.  (3)  The  library  schools. 
(4)  Spring  of  1912,  no  normal  course  in  li- 
brary work.  Now  a  course  to  teach  library 
methods  to  normal  students.  (5)  Teach  peo- 
ple use  of  libraries,  how  to  go  to  the  library 
and  help  themselves.  Supplement  high  school 
course  by  use  of  the  library.  Mr.  Stevens 
spoke  of  the  part  played  by  the  librarian  of 
the  small  library,  the  personal  contact  with 
fellow  men  and  women,  the  opportunity  to 
know  and  influence  people;  urged  such  not 
to  be  discouraged  if  they  had  not  been  to  a 
library  school  and  held  no  degree,  but  urged 
technical  training  for  expansion.  He  asked 
such  librarians  not  to  leave  the  library  move- 
ment to  the  A.  L.  A.  It  was  the  work  of 
the  individual  citizen.  In  the  profession  no 
fame,  no  distinction — all  on  the  same  plane. 
Work  so  tremendous,  no  man  or  woman  too 
fine,  too  well  fitted. 

Mr.  Magill,  the  president,  thanked  Mr.  Ste- 
vens, in  the  name  of  the  club,  for  his  in- 
spiring, helpful  talk.  Miss  Blodgett,  the  vice- 
president,  gave  a  short  talk  on  the  work  of 
the  small  library. 

The  afternoon  session  was  given  over  to  a 
demonstration  of  book  mending  by  Miss  Jane 
Helena  Crissey,  of  Troy  Public  Library,  which 
made  the  former  task  of  book  mending  almost 
a  pleasure,  and  inspired  everybody  present 
with  a  desire  to  "go  and  do  likewise." 

Librarians  from  the  following  libraries  at- 
tended: Poughkeepsie,  Peekskill,  Pleasant- 
ville,  Troy,  Saugherties,  Newburgh,  Yonkers, 
White  Plains,  Tarrytown,  Pleasant  Valley. 


The  fall  meeting  of  the  Old  Colony  Library 
Club  was  held  in  Middleboro,  Mass.,  on 
Thursday,  November  21.  Mr.  W.  H.  South- 
worth,  in  his  address  of  welcome;  gave  a 
short  history  of  the  Middleboro  Library.  Miss 
Mary  L.  Lamprey,  of  North  Easton,  read  a 
paper  on  some  recent  books  of  importance, 
noting  especially  those  on  social  hygiene.  Miss 
Clara  A.  Brett,  of  the  Brockton  Public  Li- 
brary, was  in  charge  of  the  question  box. 
Mr.  John  Grant  Moulton's  paper,  "The  public 
library,  as  related  to  other  educational  and 
social  work,"  occupied  the  afternoon  session. 

Mr.  Moulton  considered  that  the  library  should 
be  active  along  the  lines  of  recreation,  educa- 
tion and  social  service. 



On  Friday,  November  i,a  meeting  was  held 
at  the  Rochester  Public  Library,  Exposition 
Park,  to  organize  a  library  club.  Invitations 
had  been  sent  to  librarians,  library  trustees 
and  those  interested  in  libraries,  not  only  in 
the  city  itself,  but  in  the  surrounding  towns. 
It  is  the  object  of  the  club  to  include  all 
libraries  in  what  is  known  as  the  "Rochester 
district"  of  the  New  York  State  Library  In- 

There  was  a  gratifyingly  large  attendance, 
and  it  was  felt  that  the  enterprise  was 
launched  with  an  enthusiasm  sure  to  accom- 
plish the  desired  results:  to  bring  the  libra- 
rians of  the  district  into  closer  relations  with 
one  another,  and  to  enable  them  to  become 
better  acquainted  with  the  resources  of  the 
libraries  comprised  within  the  district.  The 
long-wished-for  Public  Library  furnished  the 
incentive  necessary  to  start  the  movement. 

After  the  nomination  of  a  temporary  chair- 
man and  a  temporary  secretary,  two  commit- 
tees were  appointed  by  the  chairman,  Mr.  W. 
F.  Yust,  of  the  Public  Library;  one  to  report 
on  a  constitution  for  the  club,  the  other  to 
present  nominations  for  its  officers. 

The  program  for  the  evening  consisted  of 
a  brief  outline  of  the  history  of  the  A.  L.  A. 
by  Miss  Lois  Reed,  of  the  University  of 
Rochester;  an  account  of  the  Ottawa  meet- 
ing by  Miss  Zachert,  of  the  Public  Library; 
a  sketch  of  the  work  of  the  N.  Y.  Library 
Association  by  Miss  Margaret  Weaver,  of  the 
West  High  School;  and  a  resume  of  some  of 
the  topics  discussed  at  the  recent  New  York 
meeting  at  Niagara  by  Miss  Eleanor  Gleason, 
of  the  Mechanics'  Institute,  thus  bringing  the 
work  of  the  national  and  state  societies  be- 
fore the  club  for  its  inspiration  at  the  start. 
Mr.  Yust,  who  had  attended  the  dedication 
of  the  Education  Building  at  Albany,  gave  a 
description  of  the  ceremonies  and  some  facts 
regarding  the  history  of  the  Department  of 
Education  and  the  Board  of  Regents. 

The  report  of  the  committee  on  the  consti- 
tution was  then  read  by  Miss  Reed:  the  club 
to  be  called  Rochester  District  Library  Club. 
Officers:  president,  vice-president  and  secre- 
tary-treasurer. Five  meetings  during  the  year, 
subject  to  the  call  of  the  executive  committee. 
Dues,  50  cents.  After  some  discussion,  the 
constitution  was  adopted.  The  nominating 
committee's  report:  President,  William  F. 
Yust,  Rochester  Public  Library;  vice-presi- 
dent, Anne  Collins,  Reynolds  Library;  secre- 
tary-treasurer, Ethel  F.  Sayre,  Rochester 
Theological  Seminary,  was,  at  the  wish  of  the 
meeting,  adopted  by  one  ballot,  cast  by  the 
temporary  secretary. 

Plans  for  some  definite  line  of  work  were 


[January,  1913 

then  discussed.  Two  were  decided  upon:  to 
compile  a  union  list  of  the  periodicals  in  the 
various  libraries  in  the  city,  both  complete 
and  partial  sets  to  be  included.  The  Reynolds, 
University  and  Theological  Seminary  already 
have  a  list  which  may  be  used  as  a  basis  for 
the  larger  work.  It  was  also  voted  to  com- 
pile a  list  of  valuable  works  of  reference  and 
useful  sets  contained  in  the  different  libraries 
of  the  city.  Committees  have  been  appointed 
to  form  plans  for  carrying  on  this  work  and 
to  report  at  the  next  meeting. 

After  the  adjournment,  an  opportunity  was 
offered  to  inspect  the  quarters  of  the  recently 
opened  Exposition  Park  Branch  and  the  Mu- 
nicipal Museum,  which  is  also  established  in 
the  building. 

ETHEL  F.  SAYRE,  Secy.-Treas. 

The  second  meeting  of  the  Rochester  Dis- 
trict Library  Club  was  held  at  the  Reynolds 
Library,  December  6.  There  were  33  present. 

On  behalf  of  the  secretary,  the  following 
suggestions  as  to  dates  and  places  for  future 
meetings  were  read:  January  10,  Rochester 
Theological  Seminary  Library;  February  21, 
University  of  Rochester  Library;  March  21, 
Mechanics'  Institute  Library.  The  outline  was 
adopted  as  read  for  the  first  meeting,  and 
tentatively  as  far  as  the  others  were  con- 

It  was  suggested  that  the  committees  ap- 
pointed for  preparing  a  union  list  of  period- 
icals and  a  list  of  special  collections  and  im- 
portant sets  make  a  partial  report  to  the  club. 
Some  progress  has  been  made,  as  shown  by 
Miss  Gleason's  report  for  the  committee  on 
special  collections.  There  was  an  informal 
discussion  as  to  the  scope  of  the  work  and 
the  form  in  which  the  entries  were  to  be 
made.  It  was  recommended  that  the  com- 
mittee issue  specific  instructions,  and  that  the 
individual  lists  be  turned  over  to  it  for  re- 

The  evening's  program  was  a  very  interest- 
ing talk  on  "The  organization  and  history  of 
the  Reynolds  Library,"  by  Dr.  Max  Lands- 
berg,  president  of  the  Reynolds  Library  board 
of  trustees. 

After  adjourning,  the  club  had  an  oppor- 
tunity to  inspect  the  library. 

GLADYS  LOVE,  Secy,  pro.  tern. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  club  for  the  winter 
of  1912-13  was  held  at  the  Public  Library, 
Nov.  15,  1912.  The  president,  Mr.  Cheney, 
gave  an  address  in  which  he  stated  the  object 
of  the  club,  and  outlined  the  plans  for  the 
year,  as  arranged  by  the  executive  commit- 
tee. There  are  to  be  four  meetings,  to  occur 
on  the  1 5th  of  alternate  months,  beginning 
with  the  November  meeting.  In  addition,  the 
club  is  to  study  the  possibilities  for  library 
cooperation  among  the  libraries  of  Syracuse, 
and  the  president  will  appoint  a  committee  to 

begin  the  investigation.  A  review  of  library 
meetings  of  1912  by  different  members  of  the 
club  was  given  by  Mr.  Paul  Paine,  who  spoke 
on  "The  dedication  of  the  New  York  State 
Education  building  and  library  program"; 
Mrs.  Kellogg,  on  "The  New  York  State  Asso- 
ciation meeting  at  Niagara  Falls"  ;  Miss  Edith 
Clarke,  on  "The  program  of  the  A.  L.  A. 
meeting  at  Ottawa"  ;  and  Mrs.  Mary  J.  Sibley, 
on  "The  social  features  of  the  Ottawa  meet- 

On  account  of  an  unusually  stormy  evening, 
the  attendance  was  small,  but  all  those  present 
felt  that  it  was  an  interesting  meeting. 


Sdboois  anfc  Tlrafnins 


The  first  term  came  to  an  end  on  the  2Oth 
of  December.  During  December,  lectures  not 
already  reported  were  as  follows: 

For  the  Juniors.— Dr.  C.  C.  Williamson,  on 
the  "Literature  of  political  science";  Dr.  H. 
M.  Leipziger,  on  "Public  school  extension" ; 
Annie  C.  Moore,  on  "Christmas  bookbuying." 

For  the  Seniors.— Gardner  M.  Jones,  on 
"Town  library  finances"  (2)*;  Frances  Rath- 
bone  Coe,  on  "Publicity  methods  fb'r  libra- 
ries" (2)  ;  Elizabeth  D.  Renniger,  on  "Publicity 
methods  for  libraries"  (2)  ;  Freeman  F.  Burr, 
on  "Literature  of  ornithology"  (i),  "Litera- 
ture of  chemisty"  (i),  "Literature 4of  biology" 
(i),  "Literature  of  physics"  (i);  Susan  A. 
Hutchinson,  on  the  "Literature  of  fine  arts" 
(i)  ;  Harriott  E.  Hessler,  Christmas  story 
telling,  with  illustrations  (3)  ;  Agnes  L.  Cow- 
ing, "Making  a  Christmas  book  exhibit"  (2)  ; 
Annie  C.  Moore,  "The  Christmas  book  exhibit" 
(3),  "Illustrators  of  children's  books"  (3). 

Work  on  picture  bulletins,  under  Miss 
Tyler,  has  been  continued  through  the  month 
by  the  students  in  the  children's  librarians' 

The  seniors  in  advanced  reference  and  cata- 
loging had  the  pleasure  of  a  morning  in  the 
library  of  J.  Pierpont  Morgan,  on  November 
13,  Miss  Plummer  and  Miss  Tracey  accom- 
panying the  party.  The  seniors  in  the  course 
for  children's  librarians  on  the  same  date 
visited  the  office  of  Mr.  C.  G.  Leland,  of 
the  Board  of  Education,  to  learn  the  methods 
employed  in  administering  the  grade-school 
libraries  of  the  city.  Both  the  students  of 
administration  and  the  children's  librarians 
made  visits  to  the  leading  book  stores  and 
book  departments  of  the  department  stores  to 
see  the  Christmas  display  of  books,  report- 
ing the  same  to  the  principal  and  Miss  Moore. 

*  (i)  Advanced    reference    and  cataloging. 

(2)  Administration. 

(3)  Children's    librarians. 

January,  1913] 



The  Thanksgiving  recess,  from  November 
28  to  December  2,  was  signalized  by  a  butter- 
fly party  given  to  those  students  who  re- 
mained in  town  by  Misses  Van  Valkenburg 
and  Sutliff.  On  December  18,  the  principal 
entertained  the  faculty  and  both  classes  at  a 
Christmas  kaffee  klatsch. 

The  juniors  formed  their  class  organization 
in  November,  electing  the  following  officers: 
Marian  P.  Greene,  New  York,  president ;  Fos- 
ter W.  Stearns,  Amherst,  Mass.,  vice-presi- 
dent; Gladys  Young,  Cedar  Rapids,  la.,  treas- 
urer and  secretary. 

Mr.  Gpodell,  of  the  juniors,  is  engaged  in 
putting  in  shape  a  list  of  material  for  the 
Metropolitan  Museum;  and  Miss  Newberry, 
of  the  seniors,  is  making  a  bibliography  of 
the  material  in  the  library  on  Joan  of  Arc  at 
the  request  of  a  New  York  firm.  Miss  Brain- 
erd,  of  the  juniors,  a  partial  student,  has  been 
appointed  librarian  of  the  New  Rochelle  Pub- 
lic Library,  but  will  continue  her  work  in  the 

The  school  had  the  pleasure  of  welcoming 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Hjelmqvist,  of  Sweden,  at  its 
Hallowe'en  party  and  at  various  school  ex- 
ercises during  their  stay  in  New  York.  Miss 
Downey,  lately  of  the  Ohio  Library  Commis- 
sion, also  spent  a  day  or  two  at  the  school, 
and  Miss  Ball,  of  the  Grand  Rapids  High 
School  Library.  One  of  the  pleasantest  ad- 
vantages accruing  to  the  school  from  its  loca- 
tion is  the  frequent  opportunities  of  greeting 
librarians  passing  through  or  stopping  a  short 
time  in  the  city. 

MARY  W.  PLUMMER,  Principal. 


The  following  lectures  by  visiting  lecturers 
have  been  given : 
Oct.  14-15.  H.  E.  Legler.    Two  lectures  on  the 

Chicago  Public  Library  and  its  work. 
Nov.  6.  G.   B.   Utley,  The  American  Library 


Dec.  4-5.  Prof.  Lucy  M.  Salmon,  Vassar  Col- 
lege, The  college  library  from  the  faculty 
point  of  view,  and  Historical  books  for  pub- 
lic libraries. 

Dec.  9-10.  Sarah  B.  Askew,  organizer,  N.  J. 
Public  Library  Commission,  The  point  of 
contact,  and  The  work  of  a  library  organ- 

A  very  attractive  tea  service  has  been  given 
to  the  school  by  the  classes  of  1910  and  1912, 
the  former  contributing  $40  and  the  latter  $30. 
The  things  still  lacking  to  make  it  quite  com- 
plete will  probably  be  supplied,  at  least  in  part, 
by  other  class  donations. 

The  list  of  professional  articles  and  separate 
publications  during  1912  by  former  students 
of  the  school  includes  a  large  number  of  items. 
Nearly  forty  leading  articles  are  included  in 
the  Proceedings  of  the  A.  L.  A.  Conference 
at  Ottawa,  the  LIBRARY  JOURNAL,  Public  Li- 
braries, New  York  Libraries,  Special  Libraries, 
and  the  Bulletin  of  the  Wisconsin  Library 
Commission.  The  Norwegian  library  journal, 

For  Folke  og  Barneboksamlinger,  in  the  first 
three  issues  for  the  year  contains  four  articles 
by  Miss  Martha  Larsen,  Mr.  Victor  Smith  and 
Mr.  Kildal,  and  a  translated  extract  from  E.  L. 
Pearson's  "Library  and  the  librarian." 

An  incomplete  list  of  separate  publications 
follows:  Elva  L.  Bascom  ('01),  compiler, 
"Supplement  to  the  A.  L.  A.  catalog,  1904-11"; 
W.  R.  Eastman  ('92),  "The  library  building" 
(to  form  part  of  the  A.  L.  A.  manual  of  li- 
brary economy)  ;  E.  D.  Greenman  ('09) ,  col- 
laborator in  the  "Bibliography  of  education  in 
agricultural  and  home  economics,"  issued  by 
the  United  States  Bureau  of  Education;  Ona 
M.  Imhoff  ('98),  collaborator  with  Dr.  Charles 
McCarthy  in  "The  Wisconsin  idea"  ;  Katharine 
B.  Judson  ('06),  "Myths  and  legends  of  Cali- 
fornia and  the  old  Southwest"  and  "When  the 
forests  are  ablaze";  Mrs.  Julia  S.  Harron 
('05)  and  Corinne  Bacon  ('03),  collaborators 
with  John  Cotton  Dana  in  "A  course  of  study 
for  normal  school  pupils  in  literature  for  chil- 
dren"; Isadore  G.  Mudge  (1900),  joint  author 
of  "Special  collections  in  libraries  in  the 
United  States"  (Bulletin  of  the  U.  S.  Bureau 
of  Education)  ;  Frances  J.  Olcott  ('96),  "The 
children's  reading";  E.  H.  Virgin  ('01),  editor, 
"The  intellectual  torch,"  by  Jesse  Torrey;  F. 
K.  Walter  ('06),  "Abbreviations  and  technical 
terms  used  in  book  catalogs  and  in  bibliog- 

An  interesting  collection  of  folders,  booklets 
and  other  artistic  printed  matter  designed  and 
printed  by  George  G.  Champlin  ('95)  for  the 
Gateway  Press,  of  Albany,  has  been  given  to 
the  school  by  Mr.  Champlin. 

During  the  temporary  absence  on  sick  leave 
of  Miss  Martha  T.  Wheeler  the  course  in  Book 
selection  has  been  conducted  by  Miss  Mary  E. 
Eastwood  ('03),  Miss  Wheeler's  chief  assistant 
in  the  Book  Selection  Section,  assisted  by  Mrs. 
Julia  S.  Harron  ('05).  It  is  expected  that 
Miss  Wheeler  will  resume  work  Jan.  i. 

F.  K.  WALTER. 


Eliza  Lamb,  '00-02,  has  finished  her  work  as 
temporary  cataloger  at  the  Coast  Artillery 
School,  Fortress  Monroe,  Va.,  and  has  ac- 
cepted a  position  on  the -cataloging  staff  of  the 
Univ.  of  Chicago  L. 

Alice  D.  McKee,  B.L.S.,  '05,  has  been  ap- 
pointed assistant  cataloger  in  the  Ohio  State 
Univ.  L.,  Columbus. 

Rebecca  S.  MacNair,  *ii-'i2,  was  appointed 
assistant  librarian  of  the  High  School  L.  at 
Pasadena,  Cal.,  in  Sept 

Frances  K.  Ray,  Joo,  has  been  promoted  to 
the  position  of  medical  librarian,  N.  Y.  State  L. 

Henry  N.  Sanborn,  '13,  left  the  school  Dec. 
I  to  accept  the  librarianship  of  the  Univ.  Club 
of  Chicago. 


On  Oct.  25,  1912,  the  Training  School  class 
matriculated  at  the  University  of  Pittsburgh 



[January,  1913 

for  the  course  in  games  and  plays,  given  by 
Miss  Alice  Corbin,  of  the  Pittsburgh  Play- 
ground Association. 

Practice  work  is  offered  in  the  reference 
department  this  year.  Each  student  has  two 
afternoons  at  the  reference  desk,  under  the 
direction  of  a  reference  assistant. 

Courses  scheduled  for  the  autumn  term  are : 
Junior.— "General  library  work,"  Mr.  Graver; 
"Administration  of  children's  rooms,"  Miss 
Bogle;  "Administration  of  small  libraries," 
Miss  Hazeltine;  "Aids  to  library  economy," 
Miss  Mann;  "Book  selection,"  Miss  Bogle, 
Miss  Smith,  Miss  Whiteman,  Miss  Willard; 
"Classification,"  Miss  Knight;  "Illustrated 
book  lists  and  picture  work,"  Miss  Schwartz; 
"Library  handwriting,"  Miss  Beale;  "Refer- 
ence work,"  Miss  Stewart,  Miss  Willard,  Mr. 
McClelland;  "Seminar  for  periodical  review," 
Miss  McCurdy;  "Story  telling,"  Mrs.  Gudrun 
Thorne-Thomsen.  Senior.— "Book  selection," 
Miss  Bogle,  Miss  Smith,  Miss  Willard ;  "Cata- 
loging," Miss  Smith;  "Organization  of  chil- 
dren's departments,"  Miss  Bogle. 

On  November  13,  Mr.  G.  B.  Utley  lectured 
on  the  "American  Library  Association." 

Miss  Anna  A.  MacDonald,  consulting  libra- 
rian, of  the  Penn.  Free  Library  Commission, 
lectured  on  "Commission  work  in  Pennsyl- 
vania," on  November  15. 

The  class  of  1914  of  the  Training  School 
for  Children's  Libraries  has  organized  and 
elected  the  following  officers:  President,  H. 
Marjorie  Beal;  vice-president,  Edith  C.  C. 
Balderston ;  secretary,  Anna  M.  Anderson ; 
treasurer,  Martha  E.  English. 

On  Saturday  evening,  November  2,  the  staff 
of  the  Carnegie  Library  gave  their  "first  li- 
brary party"  in  honor  of  the  Training  School 
for  Children's  Librarians.  A  very  clever  farce 
furnished  entertainment  and  amusement  for 
over  200  staff  members  and  students  for  more 
than  an  hour. 

Miss  Mary  E.  Downey,  resident  director  of 
the  Chautauqua  Library  School,  lectured  be- 
fore the  Training  School  on  November  20. 

Mr.  Richard  Wyche,  organizer  and  presi- 
dent of  the  National  Story  Tellers'  League  of 
America,  told  the  story  of  "St.  Francis  of 
Assisi"  on  November  25.  On  November  27  he 
told  "Hiawatha,"  afterward  giving  an  "Uncle 
Remus"  story  "just  for  fun." 

Mr.  William  R.  Watson,  formerly  librarian 
of  the  San  Francisco  Public  Library,  lec- 
tured on  "California  county  libraries"  on  No- 
vember 29. 

Mrs.  Gudrun  Thorne-Thomsen,  instructor 
in  the  School  of  Education,  University  of 
Chicago,  and  a  member  of  the  staff  of  lec- 
turers of  the  Training  School,  gave  ten 
lectures  on  story  telling  during  the  week 
beginning  December  9. 


The  December  meeting  of  the  Long  Island 
Library  Club  was  held  at  the  Pratt  Institute 

Library  on  December  5.  Committees  of  the 
students  acted  as  ushers,  conducting  the  vis- 
itors to  the  exhibition  of  children's  Christmas 
books  in  the  children's  room  and  to  the  gen- 
eral Christmas  exhibit  in  the  reference  room 
on  the  second  floor,  and  serving  refreshments 
after  the  meeiing.  The  address  of  the  eve- 
ning was  by  Prof.  Henry  Fairfield  Osborn, 
president  of  the  Natural  History  Museum  of 
New  York,  on  "Recent  developments  in  the 
theory  of  evolution."  This  was  of  special 
value  to  library  students,  as  Prof.  Osborn 
dwelt  on  the  effect  of  recent  discoveries  upon 
the  standing  of  the  earliei  literature  of  evo- 
lution, and  also  as  he  evaluated  the  recent 
literature  on  the  subject. 

The  students  attended  a  very  interesting 
session  of  the  Hoe  sale  on  Tuesday  evening, 
November  19.  A  group  of  important  manu- 
scripts were  sold,  and  the  prices  paid  for 
them  brought  a  realizing  sense  of  what  it 
means  to  be  a  bibliophile.  A  study  of  the 
catalog  also  revealed  the  practical  value  of 
the  course  in  technical  French,  which  the 
class  has  been  pursuing  this  term. 

The  school  had  the  pleasure  of  listening  to 
a  very  practical  talk,  on  December  3,  on  the 
administrative  problems  of  the  small  library 
from  Mrs.  Frances  Rathbone  Coe,  formerly 
librarian  of  the  East  Orange  Public  Library. 
Mrs.  Coe  emphasized  particularly  the  human 
side  of  the  relations  between  the  librarian  and 
the  staff.  Mr.  John  Cotton  Dana,  librarian 
of  the  Newark  Public  Library,  lectured  be- 
fore the  school  on  December  10.  His  talk 
ranged  over  a  variety  of  topics,  among  them 
the  interest  of  the  library  in  good  printing, 
and  the  relation  of  the  library  to  the  museums 
and  to  city  planning.  The  apprentice  class  of 
the  Brooklyn  Public  Library  attended  both  of 
these  lectures. 


Susan  R.  Clendenin,  '01  and  '04,  is  catalog- 
ing the  Lambert  collection  of  Lincoln  and 
Thackeray  books  and  manuscripts  at  German- 
town,  Pa. 

Alta  B.  Claflin,  '03,  has  been  made  assistant 
at  the  Western  Reserve  Historical  Society 
Library,  Cleveland,  O. 

Jessie  Sibley,  '06,  has  charge  of  the  chil- 
dren's room  in  the  main  building  of  the  New 
York  Public  Library.  Her  appointment  took 
effect  January  i. 

Ada  M.  McCormick,  '12,  is  in  charge  of  the 
business  and  municipal  department,  which  oc- 
cupies three  large  rooms  on  the  second  floor,, 
of  the  Ft.  Wayne    (Ind.)    Public  Library. 


Gertrude  L.  Allison,  '07,  has  become  an 
assistant  in  the  Andover-Harvard  Theolog- 
ical L. 

Stella  S.  Beal,  '08,  has  been  acting  as  sec- 

January,  1913] 



Tetary  to  Mr.  C.  H.  Douglas,  of  D.  C.  Heath 
&  Company,  Boston. 

Theresa  C.  Stuart,  '08,  is  cataloging  the 
private  library  of  Governor  Hill,  of  Augusta, 

Abbie  F.  Gammons,  '10,  has  resigned  her 
position  in  Williams  College  L.,  and  is  now 
at  the  Boston  Athenaeum. 

Abbie  L.  Allen,  'n,  is  a  member  of  the 
staff  of  the  Meadville,  Pa.,  Theological  Sch.  L. 

Dorothy  C.  Nunn,  'ii,  has  resigned  from 
•her  position  as  assistant  in  the  Wellesley  Free 
L ,  to  take  charge  of  the  South  Salem  branch 
of  the  Salem  P.  L. 

Mabel  Eaton,  A.B.,  '11-12,  is  an  assistant 
in  the  cataloging  department  of  the  Univ.  of 

Eva  E.  Malone,  A.M.,  'ii-'i2,  has  joined 
the  cataloging  force  of  the  St.  Louis.  P.  L. 

Blanche  S.  Smith,  A.B.,  '11-12,  is  an  assist- 
ant in  Radcliffe  College  L. 

Laura  M.  Stealey,  A.B..  '11-12,  is  on  the 
cataloging  staff  of  the  St.  Louis.  P.  L. 

Elsie  Hatch,  special,  '12,  is  an  assistant  in 
the  Melrose  (Mass.)  P.  L. 

Isabel  MacCarthy,  special,  '12,  is  in  charge 
of  the  periodical  reading  room  of  Columbia 

H.  Mary  Spangler,  special,  '12,  has  been 
made  librarian  of  the  Public  High  School,  of 
Hartford,  Ct. 

Mabel  Williams,  '09,  2  years  in  charge  of  a 
college  library,  and  I  year  assistant  in  the 
Radcliffe  College  L.,  has  become  assistant 
branch  librarian  of  the  Somerville  P.  L.,  at 
West  Somerville. 

Ruth  B.  McLean,  '09,  since  graduation  en- 
gaged at  the  Univ.  of  Illinois,  the  Univ.  of 
Chicago  and  in  the  secretary's  office  at  Yale 
Univ.,  has  accepted  a  position  in  the  Somer- 
ville P.  L.  as  assistant  in  the  extension  of 
the  classification  and  revision  of  the  catalog, 
previous  to  occupying  its  new  building  in 
the  fall  of  1913. 

Chairman  Library  Faculty. 

Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  addressed  the  school  on  "The 
organization  and  work  of  the  Carnegie  Li- 
brary of  Pittsburgh"  Sept.  27. 

On  Dec.  9,  through  the  courtesy  of  the 
Syracuse  Advertising  Men's  Club,  the  school 
was  invited  to  attend  a  lecture  by  C.  W.  Dear- 
den,  advertising  manager  of  the  Strathmore 
Paper  Co.,  of  Mittineague,  Mass.  It  consisted 
of  an  instructive  talk  on  the  art  of  paper  mak- 
ing illustrated  by  a  series  of  films  and  motion 

The  following  lectures  on  the  bibliography  of 
special  subjects  have  been  given  before  the 
senior  class :  Oct.  9,  Dr.  E.  P.  Tanner  on  "Bib- 
liography of  American  history" ;  Oct.  16,  Dr. 
E.  E.  Sperry  on  "Bibliography  and  modern 
European  history" ;  Oct.  23,  Mr.  S.  S.  Laucks 
on  "Bibliography  of  political  science";  Oct.  30 
and  Nov.  6,  Mr.  T.  P.  Oakley,  two  lectures  on 
"Bibliography  of  Ancient  history";  Nov.  13, 
Dr.  J.  R.  Street,  Dean  of  the  Teachers'  Col- 
lege, on  "Psychology  of  pedagogy";  Nov.  20, 
Dr.  A.  S.  Hurst  on  "History  of  pedagogy"; 
Dec.  12,  Dr.  P.  A.  Parsons  on  "Bibliography 
of  sociology." 


Edna  Brand,  B.L.E.,  '12,  has  resigned  from 
the  Syracuse  Univ.  L.  to  accept  the  position 
of  cataloger  of  the  Houston  Lyceum  and  Car- 
negie L.  Assoc.,  Houston,  Tex.  Minnie  Lewis, 
'09,  succeeds  Miss  Brand. 

Marion  H.  Wells,  B.L.E.,  '12,  has  resigned 
from  the  N.  Y.  P.  L.  to  become  children's 
assistant  of  the  Saratoga  branch  of  the  Brook- 
lyn P.  L. 

Adah  Thomlinson, 'n,  has  resigned  from  the 
N.  Y.  P.  L.  to  become  assistant  children's 
librarian  of  the  Bushwick  branch  of  the  Brook- 
lyn P.  L. 

Lura  Slaughter,  '08,  has  resigned  her  posi- 
tion as  cataloger  in  the  St.  Louis  P.  L.  to  be- 
come librarian  of  the  Spencer,  Ind.,  P.  L. 

Nina  L.  Compson,  '06,  is  supplying  in  the 
Seymour  L.,  Auburn,  N.  Y. 

MARY  J.  SIBLEY,  Director. 


Members  of  the  senior  class  are  again  con- 
ducting the  stcry  hour  at  the  Solvay  Public 

This  year  no  recitations  have  been  sched- 
uled for  Saturdajs,  in  order  to  keep  the  day 
free  for  visits  to  nearby  libraries,  printing 
establishments  and  other  institutions  of  special 
interest  to  library  workers.  The  juniors  have 
visited  thus  far  Syracuse  Public  Library  cen- 
tral building,  its  Northside  branch,  and  the 
Solvay  Public  Library. 

Thus  far  the  school  has  had  the  pleasure  of 
listening  to  two  interesting  and  instructive  lec- 
tures from  active  workers  in  the  field.  Miss 
Mary  Medlicott,  reference  librarian  of  the  city 
library  of  Springfield,  Mass.,  spoke  on  "Refer- 
ence work  in  general  and  the  Springfield  city 
library"  on  Sept.  23.  Miss  Waller  Irene  Bul- 
lock, loan  librarian  of  the  Carnegie  Library  of 

Miss  Mary  Eileen  Ahern,  of  Public  Libra- 
ries, spoke  before  the  members  of  the  school 
and  faculty  and  most  of  the  library  staff,  No- 
vember 12  and  13,  on  "Some  essentials  in  li- 

Mr.  George  B.  Utley  visited  the  school  on 
December  2  and  3,  giving  two  lectures  on 
those  dates.  The  subject  of  Mr.  Utley's  lec- 
ture on  December  2  was  "The  work  and  func- 
tions of  the  A.  L.  A."  On  December  3,  his 
subject  was  "Complexity  in  simplicity." 

Miss  Mary  B.  Lindsay,  librarian  of  the 
Evanston  (111.)  Public  Library,  lectured  be- 
fore the  school  and  staff,  December  17,  on 
"The  work  of  the  Evanston  Public  Library." 

The  Library  Club  held  its  December  meet- 
ing on  the  evening  of  Monday,  December  2, 
at  the  residence  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  K.  W. 
Drury.  The  meeting  was  in  the  nature  of  a 


[January,  1913 

housewarming,  as  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Drury  have 
recently  moved  into  their  new  home,  built 
during  the  summer.  As  the  date  of  the  meet- 
ing coincided  with  the  date  of  Mr.  Utley's 
visit,  he  was  the  guest  of  honor  on  the  occa- 
sion. About  70  members  were  present.  The 
speaker  of  the  evening  was  Professor  Thomas 
E.  Oliver,  of  the  department  of  romance  lan- 
guages of  the  University  of  Illinois.  Dr. 
Oliver  spoke  at  length  and  most  interestingly 
regarding  several  large  reference  libraries 
which  he  had  visited,  and  of  which  he  had 
made  considerable  use  during  his  recent  sab- 
batical year.  At  the  close  of  Dr.  Oliver's  ad- 
dress, light  refreshments  were  served. 


Clara  Ricketts,  B.L.S.,  '11,  has  been  ap- 
pointed to  a  position  in  the  order  department 
of  the  Univ.  of  111.  L. 

Honor  Plummer,  B.L.S.,  '12,  has  been  ap- 
pointed to  a  position  on  the  staff  of  the  Los 
Angeles  (Cal.)  P.  L. 


The  usual  fall  schedule  has  been  carried 
out  without  interruption.  Following  the  cal- 
endar of  the  university,  no  recess  was  granted 
at  Thanksgiving,  but  a  longer  vacation  will 
be  given  during  the  holidays.  The  following 
special  lectures  have  been  given  before  the 
school  since  the  last  report:  "How  history 
is  written,"  Dr.  Thwaites;  "Source  material 
in  history,"  illustrated  with  the  Draper  col- 
lection of  manuscripts,  Dr.  Thwaites ;  "Eval- 
uation of  books  in  American  history,"  Dr. 
Fish,  of  the  history  department;  "Modern 
tendencies,"  Dr.  McCarthy;  "Signposts  by  the 
way,"  Miss  Ahern;  "A  librarian's  reading, 
Miss  Ahern;  "Library  spirit,"  Miss  Stearns; 
"Work  with  the  mountain  whites,"  Miss  Eve 
Newman,  Hindman,  Ky. 

On  November  18  a  reception  was  given  at 
the  rooms  of  the  school  by  the  Wellesley 
Club,  of  Madison,  for  Miss  Ellen  F.  Pendle- 
ton,  president  of  Wellesley  College.  Miss 
Pendleton  spoke  briefly  to  the  members  of 
the  club  and  the  students  on  "Scholarship 
and  loyalty." 


Madalene  S.  Hillis,  '08,  has  been  made  head 
of  the  reading  room,  Omaha  P.  L. 

Florence  C.  Farnham, '09,  is  acting  librarian 
at  Antigo,  Wis. 

Eugenia  J.  Marshall,  '09,  was  married  in 
October  to  Dr.  Warren  R.  Rainey,  Salem,  111. 

Marie  Minton,  '10,  was  married  on  November 
12  to  Mr.  Thomas  J.  George,  Monticello,  la. 

Bertha  R.  Bergold,  'n,  resigned  her  posi- 
tion at  Springfield,  111.,  to  accept  a  similar  one 
as  assistant  in  the  Superior  (Wis.)  P.  L. 

Florence  E.  Dunton,  'n,  was  offered  a  po- 
sition as  assistant  cataloger  in  the  Wisconsin 
Historical  L.,  resigning  her  position  at  Miami 

Pauline    J.    Fihe,    'n,    for    the    past    year 

assistant  in  the  cataloging  and  reference  de- 
partment, Cincinnati  P.  L.,  has  been  appointed 
to  the  librarianship  of  one  of  the  branch 
libraries  in  the  same  city. 

Beulah  Mumm,  'n,  has  resigned  her  posi- 
tion at  Sedalia,  Mo.,  to  join  her  parents  in 
Sacramento,  Cal. 

Alice  M.  Farquahar,  '12,  accepted  a  position 
in  the  Humboldt  Park  Branch,  Chicago  P.  L., 
commencing  November  i. 

Florence  H.  Davis, '12,  has  a  position  in  the 
library  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture, 

Ottlie  Liedloff,  '12,  has  accepted  the  libra- 
rianship of  the  St.  Cloud  (Minn.)  Normal 

Elizabeth  C.  Ronan,  '12,  was  unable  to  un- 
dertake the  librarianship  of  the  Fargo  (N.  D.) 
P.  L.,  owing  to  the  illness  of  her  mother. 
She  has  accepted  a  temporary  position  in  the 
Mich.  State  L. 

EVANS,  C.     American  bibliography;  a  chron- 
ological dictionary  of  all  books,  pamphlets 
and   periodical   publications   printed   in   the 
United  States  of  America  from  the  genesis 
of  printing  in  1639  down  to  and  including 
the  year  1820;  with  bibliographical  and  bio- 
graphical notes.     In   n   or   12  vs.     v.   7— 
1786-1789.     Chic.,  privately  printed   for  the 
author  by  the  Columbia  Press,  1912.    424  p. 
The  cost  of  mechanical  production  and  the 
burden  of  a  remainder  not  contemplated  in  so 
small  an  edition  have  necessitated  an  increase 
in  price.    After  Jan.  i,  1913,  no  copies  to  new 
subscribers  will  be  sold  for  less  than  $20,  and 
no  surplus  copies  will  be  printed  of  new  vol- 
umes.   Each  volume  is  believed  to  be  as  nearly 
complete   as   human   industry  could  make   it. 
Bibliographies,  catalogs  of  all  descriptions,  the 
newspaper  advertisements  of  the  period,  and 
many  other   sources  have  been  drawn   from. 
For  ten  years  the  "American  Bibliography"  has 
been  in  practical  use,  both  in  this  country  and 
abroad,  and  is  recognized  everywhere  as  the 
bibliographical  authority  of  early  American  lit- 
erature.    Entries   give  the  libraries  in  which 
copies  of  the  books  may  be  found,  valuable  for 
inter-library  loan. 

For  notice  of  vols.  4,  5,  6,  see  LIBRARY 
JOURNAL,  v.  36,  p.  134.  Vol.  3  is  entered  in 
v.  31,  p.  345;  vol.  2  in  v.  30,  p.  501,  and  vol. 
i  noticed  in  v.  29,  p.  30,  and  on  p.  Ci2i  of 
the  same  volume. 

FOSTER,  W :  E.  How  to  choose  editions ;  with 
an  introd.  by  Martha  T.  Wheeler.  Chic., 
A.  L.  A.  Pub.  Bd.  24  p.  D.  (Library  hand- 
book.) pap.,  15  c. 

"Happy  indeed  will  be  the  day,"  says  Mr. 
Foster,  "when  the  text  of  the  work  is  supplied 
in  its  integrity;  when  the  judicious  editor  has 
supplied  neither  too  much  nor  too  little  in  his 
treatment  of  the  text;  when  the  size  of  the 

January,  1913] 



book  is  all  that  can  be  desired,  for  convenience 
of  use,  and  by  way  of  appealing  to  the  reader's 
desire  to  handle  it;  when  the  type'  is  at  once 
the  perfection  of  legibility  and  of  grace ;  when 
the  paper  and  ink  reproduce  the  best  traditions 
of  an  earlier  age;  and  when  the  binding  is 
substantial,  tasteful,  well  stamped  and  lettered, 
and  in  every  way  appropriate."  Thus  he  sum- 
marizes the  requirements  for  the  ideal  library — 
the  library  which,  unhampered  by  any  practical 
considerations  might  be  "limited  to  a  few  such 
authors  as  Homer,  Virgil,  Horace  and  Dante, 
printed  by  an  Aldus  or  an  Elzevir,  and  bound 
in  vellum."  Happily  Mr.  Foster  is  content  to 
place  this  sparkling  ideal  in  the  firmament,  and 
for  practical  purposes  make  concessions  to  the 
commercialism,  of  the  modern  publisher. 

The  following,  among  the  points  Mr.  Foster 
makes,  are  of  especial  interest.  Cicero,  he 
says,  must  be  omitted  altogether  from  the  list 
except  in  the  original,  since  a  translation  of 
this  author  in  readable  English  may  almost  be 
said  to  be  lacking  altogether.  "Gift  book"  edi- 
tions of  standard  works  arouse  his  ire.  "No 
book  admitted  in  which  illustration  is  the  pre- 
dominating motive"  is  a  rule  he  suggests.  Re- 
garding the  question  of  color  in  cloth  bound 
books,  Mr.  Foster  notes  a  point  which  pub- 
lishers may  well  remember.  He  says :  "Out  of 
all  the  possible  backgrounds  on  which  gilt  let- 
ters may  be  placed,  only  a  fraction  of  them 
will  be  found  to  supply  a  legible  combination. 
The  most  illegible  as  backgrounds  are  drab, 
orange,- yellow,  white,  and  some  of  the  browns 
verging  on  orange." 

It  may  be  questioned  whether  the  Dante  in 
white  vellum,  Dickens  in  the  Chapman  &  Hall 
edition  of  some  fifty  years  ago,  and  dingy  calf- 
skin Erasmus  which  Mr.  Foster  would  enjoy 
seeing  side  by  side  on  the  library  shelf  would 
be  found  of  greatest  value  to  the  library  of 
large  circulation. 

Mr.  Foster's  paper,  published  originally  in 
the  Monthly  Bulletin  of  the  Providence  Public 
Library  in  1898,  has  long  been  out  of  print. 
The  scarcity  of  material  on  this  subject  has 
made  its  republication  desirable.  D.  W. 

perioMcal  anfc  otber  ^literature 

Boston  Cooperative  Information  Bureau 
Bulletin,  June-October,  includes  "A  few  data 
toward  a  list  of  available  directories  and 
other  resources  for  addresses,"  by  G.  W.  Lee. 

Maine  State  Library  Bulletin,  October,  in- 
cludes report  of  the  Maine  Library  Summer 
School,  and  "Civic  duties  of  the  public  libra- 
rian," by  H.  E.  Holmes. 

Middlebury  (Vt.)  College  Bulletin,  Vol.  VI., 
No.  2,  lists  loo  titles — "The  high  school  teach- 
ers' professional  library,"  by  author,  with  bib- 
liographical data. 

Newarker{  November,  is  devoted  to  the  city 
plan  exhibition  at  the  library,  Nov.  22- Jan.  5, 

New  Hampshire  Public  Libraries,  December, 
prints  "The  librarian's  canons  of  ethics," 
"Magazines  for  small  libraries,"  "Basis  for 
selection  of  magazines,"  "The  creed  of  the 
children's  librarian,"  by  Adeline  B.  Zachert; 
"Juvenile  readers  as  an  asset,"  by  E.  W. 

N.  J.  Library  Bulletin  lists  "Books  to  buy 
for  children"  (4^  p.). 

New  York  Libraries,  November,  contains  "A 
service  library,"  by  C.  E.  McLenegan;  "The 
place  of  the  library  in  the  high  school,"  by  G. 
M.  Forbes;  "Possibilities,"  by  W.  F.  Seward; 
"Local  history  story  hour,"  by  Caroline  F. 
Webster;  "What  local  libraries  are  doing  to 
extend  their  privileges  to  rural  communities"; 
"Survey  of  recent  progress  in  high  schools" ; 
"Plans  of  the  State  Department  of  Education 
for  the  development  of  school  libraries,"  by 
Dr.  Sherman  Williams ;  "Recent  state  publica- 
tions of  interest  to  libraries,"  by  C.  B.  Lester. 

Pennsylvania  Library  Notes,  October,  con- 
tains a  full  report  of  the  I2th  annual  meeting 
of  the  Keystone  State  Library  Association. 

Philippine  Library  Bulletin,  October,  con- 
tains an  account  of  the  circulating  division 
(American  circulating  library). 

Public  Libraries,  December,  has  "General 
reading  for  men,"  by  M.  S.  Dudgeon;  "The 
library  school  and  its  work  for  libraries,"  by 
Chalmers  Hadley;  "Subject  headings,"  by 
Hester  Young;  "The  gracious  time,"  by  Har- 
riet S.  Wright;  "Cost  of  administration,"  by 
A.  E.  Bostwick. 

Special  Libraries,  November,  contains  "Bill 
drafting,"  by  James  McKirdy;  select  list  of 
references  on  the  trading  stamp  business;  bib- 
liography of  interest  to  public  service  corpora- 
tions ;  selected  list  of  references  to  recent  pub- 
lications of  interest  on  fire  insurance  and  re- 
lated subjects. 


Librarian,  December,  includes  "Small  libra- 
ries and  small  incomes,"  by  Edward  Wood; 
"The  cinematograph  and  chronograph  as  edu- 
cators in  public  libraries,"  by  Arthur  Lever. 

Library  Assistant,  December,  has  "The  pub- 
lic library  and  the  cheap  book,"  by  Norman 
Treliving;  "Some  features  of  work  in  a  col- 
lege library,"  by  E.  A.  Peppiette. 

Library  Association  Record,  November, 
contains  "Public  records;  first  report  of  the 
Royal  Commission" ;  "Public  libraries  and  the 
public,"  by  W.  E.  Doubleday;  "A  short  course 
in  practical  classification,  with  special  refer- 
ence to  the  decimal  and  subject  schemes; 
with  readings  and  exercises,"  by  W.  C.  Ber- 
wick Sayers. 

Library  World,  November.  Continuation 
of  "A  British  library  itinerary,"  by  J.  D. 
Brown,  giving  a  short  paragraph  on  impor- 


[January,  1913 

tant  (selected)  libraries;  "The  issue  of  lan- 
tern slides,"  by  William  Law;  "Improving 
the  sheaf  catalog,"  by  Frank  Haigh. 


Het  Boek,  November,  contains  "The  laws 
for  the  Haarlem  and  Amsterdam  schools  of 
1576,"  by  C.  P.  Burger;  "A  mediaeval  chron- 
icle during  the  Republic  used  as  text-book," 
by  Dr.  A.  Hulshof. 

Folke-og  Barneboksamlinger,  September,  has 
impressions  of  American  libraries,  by  Dagin 
Grarud;  revision  of  Holmestrand  Teachers' 
College  Library,  by  O.  Coucheron;  Public  li- 
braries in  the  country,  by  A.  M.  Andersen ; 
Book  selection  for  small  libraries,  by  John 
Ansteensen;  Inspection  of  public  libraries; 
Course  in  library  economy  in  the  Holmestrand 
Teachers'  College. 

International  Congress  of  Archivists  and 
Librarians,  Brussels,  1910,  Proceedings,  just 
received,  comprises:  Pt.  I,  Preliminary  pa- 
pers, including  rules,  lists  of  members,  etc.; 
Pt.  2,  Reports  on  questions  on  the  order  of 
business  of  the  congress;  Pt.  3.  Reports  of 
meetings,  reunions  and  receptions.  Portraits 
of  S.  Muller,  Fz.,  and  H.  Martin,  chairmen 
of  the  congress  are  included.  (812  p.) 

Zentralblatt  fur  Bibliothekswesen,  Novem- 
ber, prints  Mr.  Paul  Schwenke's  impressions 
of  his  recent  trip  to  this  country  (reprinted 
separately),  giving  plans  of  the  New  York 
Public  Library;  "The  Incunabula  of  the 
Berne  City  Library,"  by  C.  Benziger;  "The 
acquisition  of  the  Codex  Utinensis  through 
Gustav  Hanel,"  by  R.  Helssig. 


The  trustees'  responsibility  for  the  library 
Ethel  F.  McCullough.  Wis.  Lib.  B.,  S.-O., 
'12,  p.  151-153- 

Although  books  are  dearer,  library  appro- 
priations in  many  Wisconsin  cities  are  almost 
stationary.  The  duty  of  presenting  yearly 
the  financial  claims  of  the  library  is  some- 
times neglected.  Effort  on  the  part  of  library 
boards  will  often  bring  large  increases  in 
appropriation.  In  asking  for  an  appropri- 
tion,  it  is  unwise  to  have  a  large  balance  from 
the  preceding  year.  To  avoid  a  surplus, 
amounts  for  books  should  be  definitely  and 
regularly  expended.  The  surplus  can  also  go 
into  extension  of  opening  hours  and  increases 
of  salaries,  too  often  ridiculously  inadequate. 

Presenting  the  financial  needs  of  the  library. 
Wis.  Lib.  B.,  S.-O.,  '12,  p.  147-151. 

Practically  all  libraries  are  in  need  of 
funds.  The  library  should  strive  to  increase 
its  service  to  the  community,  and  funds  will 
follow.  Service  to  men  of  affairs,  as  well  as 
to  women  and  children,  is  essential.  The 
needs  of  those  struggling  with  practical  city 

problems  should  be  answered.  The  librarian 
must  also  get  the  official's  viewpoint.  She 
must  show  him  the  necessity  for  further  li- 
brary appropriation.  Suggestions  are  here 
given  as  to  the  best  methods  of  presenting, 
by  tables  and  diagrams,  the  financial  position 
of  the  library,  and  showing  how  its  efficiency 
may  be  increased  without  undue  burden  on 
the  taxpayer. 


An  introduction  to  elementary  bibliography. 
R.  W.  Parsons.  Libn.  S.,  O.,  '12,  p.  43-50, 

Bibliography,  practically  considered,  treats 
of  the  materials  and  description  of  books  in 
general,  and  their  cataloging  and  preservation. 
It  is  considered  a  waste  of  time  to  record  de- 
tails of  make-up,  when  much  remains  to  be 
done  in  catalog  compilation,  etc.  Bibliography, 
historically,  embraces  the  registration  of  pages, 
watermarks,  signatures,  colophons,  etc.,  as  also 
enumeration,  cataloging  and  indexing.  Cata- 
loging differs  from  bibliography,  first,  that  it 
deals  with  a  small  set  of  books,  while  bib- 
liography is  general;  second,  entries  are  brief- 
er; third,  arrangement  is  not  suitable  for  a 
bibliography.  In  bibliography  books  are  de- 
scribed to  show  conveniently  their  relation  to 
other  books.  Sizes  are  determined  by  folds  in 
the  sheet,  also  by  position  of  watermarks  on 
the  leaves  and  the  direction  of  the  wire-lines 
of  the  paper.  However,  in  bibliographical  en- 
try it  is  necessary  to  give  both  form  and  linear 
size,  as  the  same  form  varies  at  the  present  day 
in  linear  size.  "When  the  page  conveys  in- 
formation to  the  reader  without  attracting  at- 
tention to  itself,  it  is  ideal."  The  average 
modern  book,  where  no  special  care  is  exer- 
cised in  regard  to  binding,  paper,  types,  etc.,  is 
of  this  class.  Special  editions,  as  editions  de 
luxe,  cannot  be  so  considered,  as  until  the  eye 
is  trained  to  the  type,  etc.,  the  page  attracts 
the  readers'  attention  and  renders  reading 

The  method  of  arrangement  of  a  bibliogra- 
phy is  determined  by  its  subject  and  its  in- 
tended use,  but  all  arrangement  must  be  easily 
intelligible,  visible,  and  permanent  in  being 
based  on  facts  not  apt  to  be  upset.  The  chro- 
nological method  by  publication  date  gives  the 
historical  development  of  a  subject,  is  easy  to 
see,  and  is  permanent,  but  wastes  space  and 
makes  reference  hard  in  very  full  years,  unless 
subjects  are  subdivided.  The  alphabetical-by- 
title  method  is  confusing;  the  alphabetical-by- 
authors  clear  and  permanent,  but  not  useful  in 
looking  for  works  on  a  given  subject.  Ar- 
rangement by  subject,  if  well  classified,  is  the 
most  useful.  Language  arrangements  may  be 
chosen  for  special  purposes.  Arrangement  by 
places  will  trace  the  literary  history  of  a  local- 
ity, but  is  not  otherwise  useful.  If  the  position 
of  the  watermark  in  the  various  sizes  be 
known,  it  will  show  whether  leaves  have  been 
substituted  in  old  books. 

January,  1913] 




The  place  of  bibliography  in  education. 
Henry  R.  Tedder.  Lib.  Assoc.  R.,  p.  509-512. 

Shows  the  necessity  of  bibliography,  the 
wide  field  comprised  by  that  study,  how  the 
knowledge  cannot  be  acquired  from  text- 
books, how  one  of  its  chief  practical  aims  is 
to  teach  in  what  ways  books  and  libraries  can 
be  best  utilized,  how  it  is  a  practical  study, 
only  to  be  taught  by  workshop  methods,  and 
how  it  should  become  part  of  the  school 
training  at  every  stage.  "The  knowledge  of 
most  worth  is  that  of  bibliography,  which  is 
the  knowledge  of  the  use  of  books  and  of 


How  to  care  for  books  in  a  library.  Mrs. 
H.  P.  Sawyer.  Wis.  F.  L.  Comm.  '12,  In- 
structional Dept,  No.  7,  2d  ed.,  12  p. 

Considers  opening  books,  position  on 
shelves,  repairing  books,  recasing  books  with 
elastic  glue,  rebinding,  binding,  and  material 
for  mending. 


Books  as  a  librarian  would  like  them.  H. 
L.  Koopman.  Print.  Art,  D.,  '12,  p.  273-274. 

The  librarian  is  in  a  position,  more  than 
anyone  else,  to  know  the  disabilities  of  books. 
His  chief  grievance  is  against  the  publisher. 
Books  are  often  made  unnecessarily  unwieldy. 
Paper,  ink  and  binding  have  been  cheapened, 
so  that  books  of  to-day  will  be  dust  in  a 
century.  Often  rebinding  is  required ;  but 
there  is  improvement  in  this  respect.  Books 
should  be,  say,  seven  inches  in  height.  Ex- 
pansion should  be  in  height  and  width,  rather 
than  thickness.  There  should  be  no  wasteful 
margins,  and  no  extreme  in  the  size  of  type. 
Every  wide  page  should  be  printed  in  col- 
umns. The  binding  should  be  strong,  useful 
and  in  character  with  the  contents.  Because 
of  the  efforts  of  librarians,  the  books  of  the 
next  decade  will  probably  be  better  than  those 
of  the  last. 


The  average  budget.  Helen  Turvill.  Wis. 
Lib.  B.,  S.-O.,  '12,  p.  160-161. 

A  table,  based  on  the  actual  apportionment 
of  library  funds  in  representative  Wisconsin 
libraries,  is  here  given,  showing  the  average 
percentage  expended  for  all  items.  The  li- 
braries are  grouped  according  to  the  popula- 
tion of  their  towns  or  cities.  The  following 
facts  are  noticeable:  Books  are  practically 
the  same  in  all  groups — about  20  per  cent. 
Periodicals  make  up  a  larger  proportion  in 
smaller  towns.  Salaries  for  library  service 
are  naturally  larger  in  the  larger  towns,  vary- 
ing from  32  per  cent,  to  42  per  cent.,  37  per 
cent,  being  the  average.  Janitors'  salaries  rise 
from  i  per  cent,  to  n  per  cent.  The  item 
of  rent  concerns  only  the  smaller  libraries 
(average  for  towns  under  1000  population,  n 

per  cent.).  Other  items:  Stationery  and  sup- 
plies, about  2  per  cent.;  printing,  less  than  I 
per  cent. ;  postage,  freight  and  express,  i  per 
cent. ;  insurance,  less  than  2  per  cent. 

The  budget.  Mary  Emogene  Hazeltine. 
Wis.  Lib.  B.,  S.-O.,  '12,  p.  158-160. 

There  should  be  a  budget  annually  prepared 
for  every  public  library.  The  budget  blank 
of  the  Wisconsin  F.  L.  Com.  (reprinted  in 
article)  is  divided  into  columns  for  date, 
voucher,  number,  name  or  description  of 
items,  and  subheads  for  the  various  items  of 
receipts  and  expenditures.  Suggestive  figures 
are  given.  Generally,  the  fund  should  be 
divided  into  three  items — books,  salaries,  ad- 
ministration. The  book  fund  should  be  care- 
fully guarded.  When  increases  are  asked,  the 
fund  must  always  be  used  for  the  very  thing 
for  which  it  is  requested. 


The  cinematograph  and  chronophone  as  edu- 
cators in  public  libraries.  A.  Lever.  Libn. 
D.,  '12,  p.  195-200. 

Our  public  libraries  are  informal  universi- 
ties. The  cinematograph  can  be  of  great  edu- 
cational value.  One  recently  installed  in  a 
London  council  school  has  been  most  success- 
ful. Animated  pictures  familiarize  the  public 
with  sights  and  scenes  of  other  countries,  and 
make  them  discontented  with  ugly  surround- 
ings. The  invention  of  the  chronophone  has 
made  possible  a  complete  synchronization  of 
the  graphophone  and  cinematograph.  Thus  in 
time  library  lectures  may  be  given  without  the 
lecturer.  In  a  few  years  every  well-equipped 
library  will  have  a  moving  picture  apparatus. 


How  to  extend  the  library  movement.  J. 
Potter  Briscoe.  Libn.,  O.,  '12,  p.  88-90. 

Persons  interested  in  the  library  should 
bring  it  to  the  notice  of  influential  neighbors 
interested  in  educational  work.  A  meeting 
of  representative  men  and  women  of  the  lo- 
cality could  be  called  and  reported  in  the 
papers.  A  committee  should  be  chosen  to 
plan,  solicit,  support  and  advertise.  Local 
political  elections  will  give  opportunities  for 
making  the  movement  a  public  issue,  to  be 
finally  brought  up  in  the  local  governing 

The  financial  responsibility  of  the  librarian. 
Ethel  F.  McCullough.  Wis.  Lib.  B.,  S.-O., 
'12,  p.  153-155. 

Since  most  Wisconsin  libraries  are  admin- 
istered by  women,  and  women  have  always 
been  considered  weaklings  in  the  world  of 
finance,  Wisconsin  libraries  are  behindhand  in 
securing  funds.  The  position  is  illogical.  As 
the  one  specialist  in  library  administration 
in  the  average  city  or  town,  the  librarian 
should  assume,  as  an  intrinsic  part  of  her 
business,  the  financial  burden.  She  must  show 


[January,  1913 

her  ability  to  meet  the  financial  problems,  and 
must  educate  her  trustees,  her  fellow  city  offi- 
cials, and,  lastly,  the  humble  taxpayer. 


The  reserved  books  from  the  king's  library. 
Lib.,  p.  422-430. 

Histories  have  noted  the  fact  that  by  order 
of  his  successor,  certain  books  were  reserved 
from  the  library  of  George  in.  at  the  time  of 
its  transference  to  the  Museum.  An  account 
of  these  books  is  here  printed  from  a  trans- 
script  of  the  memorandum  drawn  up  by  Sir 
Frederic  Augusta  Barnard.  Of  these  30  books, 
27  were  presented  to  the  king  by  the  well- 
known  antiquary,  Jacob  Bryant. 


The  issue  of  lantern  slides.  William  Law. 
Lib.  World,  N.,  '12,  p.  136-138. 

Suggestions  for  the  storage,  cataloging  and 
issue  of  lantern  slides,  which  are  of  great 
value  as  adjuncts  to  the  modern  lecturer,  and 
may  well  be  included  in  library  collections. 
Boxes  made  especially  for  storing  slides  are 
on  the  market.  The  stockbook  should  have 
accession  number,  columns  for  date  of  re- 
ceipt, title,  donor  or  vendor,  price,  and  other 
particulars  thought  necessary.  Each  slide 
should  have  accession  number  marked  on  it; 
inside  the  cover  glass  is  the  best  place.  Let- 
tering is  best  in  white.  Slides  should  be 
available  to  lecturers  separately,  not  only  en 
bloc.  Each  box  should  contain  a  list  of  all 
the  slides  it  contains.  It  might  be  advisable 
to  ask  for  a  deposit  before  issuing  slides. 


Civic  duties  of  the  public  librarian.  H.  E. 
Holmes.  Me.  State  L.  B.,  O.,  '12,  p.  7-10. 

The  theory  of  freedom  on  which  our  gov- 
ernment is  founded  necessitates  universal  ed- 
ucation. The  public  library  is  accomplishing 
a  mighty  work  in  this  direction.  The  real 
librarian  must  be  an  executive,  an  administra- 
tor, a  thinker,  an  originator.  He  must  labor 
to  bring  to  the  library  the  75  per  cent,  or  90 
per  cent,  who  do  not  use  it,  and  to  inspire 
those  who  do  use  it  with  an  understanding 
of  its  importance.  The  writer  has  been  criti- 
cised for  saying,  with  Emerson,  "Never  buy 
a  book  until  it  is  at  least  a  year  old."  The 
taste  of  the  public  should  be  consulted,  but 
the  librarian  should  try,  inconspicuously,  to 
direct  the  taste.  Atheistic  materialism  is  un- 
dermining society.  The  increase  of  divorce 
and  growth  of  socialism  are  manifestations 
of  'the  dangerous  spirit.  The  public  library 
is  a  defense  against  the  barbarians  at  our 
gates.  But  the  librarian's  motto  should  be, 
"Ich  dien." 


The  contribution  of  library  science  to  effi- 
ciency in  modern  business.  Louise  B.  Krause. 
Pub.  Lib.  I.  Jl.  '12,  p.  247-51;  II.  N.  '12, 
P.  357-60. 

Article  takes  up  the  work  in  a  "specialized" 
library  which  renders  special  expert  service  on 
matters  of  company  business.  Under  the  head 
of  "The  function  of  a  library  in  the  work  of  a 
modern  business  organization,"  Miss  Krause 
first  mentions  the  mistaken  notion  that  a  busi- 
ness librarian  has  lowered  .her  ideals  in  ac- 
cepting such  a  position,  and  then  discusses 
three  departments  of  the  H.  M.  Byllesby  & 
Co.,  where  she  is  librarian.  The  operating 
department  determines  prices  or  rates,  etc., 
and  the  function  of  the  library  here  is  to  keep 
on  file  full  information  as  to  public  utility 
commissions;  keep  track  of  publications  deal- 
ing with  rates ;  index  articles  on  industrial 
applications  of  electric  power  (especially  for 
the  "new  business"  division,  which  constitutes 
a  bureau  of  technical  and  commercial  informa- 
tion) ;  organize  the  collection  of  photographs ; 
keep  on  file  periodicals  and  pamphlets,  de- 
scriptive booklets  of  various  towns'  and  cities ; 
make  table  of  contents  and;  index  for  annual 
volumes  of  proceedings ;  serve  as  a  bureau  of 
information;  collect  references  bearing  on  the 
company's  work  (the  last  four  especially  for 
the  publicity  division,  which  directs  company 
advertising,  general  publicity  and  the  public 
policy  of  the  company).  The  library  serves 
the  engineering  department,  which  designs  and 
constructs  large  engineering  works,  with  small, 
carefully  selected  lists  of  books  and  period- 
icals, and  an  important  selection  of  reports, 
maps,  photographs  and  ms.  engineering  data. 
For  the  examinations  and  reports  department, 
which  examines  and  reports  on  the  physical 
and  financial  condition  of  public  utilities,  the 
library  is  on  the  lookout  for  material  bearing 
on  the  science  of  valuation,  and  any  other 
references  of  this  character,  and  keeps  statis- 
tics of  all  kinds.  The  second  head,  "Qualifi- 
cations for  successful  business,"  discusses  as 
professional  qualifications  thorough  knowledge 
of  library  science,  and  as  personal  qualifica- 
tions, "the  ability  to  hold  one's  tongue,"  un- 
failing and  indiscriminating  courtesy,  "keep- 
ing from  under  the  feet"  of  busy  men,  quick 
and  immediate  service,  tact,  joy  of  work  and 
"always  be  game."  The  third  head,  "Some 
methods  of  work  used  in  conducting  business 
libraries,"  speaks  of  a  business  library  as  a 
library  laboratory,  as  distinguished  from  a 
large  collection  of  books,  and  meritorious  diffi- 
culties of  inclusion,  preparation  of  material, 
and  necessity  of  knowledge  of  government  doc- 
uments. Under  the  last  head,  "The  unentered 
field  of  business  librarianship —  a  door  of  op- 
portunity," enjoins  the  students  (lectures  at 
the  Univ.  of  111.  School)  to  have  the  ambition 
to  enter  new  fields  of  library  work,  one  of 
which  is  business  organizations.  This  field  is 
absolutely  unworked,  and  most  business  men 
are  not  conscious  of  the  fact  that  they  need 
a  librarian.  Some  of  the  disadvantages  of 
this  work  are  more  trying  conditions  in  re- 
gard to  physical  equipment  of  the  library,  a 
limited  subject,  emergency  hours,  short  vaca- 

January,  1913] 


tions.      Advantages    are    the    opportunity    as 
specialist  and  of  original  work. 


Public  libraries  and  the  public.  W.  E. 
Doubleday.  Lib,  Assoc.  R.}  N.,  '12,  p.  529- 

The  year  has  been  unhappily  distinguished 
by  library  criticism.  The  fiction  question  is 
the  "leading  plank"  in  the  platform  of  adver- 
saries. As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  issue  of  solid 
literature  increases,  while  the  fiction  circula- 
tion declines.  Another  accusation  is  that  read- 
ing rooms  are  shelters  for  loafers.  Some 
there  are,  but  it  is  easy  to  keep  out  "undesir- 
ables." The  Earl  of  Rosebery's  remarks 
about  "dead  books"  has  been  misconstrued  as 
a  criticism  of  library  procedure.  Mr.  John 
Burns'  reported  "men  are  getting  tired  of 
drenching  the  country  with  public  libraries" 
is  either  incorrectly  reported  or  a  charge 
against  his  own  party  which  created  the  li- 
braries. The  charge  of  socialism,  advanced 
by  Herbert  Spencer  and  others  is  groundless. 
Mr.  J.  E.  G.  de  Montmorency  recently  gave 
public  recognition  of  the  educational  possi- 
bilities of  libraries.  The  chief  grievance  of 
the  library  in  the  direction  of  the  press  lies 
in  the  virulent  letters  published  in  local  pa- 
pers. The  final  point  against  library  criticism 
is  that  it  is  almost  always  purely  destructive 
in  character. 


Newark's  investment  in  its  library  building 
— has  it  paid?  Newarker,  Au.,  '12,  p.  161-165. 

Considers  the  influence  of  the  library  build- 
ing upon  the  community  as  setting  the  pace 
for  the  architectural  new  Newark,  and  as  a 
realization  in  the  building  line  of  citizens 
"that  they  lived  in  a  great  metropolis,  and  not 
in  a  country  village."  This  library  was  one 
of  the  first  in  the  country  to  recognize  its 
position  as  a  center  of  civic  life,  and  opened 
its  doors  to  numberless  meetings  of  commu- 
nity welfare  character.  A  museum,  donated 
to  the  library,  has  grown  to  be  one  of  the 
most  important  science  museums  in  the  city. 
But  in  its  chief  function,  the  distribution  of 
books,  the  library  has  a  record  that  would  be 
difficult  to  equal.  In  ten  years  the  circulation 
rose  from  320,000  to  1,200,000. 


The  libraries  of  Paddy's  Run.  S.  R.  Will- 
iams. Ohio  Arches  ological  and  Historical 
Quarterly,  O.,  '12,  p.  462-465. 

Paddy's  Run  is  a  settlement,  now  known 
as  Shandon,  about  twenty  miles  northwest  of 
Cincinnati.  It  was  settled  by  people  from 
Wales  about  1803.  Soon  afterwards  they 
started  a  library,  the  exact  date  of  which  is 
not  known,  but  it  was  in  existence  in  1812. 
The  article  gives  a  brief  account  of  the  his- 
tory of  this  library  and  its  successor.  In  the 
group  of  people  who  used  it,  there  are  a 

number  who  have  figured  largely  in  the  his- 
tory of  Ohio. 


Public  records;  first  report  of  the  Royal 
Commission.  Lib.  Assoc.  R.,  N.,  '12,  p.  519- 

A  summary  of  the  report,  giving  conclu- 
sions and  recommendations  of  the  commis- 
sion appointed  to  inquire  and  report  as  to  the 
working  of  the  public  records  acts,  as  to  the 
care  and  custody  of  public  records  in  Eng- 
land and  Wales,  and  as  to  the  administration 
and  efficiency  of  the  Public  Records  Office ; 
and  a  further  summary  of  recommendations, 
categorically  set  forth,  arranged  under  vari- 
ous headings,  so  far  as  they  specially  concern 
either  the  government,  the  master  of  rolls, 
the  Public  Records  Office,  or  other  individual 
officials  or  departments.  The  report  presents: 
(i)  text  of  the  report,  (2)  a  great  mass  of 
extremely  interesting  information  respecting 
British  and  foreign  archives,  (3)  minutes  of 
evidence,  and  index. 


Books :  their  use  and  abuse.  Rev.  W.  R. 
Inge.  Lib.  Asst.  N.,  '12,  p.  202-210. 

The  establishment  of  libraries  and  the  publi- 
cation of  cheap  and  attractive  editions  of  the 
classics  are  contributing  very  much  to  diffus- 
ing education  and  zest  for  good  literature. 
But  the  large  circulation  of  worthless  fiction 
shows  that  the  public  taste  is  not  elevated. 
The  reading  of  cheap  novels,  skimmed  and 
forgotten,  is  a  disease.  During  the  days  from 
Scott  to  Thackeray,  British  fiction  was  whole- 
some. Our  novelists  must  return  to  sounder 
traditions,  without  falling  back  into  timid  reti- 
cence, a  blunder  from  the  moral  as  well  as 
artistic  viewpoint.  However,  the  great  books 
of  the  past  are  read,  even  by  working  men. 
The  great  difficulty  is  that  the  self-made  man 
has  not  imbibed  the  traditions  of  European 
culture,  does  not  understand  the  classical  allu- 
sions or  appreciate  our  civilization  in  its  rela- 
tion to  past  civilizations.  This  is  also  true  of 
the  attitude  of  the  County  Council  schools 
product  toward  Christianity.  He  knows  little 
or  nothing  of  the  organic  filaments  which  bind 
modern  Christianity  to  a  remote  past.  But 
while  the  best  traditions  of  the  old  culture  are 
in  danger  of  being  lost  northern  Europe  gains 
something  from  its  emancipation  from  old 
leading  strings.  Our  race  is  evolving  a  philos- 
ophy, an  ethics,  a  Christianity  of  its  own. 
Whether  it  will  be  a  reversion  to  barbarism  or 
a  new  and  fresher  culture  depends  on  the  kind 
of  education  the  people  are  to  get — especially 
the  adults.  We  must  use  great  care  also  in 
protecting  our  language  from  corruption.  The 
"journalese"  mode  of  speech  and  odious  sole- 
cisms from  America  are  everywhere  rife. 


General  reading  for  men.  M.  S.  Dudgeon 
Pub.  Lib.,  D.,  '12,  p.  399-401. 


[January,  1913 

It  is  not  safe,  in  striving  to  serve  men  in 
the  library,  to  assume  that  they  will  like  all 
the  same  light  literature  which  women  like. 
The  practical  man  regards  "The  rosary"  as 
a  mass  of  saccharine  sentimentality.  A  wo- 
man enjoys  sorrow,  a  man  wants  cheerful- 
ness and  success.  He  prefers  "The  conquest 
of  Canaan"  to  "Lewis  Rand."  Books  of  ad- 
venture and  travel  appeal  to  him,  such  as 
Francke's  "A  vagabond  journey,"  Borup's  "A 
tenderfoot  with  Peary,"  Norman  Duncan's 
tales.  In  fiction,  he  likes  Rhodes'  "Good  men 
and  true,"  Kipling's  stories  of  the  Orient, 
Owen  Wister's  and  Jack  London's  tales.  "Fa- 
mous adventures  and  prison  escapes  of  the 
Civil  War"  was  most  popular  in  the  engine 
houses  at  Pittsburgh  and  in  the  home  circula- 
tion in  Wisconsin.  In  novels,  men  prefer 
romance  to  sentimentality.  They  read  more 
of  Gilbert  Parker  and  Maurice  Hewlett  than 
DeMorgan  or  Galsworthy.  The  political  set- 
ting is  a  popular  background.  In  lists  of 
boys'  books  chosen  by  votes  of  high  school 
boys  in  New  York  and  Wisconsin,  "Treasure 
Island"  leads.  Both  lists  contain  Cooper's 
"Spy"  and  "The  last  of  the  Mohicans."  Li- 
brarians must  not  forget  to  serve  the  man 
with  the  truly  humorous.  Men  enjoy  Arnold 
Bennett,  Montague  Glass,  W.  J.  Locke,  Stew- 
art's "Fugitive  blacksmith,"  Bacheller's  "Keep- 
ing up  with  Lizzie,"  Holman  Day's  "The  skip- 
per and  the  skipped,"  and  Alice  Hegan  Rice's 
"Mr.  Opp." 


School  libraries  and  reading.  E.  Morris 
Miller.  Australia,  Education  Gazette  and 
Teachers'  Aid,  Mr.,  '12,  12  p. 

A  discussion  of  what  school  libraries  can 
do  in  leading  the  child  to  acquire  early  the 
habit  of  good  reading.  Summary:  i.  Intro- 
ductory. II.  School  libraries:  general  read- 
ing. III.  School  libraries :  supplementary 
reading.  IV.  Library  organization,  (a)  Or- 
derliness, (b)  Accessions,  (c)  Catalog,  (d) 
Classification.  (e)  Charging  methods.  V. 
Library  training  for  teachers  and  children. 
VI.  Libraries  and  education. 


Staff  exchanges  in  public  libraries.  K.  Cot- 
ton. Libn.,  N.,  '12,  p.  137-138. 

A  suggestion  for  doubling  the  vacation 
period  by  a  half-time  system  of  duty,  and 
allowing  assistants  to  arrange  exchanges  with 
assistants  in  other  towns,  so  that  each  gets 
an  economical  holiday,  with  a  change  of  place 
and  new  experience,  without  curtailing  the 
library  staff.  Assistants  might  even  be  ex- 
changed for  lengths  of  time  with  the  libraries 
of  other  countries. 


Staff  interchange:  an  inaugural  address. 
Ernest  Male.  Lib.  Asst.  N.,  '12,  p.  211-215. 

The  assistant  is  too  apt  to  drop  into  a  groove. 
When  the  time  comes  when  he  wants  a  larger 

position  and  salary  he  finds  he  is  lacking  in 
experience.  A  scheme  has  been  suggested 
whereby  assistants  of  equal  rank  in  different 
libraries  should  change  places,  perhaps  for  a 
fortnight,  perhaps  for  a  month.  Trie  consent 
of  the  respective  committees  must  first  of  all 
be  obtained.  The  fact  that  different  libraries 
use  different  classifications  would  be  confusing, 
but  beneficial  to  the  assistants  in  the  end.  The 
question  of  differences  in  salaries  would  have 
to  be  adjusted.  The  library,  as  well  as  the 
assistant  would  benefit  by  an  interchange.  An 
assistant  might  be  allowed  to  change  three 
times  in  twelve  months.  The  offer  of  a  more 
remunerative  post  might  come  through  inter- 
changing. The  great  thing  to  dp  is  to  enlist 
the  sympathy  of  the  chief  librarians.  Assist- 
ants who  intend  to  sit  for  the  Library  Associa- 
tion's Examinations  would  find  interchanging 
of  enormous  help. 

•Rotes  an&  flews 

on  the  bibliography  of  unemployment  under- 
taken by  the  Institut  International  de  Bib- 
liographic and  the  Bibliotheque  Municipale  de 
Budapest  was  made  at  the  session  of  the  In- 
ternational Committee  of  the  Association  In- 
ternationale pour  la  Lutte  Contre  le  Chomage 
at  Zurich,  Sept.  6-7,  1912.  The  report  gives 
an  account  of  the  commencement  of  the  un- 
dertaking, the  bibliographical  methods  decided 
upon,  an  outline  of  the  proposed  plan,  decisions 
regarding  classification,  the  languages  to  be 
employed,  matter  to  be  included,  etc.,  and 
other  details. 

BOOKS  endorsed  by  the  A.  L.  A.  is  the  title 
of  a  catalog  issued  by  Doubleday,  Page  &  Co., 
being  a  literal  transcription  of  their  books  in 
the  A.  L.  A.  supplement,  1904-11. 

DEUTSCHE  HAUS,  of  Columbia  University, 
has  a  unique  feature  in  its  library,  which  is 
unlike  any  other  in  that  it  confines  itself  to 
current  German  literature  since  1871.  Direc- 
tor Tombo  is  making  the  library  of  the 
"Haus"  essentially  "a  repository  of  material 
of  immediate  interest,"  and  the  result  is  a 
collection  of  books,  articles,  newspaper  clip- 
pings and  other  fugitive  material  that  is  not 
available  at  any  other  library  or  university. 

ecutive committee  of  the  Buffalo  Educational 
Union  had  a  meeting,  about  a  week  ago,  which 
resulted  in  a  plan  for  a  display  card  to  be 
placed  in  the  halls  of  the  different  institutions, 
in  factories,  etc.,  calling  attention  to  the  re- 
sources of  the  five  institutions  represented — 
the  Buffalo  Public  Library,  the  Grosvenor 
Library,  the  Buffalo  Society  of  Natural  Sci- 
ences, the  Buffalo  Fine  Arts  Academy  and 
the  Buffalo  Historical  Society.  Other  com- 
mittees were  appointed  for  the  purpose  of 
preparing  for  publication  a  directory  of  the 

January,  1913] 



educational  institutions  in  the  city  of  Buffalo ; 
to  arrange  with  two  local  newspapers  for  the 
publishing  of  weekly  news  notes  concerning 
all  these  institutions ;  and  to  arrange  for  talks 
before  the  night  schools  and  clubs,  calling 
attention  with  lantern  slides  to  the  resources 
of  the  different  institutions. 

EXAMINATIONS. — It  is  interesting  to  note 
that  the  method  of  selection  pursued  in  the 
appointment  of  Mr.  Legler  to  the  librarian- 
ship  of  the  Chicago  Public  Library  is  to  be 
followed  closely  by  the  three  commissioners 
of  Sumter,  S.  C,  in  the  choice  of  a  city 
manager  to  control  the  municipal  business. 

INFORMATION  BUREAU.  —  William  Abbatt, 
publisher,  of  Westchester,  N.  Y.,  announces 
the  publication  of  International  Notes  and 
Queries,  a  monthly  magazine,  the  first  regular 
number  of  which  is  promised  for  January, 
1913.  The  idea  is  to  afford  a  practical  basis 
for  intercommunication  between  reference 
librarians  and  other  investigators.  To  facili- 
tate foreign  research,  short  notes  in  the  in- 
ternational language,  "I  do,"  will  be  accepted. 
The  contents  of  each  issue  will  be  arranged 
by  subject,  according  to  the  decimal  classifica- 
tion. The  scope  of  subjects  upon  which  ques- 
tions may  be  asked  is  unlimited.  Librarians 
and  others  interested  in  the  project  are  in- 
vited to  send  for  free  sample  copies.  Eugene 
F.  MacPike,  of  Chicago,  who  has  suggested 
the  formation  of  an  American  Cooperative 
Information  Bureau,  is  the  editor.  Subscrip- 
tion price  is  $2.25  per  year. 

INTERLIBRARY  LOANS. — A  regular  messenger 
service  between  the  Columbia  University  Li- 
brary and  the  New  York  Public  Library  has 
been  instituted.  Applications  left  at  the  uni- 
versity loan  desk  before  10  a.m.,  Wednesday 
of  each  week,  may  be  called  for  on  the  same 
day  after  3  p.m. 

LEATHER  BINDINGS.— The  report  of  the  Li- 
brarian of  Congress  says  that  the  question  of 
what  kind  of  leather  is  the  best  is  not  so  im- 
portant as  the  question  of  the  best  tannage 
and  dyeing,  and  enumerates  the  common  de- 
fects of  leather  as  now  usually  produced  as 
(i)  those  caused  by  the  effects  of  mineral 
acids  in  the  dyeing;  (2)  those  resulting  from 
the  use  of  strong,  quick-acting  tannins  of  the 
catachol  group  (represented  by  turwar  bark, 
hemlock  bark,  etc.),  in  place  of  the  pyrogallol 
group  (represented  by  sumach,  etc.) ;  (3) 
those  consequent  to  the  thin  splitting  and 
buffing  of  the  leather.  "Recently  certain 
leathers  have  appeared  in  the  market  guaran- 
teed free  from  mineral  acids  and  of  sound 

PALACE. — To  advertise  the  library  in  its  own 
community,  as  well  as  to  bring  it  to  the  at- 
tention of  the  surrounding  small  towns,  the 
Waco  Public  Library  held  an  exhibit  of  its 
work  at  the  Texas  Cotton  Palace  in  Novem- 
ber. The  exhibit  assumed  the  form  of  a 
small  library,  with  reading  room  and  chil- 
dren's corner,  with  1500  selected  books.  The 

exhibit  was  made  attractive  with  casts  and 
pictures,  and  an  attendant  from  the  library 
was  present  at  all  times  to  answer  questions 
and  to  distribute  the  handbooks  of  the  li- 
brary, lists,  pictures  of  the  library  and  appli- 
cation cards  for  membership,  and  bookmarks 
for  the  children.  Several  thousand  people 
visited  the  exhibit  and  enjoyed  the  reading 
rooms.  For  the  children,  Miss  Nell  Whitman 
told  stories  in  the  large  coliseum  and  in  the 
Cotton  Palace  Park.  The  library  was  repre- 
sented on  Waco  day  in  a  parade  by  a  float, 
bearing  children  in  costumes,  representing 
characters  from  the  story  hour.  The  float 
was  under  the  direction  of  Miss  Lota  Pharr, 
the  library  story-teller,  and  attracted  many 
children  to  the  story  hour. 

LITERARY  HYPOCRISY  was  also  touched  upon 
by  Lord  Rosebery  when  the  freedom  of  the 
Burgh  of  Peebles  was  conferred  upon  him 
Oct.  9.  In  an  address  reported  in  the  Librarian 
he  said  supposed  literature  meant  the 
standard  books,  and  that  these  were  those  lists 
of  the  100  best  books  that  competent  gentlemen 
were  ready  to  furnish  on  the  slightest  possible 
occasion.  He  firmly  believed  that  if  a  man 
proceeded  to  read  the  books  given  in 
any  list  right  through,  he  would  never  wish  to 
read  again.  George  in.  was  supposed  to  have 
said  that  Shakespeare  was  sad  stuff.  He  did 
not  understand  that  j  udgment,  but  he  respected 
the  courage  of  the  man  who  uttered  it,  and 
was  inclined  to  think  that  no  one  but  a  crowned 
sovereign  would  have  had  the  courage  to 
make  it. 

McCLURo's  have  issued  the  fourth  edition 
of  their  classified  library  catalog. 

NEWSPAPER  PRESERVATION. — As  a  result  of 
the  meeting  of  the  A.  L.  A.  committee  on 
newsprint  paper  and  representatives  of  the 
American  Newspaper  Publishers'  Association, 
at  which  the  paper  by  Mr.  Norris  (reprinted 
elsewhere)  was  presented,  the  Brooklyn  Daily 
Eagle  has  begun  the  printing  of  a  special 
binding  edition  on  a  permanent  paper,  consist- 
ing of  75  per  cent,  rag,  especially  intended  for 
library  preservation.  It  is  reported  that  the 
Washington  Star,  the  St.  Paul  Pioneer  Press, 
and  the  New  York  Evening  Post  will  follow 
the  Eagle's  example.  The  Eagle  proposes  to 
furnish  two  copies,  one  of  the  regular  issue  for 
use  on  the  files,  and  one  of  the  better  paper 
for  binding,  for  $20  a  year.  The  extra  edition 
will  be  held  (flat)  and  sent  to  subscribers 
once  a  month,  or  once  in  three  months,  as 
desired.  The  binding  edition  only  will  be  sent 
for  $15.  The  New  York  World  was  some- 
what exercised  as  to  this  "Printing  for  pos- 
terity" in  a  cynical  editorial  protest  against 
our  handing  down  to  posterity  "stupendous 
masses  of  imperishable  daily  newspaper  and 
periodical  files,  full  of  repetitions  and  dupli- 

PENNELL'S  pictures  of  the  Panama  Canal 
have  proved  excellent  for  exhibition  purposes, 
and  may  be  procured  in  sheets. 



[January,  1913 

PRISON  LIBRARIES  in  Germany  are  to  receive 
careful  overhauling.  They  are  to  be  divided 
according  to  entertaining,  instructive  and  re- 
ligious contents,  and  will  be  replenished,  with 
a  view  to  furnishing  the  best  to  the  ordinary 
readers,  to  the  more  educated  readers,  to 
young  folk  and  to  Protestants  and  Catholics. 
Cheap  and  popular  editions  are  to  have  pref- 
erence in  purchase. 

RUSSELL  SAGE  FOUNDATION,  department  of 
surveys  and  exhibits  (31  Union  Square,  N.  Y. 
City),  has  issued  an  inquiry  blank  regarding 
exhibit  units  and  materials  to  reveal  present 
exhibit  thought,  knowledge  and  practice.  Bet- 
ter standardized  sizes  and  materials  used  in 
mounting  would  give  opportunity  for  a  larger 
and  more  efficient  use  of  exhibits. 

STEVENSON'S  poem,  "Our  lady  of  the  snows," 
has  contained  a  typographical  error  in  all  edi- 
tions of  his  poems,  ever  since  its  first  printing 
in  1887.  In  the  lines  "Where  nothing  speaks 
except  the  bell,  The  unfraternal  brothers 
dwell,"  the  printer  substituted  an  "h"  for  a 
"b"  in  the  word  bell,  making  nonsense  of  the 
line.  As  editors  and  proofreaders  still  over- 
look the  error,  it  lies  with  libraries  to  make 
corrections  in  their  individual  copies. 

American  Vigilance  Association.  The  li- 
brary department  has  prepared  lists,  especially 
recommended  to  libraries,  on  the  social  evil 
and  sex  education. 

Louisiana  State  Library  Association  has 
been  getting  a  traveling  library  collection  into 
shape,  and  will  begin  sending  out  the  libraries 
the  first  of  the  year  1913  as  an  initial  step  in 
arousing  interest  throughout  the  state.  The 
association  is  also  working  for  a  library  com- 
mission, and  intends  coming  before  the  next 
legislature  with  a  bill  for  creating  such  a 

Allentown  (Pa.}  Public  Library  was  open- 
ed, November  25,  with  exercises.  The  library 
is  the  result  of  voluntary  subscriptions, 
amounting  to  $27,687,  in  sums  ranging  from 
5  cents  to  $500.  The  total  cost  of  the  library 
was  $25,887. 

Boston  Public  Library  has  just  published  a 
13-page  pamphlet  on  "Books  and  articles  in 
periodicals  on  business  education  in  the  Bos- 
ton Public  Library  and  the  Massachusetts 
State  Library." 

Columbia  University  Library.  In  conse- 
quence of  the  establishment  of  exchange  re- 
lations with  the  British  Library  of  Political 
Science  of  the  London  School  of  Economics 
and  Political  science,  the  university  has  re- 
cently received  from  that  institution  4992 
pamphlets  on  exchange  account.  The  "List 
of  medical  periodicals  currently  received  in 
the  libraries  of  the  College  of  Physicians  and 
Surgeons  and  in  other  libraries  of  Columbia 
University,"  just  published,  shows  that  328 
periodicals  are  received.  Of  these,  214  are 
different  titles,  114  duplicates. 

Detroit  Public  Library.  As  a  result  of  the 
recent  library  inspection  trip  of  three  of  the 
library  commissioners  and  Mr.  Utley  and  Mr. 
Strohm,  a  report  was  submitted  to  a  meeting 
of  the  library  commission,  October  n,  indi- 
cating some  of  the  plans  for  the  new  central 
library  building  for  Detroit.  Storage  is  sug- 
gested for  at  least  750,000  books,  and  accom- 
modations for  a  population  twice  that  of  the 
present  city.  The  building  should  be  a  plain, 
substantial  structure,  of  a  pleasing,  dignified 
and  impressive  appearance,  the  new  St.  Louis 
building  being  considered  as  of  about  the 
right  character  and  size,  although  some  of 
the  ornamentation  might  be  omitted.  A  con- 
siderable addition  to  the  $375,000  offered  by 
Mr.  Carnegie  is  urged.  The  Business  Library 
Branch  of  the  Newark  Library  "seems  to  meet 
the  needs  of  the  busy  man,  and  may  well  be 
considered  as  a  future  feature  in  the  Detroit 

— ,  the  George  V.  N.  Lothrop  Branch  was 
opened  on  Dec.  21,  1912,  with  appropriate  ad- 
dresses by  representatives  of  the  city,  the 
schools  and  the  community.  A  week  later, 
December  28,  like  exercises  were  held  in  con- 
nection with  the  dedication  of  the  Herbert 
Bowen  Branch. 

Elisabeth  (N.  J.)  Public  Library.  Ground 
was  broken,  November  13,  for  a  branch  li- 
brary, 74  x  44,  to  be  known  as  the  Liberty 
Square  Branch. 

Grand  Rapids  Public  Library  has  issued 
"The  library  and  the  schools,"  an  account  of 
the  work  of  the  library  with  and  for  the  chil- 
dren and  teachers  of  the  public,  parochial  and 
private  schools  of  the  city. 

Library  of  Congress  has  received  a  com- 
plete set  of  autograph  letters  or  documents  of 
the  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Independ- 
ence from  J.  Pierpont  Morgan. 

Los  Angeles.  The  charter  for  Los  Angeles, 
which  provided  for  the  commission  form  of 
government,  and  contained  inadequate  pro- 
visions for  the  control  and  financing  of  the 
library,  was  decisively  defeated  at  an  election 
held  December  3.  It  is  hoped  that  the  new 
charter  will  contain  a  section  favorable  to  the 

New  Haven  Free  Public  Library  has  issued 
in  pamphlet  form  the  minutes  of  the  dedication 
exercises,  May  27,  1911. 

New  York  State  Library  School's  anniver- 
sary of  the  first  quarter  century  has  occa- 
sioned the  publication  of  an  illustrated  pamph- 
let, furnishing,  in  informal  papers  by  friends 
of  the  school,  a  brief  history  of  its  activities. 

Pittsburgh,  Carnegie  Library.  The  second 
edition  (84  p.)  of  the  Debate  Index  is  now 
off  the  press. 

Queens  Borough  Public  Library.  An  ex- 
amination, equivalent  to  that  required  for 
grade  B,  to  fill  a  vacancy  existing  in  the 
traveling  library  department,  will  be  held  in 
January.  Salary,  $720  per  annum. 

January,  1913] 



Salt  Lake  City  Public  Library  opened  its 
first  branch  library  Dec.  2  with  about  2100 
books,  in  two  rooms  on  the  ground  floor  of  a 
new  department  store.  The  branch  is  in- 
tended to  supply  with  books  the  citizens  living 
beyond  a  viaduct  which  separates  the  west  side 
from  the  main  part  of  the  city. 

Vergennes,  Vt.  The  Bixby  Memorial  Free 
Library  building  was  dedicated  on  October  I. 
The  main  address  was  given  by  Dr.  John  A. 
Thomas,  president  of  Middlebury  College,  who 
laid  stress  on  the  importance  of  the  librarian's 
powers  and  personality  in  the  library's  work, 
and  the  necessity  of  reaching  out  as  far  as 
possible  in  as  many  ways  as  possible  in  order 
that  the  newly  established  library  should  live 
up  to  the  best  ideals  in  up-to-date  library 

Washington^,  District  of  Columbia  Public 
Library,  has  issued  some  interesting  publicity 
material,  including  printed  lists  of  books  on 
special  topics.  The  industrial  department  has 
been  emphasized,  and  with  a  new  industrial 
circular,  a  "keep-up-to-date"  card  is  enclosed 
for  noting  subjects  of  interest. 

Berlin  University  Library  is  again  giving 
weekly  lectures  on  the  use  of  the  library. 
Important  reference  and  bibliographical  ma- 
terial will  be  fully  discussed. 

Gifts  an&  Bequests 

BRAINERD,  Jessie,  a  student  in  the  New  York 
Library  School,  has  been  appointed  librarian 
of  the  New  Rochelle  Public  Library,  but  will 
continue  her  work  in  the  school  for  the  pres- 
ent as  a  partial  student. 

CARTER,  Julia  F.,  Pratt,  '06,  has  been  ap- 
pointed librarian  of  the  Perkins  children's 
branch,  Cleveland,  O.,  Public  Library. 

CLARK,  Etta  M.,  resigned  her  position  as 
librarian  of  Middlebury  College,  Middlebury, 
Vt.,  Nov.  i,  1912,  to  accept  the  assistant  libra- 
rianship  of  the  New  York  School  of  Philan- 
thropy Library,  Russell  Sage  Foundation.  The 
recataloging  of  the  entire  library  is  going  on 
under  her  direction. 

HACKETT,  Irene  A.,  Pratt,  '97,  librarian  of 
the  public  library,  New  Castle,  Pa.,  has  been 
made  librarian  of  the  public  library,  Engle- 
wood,  N.  J.,  and  began  work  there  January  I. 

HJELMQVIST,  Dr.  Frederik,  of  Stockholm, 
a  member  of  the  library  commission,  is  now 
traveling  in  the  United  States,  to  investigate 
library  conditions. 

SMITH,  George  E.,  an  attorney,  of  St.  Louis, 
has  been  appointed  state  librarian  of  Missouri 
for  a  term  of  four  years. 

SWEZEY,  Anna  D.,  B.L.S.,  Illinois,  '03,  who 
for  nearly  three  years  has  been  librarian  of 
the  East  Chicago  and  Indiana  Harbor  Public 
Libraries,  has  resigned  her  position,  to  accept 
the  librarianship  of  the  Salem  (Ore.)  P.  L. 

Fort  Atkinson,  Wis.,  is  the  recipient  of  a 
gift  of  $10,000  for  a  new  public  library. 
Henry  E.  Southwell,  of  Chicago,  is  the  donor. 
The  only  stipulation  is  that  it  be  called  the 
Dwight  Foster  Public  Library,  in  memory  of 
the  pioneer  settler  of  Fort  Atkinson. 

Utica,  N.  Y.  A  lot  for  a  branch  building 
has  been  presented  to  the  library  by  Mr. 
F.  T.  Proctor,  a  trustee  of  the  library,  in  the 
eastern  section  of  the  city,  near  the  large 
Italian  population.  The  building  will  be 
erected  as  early  as  possible  in  the  spring,  and 
it  is  hoped  that  it  will  be  ready  for  use  in 
the  fall  of  1913. 

SLtbrarg  "Reports 

Amherst  (Mass.)  Coll.  L.  R.  S.  Fletcher, 
Ibn.  (Rpt. — year  to  O.  I,  1912.)  Accessions 
4200;  total  106,685.  Circulation  10,808.  Do- 
nations have  been  notable.  Much  progress 
has  been  made  in  the  revision  of  the  catalog. 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  Pratt  Institute  F.  L.  E.  F. 
Stevens,  Ibn.  (Rpt.  —  year  to  Je.  30,  1912.) 
Accessions  5832;  total  101,596.  Circulation 
258,759.  Registrations  6614.  Reference  issue 
statistics  have  been  discontinued  as  an  in- 
accurate and  unavailing  record.  Attendance  at 
the  applied  science  department  was  20,908.  De- 
mand for  the  "works"  library  of  technical 
books  has  led  to  the  preparation  of  a  perma- 
nent standard  selection  of  technical  works  to 
meet  any  need  at  a  moment's  notice.  The 
character  of  books  for  this  library  is  indicated 
by  different  colored  cards,  books  noted  on  blue 
cards  for  instance  being  those  designed  for 
men  with  no  technical  training. 

Columbia  Univ.  L.  W.  D.  Johnston,  Ibn. 
(Rpt.— year  to  Je.  30,  1912.)  Agreements 
have  been  entered  into  with  two  institutions 
in  the  city  effecting  a  union  of  their  libraries 
with  that  of  the  university;  also  with  the 
N.  Y.  Public  Library,  sending  titles  of  all 
periodicals  added,  and  with  the  Metropolitan 
Museum,  sending  the  list  of  its  current  ac- 
cessions. The  librarian  has  been  authorized 
to  extend  the  use  of  the  library  to  persons  in 
New  York,  Brooklyn  and  Newark  introduced 
by  the  public  librarians  in  those  places.  Re- 
arrangement in  shelving  now  permits  students 
admitted  to  the  stacks  to  find  the  literature 
of  a  subject  in  one  place,  and  with  newly  in- 
stalled stack  guide  cards  and  shelf  labels, 
find  it  with  the  least  expenditure  of  time. 
Among  department  libraries,  the  important 
event  was  the  completion  of  the  Avery  Li- 
brary. The  most  notable  acquisition  of  the 
year  was  the  collection  of  the  Samuel  John- 
son papers,  in  book  collections,  the  dramatic 
library  of  Brander  Matthews,  and  the 
works  of  James  Thomson.  Gifts  included 
$25,000  from  Mrs.  Russell  Sage  for  the  de- 


[January,  1913. 

partment  of  the  practice  of  medicine,  and 
$7500  for  general  purposes  (anonymous). 
Study  has  been  made  of  the  expenditure  for 
books  for  the  several  departments  for  the 
past  14  years.  Accessions  were  23,528  vol- 
umes, 1134  mss.,  7000  photos,  67  maps.  Re- 
marks on  administrative  organization  are  re- 
printed on  page  25.  Students  are  no  longer 
employed  in  higher  grades  of  library  service. 
Department  librarians  have  been  given  the 
same  rank  as  heads  of  departments  in  the 
general  library.  Order  cards  for  books  have 
hitherto  been  filed  as  a  record  of  books  re- 
ceived by  purchase  as  soon  as  the  books  are 
cataloged;  they  are  now  returned  at  quarterly 
intervals  to  the  officers  or  readers  from  whom 
they  were  received,  being  thus,  in  part,  a  bul- 
letin of  accessions,  and  save  maintaining  any 
card  record.  Average  cost  of  first-hand  books 
added  was  $2.49;  second-hand,  $1.52.  Through 
exchange,  6396  pieces  (not  serials)  (4896  dis- 
sertations) were  received  from  750  institu- 
tions. 3611  pieces  (not  serials)  (1748  disser- 
tations) were  distributed  to  548  institutions. 
It  has  been  determined  to  transfer  the  li- 
brary's catalog  to  standard  size  cards.  The 
available  printed  cards  will  be  used,  but  as  no 
large  proportion  of  books  for  which  no  cards 
have  been  published  is  likely  to  be  found, 
cards  are  to  be  multigraphed,  and  only  such 
copies  of  them  as  may  be  wanted  by  other 
libraries  for  insertion  in  their  union  catalogs, 
or  for  other  bibliographical  purposes.  It  has 
been  decided  to  adopt  the  L.  C.  cataloging 
rules  and  its  list  of  subject  headings,  and — 
for  unclassified  departments  of  the  library — 
its  system  of  classification.  Investigation  has 
been  made  of  other  libraries'  catalogs,  history, 
number  of  catalogs,  composition,  cost  and  use, 
the  results  to  be  communicated  to  other  libra- 
ries in  a  series  of  memoranda.  45,860  cards 
were  added  to  the  library  catalogs,  represent- 
ing 17,550  volumes;  9053  new  book  titles,  734 
analytical  titles.  The  binding  department  has 
been  established,  with  complete  equipment  (10 
workers).  The  monthly  output  is  about  400 
volumes.  An  arrangement  has  been  made 
with  the  Library  of  Congress,  providing  that 
topics  to  be  investigated  at  Columbia  may  be 
forwarded  to  the  L.  C.,  which  will  supply 
the  bibliographies,  showing  its  resources  on 
each  topic,  and  Columbia  will,  in  turn,  supply 
the  additional  titles.  It  has  been  proposed 
to  print  brief  syllabi  of  the  more  popular 
courses,  with  the  advice  and  cooperation  of 
officers  of  instruction.  Lectures  have  been 
given  on  the  university  libraries,  supplemented 
by  lectures  on  legal  bibliography.  Recorded 
use  of  books  was  855,910  (185,253  outside 
use).  620  volumes  were  borrowed  from  27 
institutions,  400  loaned  to  65. 

Cornell  Univ.  L.  G.  W.  Harris,  Ibn.  (Rpt. 
—  year  to  Je.  30,  1912.)  Accessions  14,491; 
total  4O9',7oo.  "It  appears  that  the  average  ac- 
cessions of  a  year  require  at  least  1600  feet  of 
shelving."  Reference  and  dept.  use  86,187; 
home  30,560.  Registrations:  officers  433,  stu- 

dents 601,  special  21.  Inter-library  loan:  bor- 
rowed 115,  lent  274.  Volumes,  maps,  pam- 
phlets cataloged  12,135,  for  which  13,892  cards 
were  written,  1914  L.  C.  cards  used. 

Haverhill  (Mass.)  P.  L.  J.  G.  Moulton, 
Ibn.  (37th  rpt— 1911.)  Net  accessions  2735; 
total  97,000.  Circulation  186,959  (fiction  66 
per  cent.).  New  registration  1849;  total  17,- 
543.  Expenditures  $20,590  (library  salaries 
$8304;  books  $3174;  binding  $1094). 

Passaic  (N.  J.)  P.  L.  H.  Elizabeth  White, 
Ibn.  (24th  rpt.— year  to  Je.  30,  1912.)  Ac- 
cessions 3879;  total  31,545.  Circulation  213,- 
613.  Expenditures  $12,897  (books  $2993; 
binding  $731;  salaries  $5645;  lighting  $712). 

Books  are  scattered  throughout  the  city  in- 
stead of  being  centrally  grouped.  "That  this 
scheme  of  scattering  the  books  among  the 
people  ...  is  a  good  one  for  Passaic  is  shown 
by  the  fact  that,  although  the  expense  of  the 
library  to  the  city  is  n  cents  less  per  capita 
than  in  the  average  American  city,  the  circu- 
lation per  capita  is  30  per  cent,  above  the 
average  circulation."  "That  our  foreign  bor- 
rowers are  rap;dly  becoming  English  readers 
contradicts  the  contention  of  many  librarians 
that  the  use  of  books  in  a  foreign  language 
retards  the  progress  of  our  foreign  popula- 
tion in  becoming  American  citizens."  "The 
second  year  of  the  high  school  library  has 
proved  the  wisdom  of  placing  it  under  the 
public  library  as  well  as  the  Board  of  Educa- 
tion." The  year  has  been  one  of  improve- 
ment within  the  library  rather  than  innova- 

Peace  Dale,  R.  /.  Narragansett  L.  Assoc. 
Gertrude  Whittemore,  Ibn.  Net  accessions 
426;  total  13,837.  Circulation  25,909.  New 
registrations  144;  total  1896. 

Portland  (Me.)  P.  L.  Alice  C.  Furbish, 
Ibn.  (23d  rpt— 1911.)  Net  accessions  157 
(withdrawn  1408)  ;  total  66,518.  Circulation 
94,109.  New  registration  2976;  total  9184, 
Expenditures  $12,269. 

Providence  (R.  /.)  Aihenceum  L.  Grace  F. 
Leonard,  Ibn.  (77th  rpt.  —  submitted  S.  23, 
1912.)  Net  accessions  916;  total  77,723.  Cir- 
culation 63,082.  A  notable  acquisition  was  the 
Holder  Borden  Bowen  library  of  about  2000 
volumes,  devoted  mostly  to  history. 

Traverse  City  (Mich.}  P.  L.  Alice  M.  Wait, 
Ibn.  (8th  rpt. — year  to  Ap.  30,  1912.)  Acces- 
sions 719;  total  11,006.  Circulation  30,291. 
Expenditures  $3701. 

U.  S.  Dept.  of  Agriculture  L.  Claribel  R. 
Barnett,  Ibn.  (Rpt.  — year  to  Je.  30,  1912.) 
Accessions  9122;  total  122,043.  Books  bor- 
rowed 70,655.  6405  books  were  borrowed  from 
other  libraries,  61  being  from  libraries  outside 
of  Washington.  Books  loaned  outside  city  620. 

Spent  for  books  and  serials  $7257,  period- 
icals $3690,  salaries  (main  lib.)  $27,848,  bind- 
ing $9506.  An  account  of  the  "Relation  of  the 
library  to  the  agricultural  colleges  and  ex- 

January,  1913] 



periment  stations"  and  "Historical   sketch  of 
the  library"  is  included  in  this  report. 

Washington,  D.  C.,  District  of  Columbia 
P.  L.  G.  F.  Bowerman,  Ibn.  (i4th  rpt.  —  year 
to  Je.  30,  1912.)  Net  accessions  11,603;  total 
144,476.  Circulation  650,527  (fiction  58  per 
cent.).  Registration  15,223;  total  45,047.  Ex- 
penditures $63,000  (salaries  $41,300;  books 
$7500;  binding  $3500). 

During  the  year,  158  agencies  for  book  cir- 
culation were  used,  the  station  in  the  central 
Y.  M.  C.  A.  having  done  especially  good 
(volunteer)  service,  with  11,476  circulation. 
Branch  libraries  are  strongly  urged  in  the 
report,  and  several  pages  are  devoted  to  the 
reduced  and  inadequate  appropriation  of  Con- 
gress, especially  for  the  Tacoma  Branch, 
which  has  resulted  in  a  crippling  of  adequate 
service.  A  table  of  26  cities,  by  population, 
shows  Washington  having  a  lower  per  capita 
expenditure  for  public  libraries  than  20  of 
these.  4000  volumes  had  a  circulation  of  45,- 
336  in  the  grammar  schools.  In  the  reference 
department,  pamphlet  material  has  been  sys- 
tematically collected  and  rendered  available. 
2i  different  organizations  held  64  public  meet- 
ings, with  attendance  of  11,459.  16  organiza- 
tions held  187  meetings  ;  no  attendance  figures. 


Bury  (Eng.)  County  Borough  L.  H.  Town- 
end,  Ibn.  (nth  rpt.  —  year  to  O.  9,  1912.) 
Total  volumes  23,608.  Circulation  :  adult, 
school  libraries,  35,264.  Total  registration, 
61,651;  juvenile,  17,322;  reference,  14,338; 

Leeds  (Eng.)  P.  Libs.  T.  W.  Hand,  Ibn. 
(Rpt.  —  year  to  Mr.  31,  1912.)  Accessions 
10,587;  total  305,240.  Circulation  1,415,910 
(loss  over  1911,  67,533).  Registration  33,663. 


AGRICULTURE.  Mass.  Agric.  College  Bull.,,  S., 
'12.  Recent  books  for  the  farm  home.  Am- 
herst,  Mass.  4  p.  8°,  pap. 

AGRICULTURE.  Univ.  of  Mo.,  Bull.,  Ap.,  '12. 
Books  for  farmers  and  farmers'  wives.  22 
p.  8°,  pap. 

—  Univ.  of  Mo.  Bull.  Partial  bibliography 
and  index  of  the  publications  of  the  College 
of  Agriculture  and  the  Agricultural  Ex- 
periment Station.  Columbia,  Mo.  19  p.  8°, 
(Lib.  ser.)  pap.,  gratis. 

ALSACE-LORRAINE.  Baer,  Jos.  Alsatica,  El- 
sass-Lothringen  zum  Teil  aus  der  Biblio- 
theke  des  Archivrats  Dr.  Heino  Pfannen- 
schmid  in  Colmar.  Frankfurt  a.  M.  8°,  pap. 
(No.  604;  2705  titles.) 

AMERICAN  HISTORY.  Rare  American  history, 
the  library  of  the  late  Willis  Gaylord  Moore 
and  of  a  well-known  Philadelphia  collector, 
embracing1  state,  county  and  town  history, 
Indian  history,  genealogies—  first  editions.  N. 
Y.,  Freeman-Henkels.  (No.  1072;  817  lots.) 

L.  American  history  and  geography;  a 
short  list  of  books  for  boys  and  girls  of  the 
fifth,  sixth  and  seventh  school  grades.  2  p. 
16°,  pap.,  gratis. 

AMERICANA.  Lange,  Otto.  Biblioteca  Ameri- 
cana. Pt.  i,  Periodicals,  general  history, 
U.  S.,  Canada,  voyages,  cartography.  Flor- 
ence, Italy.  8°,  pap.,  gratis.  (No.  25;  1301 

Lange,  Otto.     Biblioteca  Americana.     Pt. 

2,  America  Central  y  Meridional.  8°,  pap. 
(No.  26;  1388  titles.) 

McClurg,  A.  C.     Catalog  of  Americana; 

extensive  collection  of  books  relating  to 
early  discoveries,  the  Indian,  the  various 
states,  Canada,  Mexico,  settlement  and  de- 
velopment of  the  west,  etc.  Chic.,  8°,  pap. 
(No.  40;  1196  titles.) 

ARCHITECTURE.  Hiersemann,  Karl  W.  Alte 
Architekturwerke,  Garten-architektur,  Buch- 
ornamentik,  Kalligraphie,  etc.  Leipzig.  8°, 
pap.  (No.  412;  564  titles.) 

ART.  Henderson,  Helen  Weston.  The  art 
treasures  of  Washington.  Bost,  L.  C.  Page, 
c.  16+308  p.  (3  p.  bibl.)  pis.  8°,  (Art  gal- 
leries of  America.)  $3. 

Rapilly,    G.      Catalogue    de    livres    d'art, 

anciens  et  modernes.  Paris,  8°,  pap.  (No. 
123;  4352  titles.) 

ARTISTS,  American.  Wash.,  D.  C.,  P.  L.  Con- 
temporary American  artists.  21  p.  16°,  pap. 

BIOLOGY.  Bigelow,  Maurice  Alpheus.  Teach- 
ers' manual  of  biology;  a  handbook  to  ac- 
company the  "Applied  biology"  and  the 
"Introduction  to  biology."  N.  Y.,  Macmil- 
lan.  9+113  p.  (bibls.)  il.  12°,  40  c. 

BOOKS  AND  READING.  Cleveland  P.  L.  Reading 
lists  for  special  days,  formerly  published  as 
Nos.  1-8  of  the  Sunday-school  holiday  series. 
Minneapolis,  H.  W.  Wilson,  fn.  5+148  p. 
16°,  25  c, 

—  Dowd,  Mary  H.,  and  Winchell,  F.  Mabel., 
comps.     Home  reading  for  high  school  pu- 
pils.   N.  H.,  Manchester.  64  p.  16°,  10  c. 

—  N.  Y.  State  Education  Dept.  Bull.    Divi- 
sion of  School  Libs.    An  annotated,  graded, 
classified   and   priced   list   of   books   suitable 
for  elementary  school  libraries,   with  some 
suggestions  in  regard  to  the  use  of  school 
libraries.    Albany,  N.  Y.     pp.  3-65.  8°,  pap., 

Pollard,  Alfr.   W.     Fine  books.     N.   Y, 

Putnam.  15+331  P-  (10  p.  bibl.)  pis.  4°, 
(Connoisseur's  lib.;  ed  by  Cyril  Davenport.) 

Severance,  H.  Ormal.  Books  for  farm- 
ers and  farmers'  wives.  Columbia  Mo., 
Univ.  of  Mo.,  Bull.  22  p.  8°,  (Lib.  ser.)  pap., 


[January,  1913 

BOOKS,  FOREIGN.  Toronto  P.  L.  A  list  of 
books  printed  in  languages  other  than  Eng- 
lish, which  may  be  found  in  the  central  cir- 
culation library  of  the  Toronto  P.  L.  42  p. 
8°,  pap. 

BURLINGAME,  Anson.  Williams,  F.  Wells. 
Anson  Burlingame  and  the  first  Chinese  mis- 
sion to  foreign  powers.  N.  Y.,  Scribner.  c. 
370  p.  (8  p.  bibl.)  por.  8°,  $2. 

BURNS,  Rob.  Carlyle,  T.  Carlyle'si  Essay  on 
Burns,  with  poems  and  songs ;  ed.  by  Sophie 
C.  Hart.  N.  Y.,  Holt.  33+io8  p.  (3  p.  bibl.) 
pors.  il.  16°,  (English  readings  for  schools.) 
25  c.' 

BYRON,  LORD.  Fuess,  Claude  Moore.  Lord 
Byron  as  a  satirist  in  verse.  N.  Y.,  [Lemcke 
&  B.]  c.  11+228  p.  (5  P-  bibl.)  12°,  $1.20. 

CATHOLIC,  Literature.  Baer,  Jos.  Theologia 
Catholica.  Fiinfter  Teil :  Kirchengeschichte 
I.  A.-L.  Frankfurt  a.  M.  8°,  pap.  (No. 
606;  2667  titles.) 

Benziger  Bros.  Catalog  of  Catholic  books 

in  English  now  in  print  in  America  and 
Europe.  New  York.  183  p.  8°,  bds. 
Aims  to  give  titles  of  books  Catholic  in  con- 
tents, books  by  Catholic  authors  not  Catholic 
in  contents  being  omitted.  Supplements  are  to 
be  issued.  Contents:  author  and  subject  in- 
dex, the  latter  subdivided  under  doctrine,  in- 
struction, etc.;  theology,  philosophy,  etc.;  his- 
tory and  biography;  sermons;  novels,  etc.; 
juveniles.  23  plates  of  portraits  (15  to  a 
plate)  are  included. 

Cleveland  P.  L.  Books  by  Catholic  au- 
thors; a  classified  list,  comp.  and  annotated 
by  Emile  Louise  Haley.  4+232  p.  12°,  pap., 
40  c. 

CHEMISTRY.  Hawk,  Philip  Bovier.  Practical 
physiological  chemistry;  a  book  designed 
for  use  in  courses  in  practical  physiological 
chemistry  in  schools  of  medicine  and  sci- 
ence. 4th  ed.,  rev.  and  enl.  Phil.,  Blakis- 
ton.  c.  20+475  P-  (bibls.)  8°,  $2.50. 

CHILD  LABOR.  Copper,  E.  N.  Child  labor  in 
city  streets.  N.  Y.,  Macmillan.  c.  9+280  p. 
(<?/2  p.  bibl.)  16°,  $1.25. 

CHILD  STUDY.  Dark  Univ.  L. ;  comp.  Bibl.  of 
child  study  for  1910-11.  Wash.,  Gov.  Pr. 
Off.  8°,  pap.  (No.  498;  1910  titles.) 

CHILDREN'S  READING.  Brooklyn  Institute  of 
Arts  and  Sciences,  Children's  Museum. 
Some  nature  books  for  mothers  and  chil- 
dren in  the  Children's  Museum  Library;  a 
brief  annotated  list  of  helpful  nature  study. 
Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  8  p.  8°,  pap.,  gratis. 

Dayton    (O.)    P.    L.    Museum.     Manual 

containing  a  graded  list  of  800  of  the  best 
books  for  children  to  be  found  in  the  li- 
brary; good  books  to  read  aloud;  German 

books ;  stories  to  tell  to  children  and  library 
information  for  teachers.  3d  ed.  56  p.  8°, 

. Herbert,  Clara  W.,  comp.  Children's 

books  for  Sunday  school  libs.;  a  select  list 
recommended  for  parents,  teachers  and 
public  school  libs.  48  p.  12°,  25  c. 

N.  Y.  P.  L.  Holiday-  books  for  boys  and 

girls.  22  p.  16°,  pap. 

N.  Y.  P.  L,     Journeys  to  foreign  lands; 

a  short  list  of  books  for  boys  and  girls  of 

the  fifth,  sixth  and  seventh  school  grades. 

5  p.  16°,  pap. 
St.  Louis  P.  L.  Bull,  N.,  '12.    Books  to 

buy  for  children,    pp.  417-421,  8°,  pap. 

Springfield  (Mass.)  City  L.    Some  books 

for  boys  and  girls.  6  p.  16°,  pap. 
CHURCH.     Smith,   S.  G.     Democracy  and  the 

church.    N.  Y.,  Appleton.  c.  15+356  p.  (4  P- 

bibl.)  $1.50. 
CITY  PLANNING.    Brockton  P.  L.    List  on  city 

planning  and  allied  subjects.   Bulletin,  Apr.- 

Je.,    1912.     Brockton,   Mass.   pp.    14-16.   8°, 

CONSERVATION.   Indiana  State  L.,  Bull.,  S.,  '12. 

A  guide  to  the  study  of  conservation.  12  p. 

8°,  pap. 

COUNTRY  LIFE.  Fiske,  G.  W.  The  challenge 
of  the  country;  a  study  of  country  life  op- 
portunity. N.  Y.,  Assn.  Press,  c.  13+283  p. 
(6  p.  bibl.)  12°,  75  c. ;  pap.,  50  c. 

DOMESTIC  SCIENCE.  Furst,  Mrs.  Mary  Louise 
O'Neil.  A  syllabus  of  household  manage- 
ment. N.  Y.,  Teachers'  Col.,  Columbia 
Univ.  c.  'n.  24  p.  (4  p.  bibl.)  8°,  (Teachers' 
Col.,  Columbia  Univ.,  Technical  education 
bull.)  pap.,  10  c. 

DRAMA.  Nottingham  (Eng.)  F.  P.  Libs.  The 
drama  and  Shakespeare.  20  p.  12°,  pap. 

DROOD,  Edwin.  Nicoll,  Sir  W.  Robertson, 
["Claudius  Clear,"  pseud.]  The  problem 
of  Edwin  Drood;  a  study  in  the  methods 
of  Dickens.  [N.  Y.,  Doran.]  18+212  p.  (7 
p.  bibl.)  pi.  8°,  $1.25. 

DRY  FARMING.  Mont.  Agric.  Coll.  Circular, 
My.,  '12.  Dry  farm  bibl.  and  list  of  pubs, 
of  interest  to  the  homeseeker,  settler  and  in- 
vestor; issued  by  the  Northern  Pacific  Rail- 
way. Bozeman,  Mont.,  pp.  50-2.  8°,  pap. 

EDUCATION.  Armand  Colin.  Education-en- 
seignement.  Paris,  89  p.  8°,  pap. 

Grand  Rapids  P.  L.  Bull,,  O.,  '12.  A 

selection  of  works  on  education  added  to 
the  library  in  the  last  decade,  pp.  126-131, 
4°,  pap. 

Froebel,  Friedrich  Wilhelm  August.  Froe- 

bel's  chief  writings  on  education ;  rendered 
into  English  by  S.  S.  F.  Fletcher  and  J. 
Welton.  N.  Y.,  Longmans.  20+246  p.  (4  p. 
bibl.)  (Education  classics.)  $1.25. 

January,  1913] 



Illinois    State    Teachers'    Assn.,    County 

Superintendents'  Sec.  Course  of  study  for 
the  common  schools  of  111.;  rev.  by  the 
Standing  Committee  on  State  Course  of 
Study.  Taylorville,  111.,  C.  M.  Parker.  288 
p.  (22  p.  bibl.)  il.  8°,  30  c. 

List  of  publications  of  the  U.  S.  Bureau 

of  Educ.  available  for  free  distribution. 
Wash.,  D.  C,  Gov.  Pr.  Off.,  Bull.  Sept., 
'12.  37  p.  8°,  pap. 

Louisville   (Ky.)  F.  P.  L.     Education;  a 

selected  list  of  books,  with  annotations.  19 
p.  16°,  pap. 

McFarland,  Raymond.  High  school  teach- 
ers' professional  lib.  Middlebury,  Vt,  Coll. 
Bull,  Oct.,  'ii.  16  p.  8°,  pap. 

Robbins,  C.  Leonidas.  Teachers  in  Ger- 
many in  the  i6th  century;  conditions  in 
Protestant  elementary  and  secondary  schools. 
N.  Y.,  Teachers'  Coll.,  Columbia  Univ.  126 
p.  (4  p.  bibl.)  8°,  (Contributions  to  educa- 
tion.) $i. 

ELECTRICITY.  Van  Nostrand,  D.  Catalog  of 
books  on  electricity,  classified  by  subjects. 
New  York.  66  p.  8°,  pap. 

ENGINEERING.  American  Society  of  Mechan- 
ical Engineers.  List  of  periodical  sets  of 
Library  Engineering  Societies,  1913.  New 
York.  55  p.  16°,  pap. 

ENTOMOLOGY.  Hooker,  W.  Anson,  and  others. 
The  life  history  and  bionomics  of  some 
North  American  ticks.  Wash.,  D.  C.,  Gov. 
Pr.  Off.  239  p.  (10  p.  bibl.)  maps,  tabs.,  pis. 
8°,  (U.  S.  Dept.  of  Agric.,  Bu.  of  Entomol- 
ogy, bull.)  pap. 

ERASMUS.  The  Bibliotheque  Nationale  has 
just  published  a  catalog  of  the  works  of 
Erasmus  of  136  columns. 

EUROPEAN  HISTORY.  American  Historical  Assoc. 
Check-list  of  collections  relating  to  Euro- 
pean history.  Princeton,  N.  J.,  Univ.  Lib. 
114  p.  8°,  bds. 

FINE  ARTS.  Baer,  Jos.  &  Co.  Catalogue  of 
books  on  fine  arts,  including  architecture, 
applied  art,  decoration,  sculpture,  sepulchral 
art,  stained  glass,  furniture,  textiles,  etc. 
Frankfurt-a.M.  8°,  pap.,  gratis.  (No.  603; 
3690  titles.) 

School  of  Correspondence,  Chicago.  Cy- 
clopedia of  fire  prevention  and  insurance;  a 
general  reference  work.  4  v.  Chic.,  Am. 
Sch.  of  Corn  c.  (bibls.)  il.  pors.  pis.  plans, 
tabs.,  diagrs.,  8°,  $15.80. 

FLORIDA.  Rhodes,  Harrison  and  Dumont, 
Mary  Wolfe.  A  guide  to  Florida  for  tour- 
ists, sportsmen  and  settlers;  with  a  chapter 

on  the  inland  waterways  from  New  York  to 
Key  West;  3  maps  and  numerous  illustra- 
tions. N.  Y.,  Dodd,  Mead.  456  p.  (n  p. 
bibl.)  16°,  $2.25. 

FORESTRY.  U.  S.  Dept.  of  Agric.  L.,  Bull, 
O.,  '12.  Catalog  of  pubs,  relating  to  for- 
estry. 301  p.  8°,  pap. 

FRATERNITIES.  Baird,  W.  Raimond.  Baird's 
manual  of  American  college  fraternities; 
a  descriptive  analysis  of  the  fraternity  sys- 
tem in  the  colleges  of  the  United  States, 
with  a  detailed  account  of  each  fraternity. 
7th  ed.  N.  Y.,  [The  author,  271  Broadway.] 
c!  13+810  p.  (15  p.  bibl.)  il.  12°,  $2.50. 

FRENCH  REVOLUTION.  Lenotre,  G.  Tragic 
episodes  of  the  French  Revolution  in  Brit- 
tany; tr.  by  H.  Havelock.  N.  Y.,  Scribner. 
7+348  p.  (3  p.  bibl.)  8°,  $4.20. 

GEOLOGY.  Gregory,  J.  Wa.  The  making  of  the 
earth.  N.  Y.,  Holt.  c.  8+256  p.  3^  p.  bibl.) 
16°,  (Home  univ.  lib.  of  modern  knowl- 
edge.) 50  c. 

GERMAN  CITIES.  Schoningh,  Ferdinand. 
Deutsche  Stadte  und  Lande;  die  Bibliothe- 
ken  der  Herren  Doebner  and  others.  Osna- 
briick.  12°,  pap.  (No.  141;  1399  titles.) 

GERMAN  LITERATURE.  Chicago  (111.)  P.  L. 
List  of  German  books  added  to  the  Chic. 
P.  L.  since  1909.  2  p.  8°,  pap. 

GONZAGA,  Giulia.  "Hare,  Christopher,"  pseud. 
A  princess  of  the  Italian  Reformation, 
Giulia  Gonzaga,  1513-1566;  her  family  and 
friends.  N.  Y.,  Scribner.  24+291  p.  (5  p. 
bibl.)  pors.  8°,  $2.50. 

Basil,  and  Turnbull,  T.  E.  Catalog  of  books 
concerning  the  Greek  and  Latin  classics  in 
the  Central  P.  Libs.,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne., 
Newcastle  P.  L.  14+269  p.  il.  4°. 

Louise  O'Neil.  A  syllabus  of  household 
management.  N.  Y.,  Teachers'  Coll.,  Colum- 
bia Univ.  24  p.  (4  p.  bibl.)  8°,  (Technical 
education,  bull.)  pap.,  10  c. 

HUMANE  IDEA.  Rowley,  Fs.  H.  The  humane 
idea;  a  brief  history  of  man's  attitude  tow- 
ard the  other  animals.  Bost.,  Am.  Humane 
Educ.  Soc.  c.  72  p.  (^/2  p.  bibl.)  12°,  25  c. 

HUMANISMUS.  Halle,  J.  Zur  Geschichte  des 
Humanismus.  Munich.  8°,  pap.  (No.  45; 
953  titles.) 

HYGIENE.  Talbot,  Marion.  House  sanitation; 
a  manual  for  housekeepers.  Bost.,  Whit- 
comb  &  Barrows,  c.  8+116  p.  (3  p.  bibl.) 
12°,  80  c. ;  pap.,  50  c. 

HYGIENE,  City.  N.  Y.  P.  L.  Bull,  O.,  '12. 
List  of  works  on  city  wastes  and  street  hy- 
giene, pp.  731-783,  4°,  pap. 



[January,  1913: 

INDUSTRIAL  HYGIENE. — American  Labor  Leg- 
islation Review,  June,  1912,  is  devoted  to  a 
symposium  on  industrial  diseases.  Pages  369- 
417  are  devoted  to  an  annotated  bibliography 
on  industrial  hygiene.  The  titles  are  arranged 
under  two  general  headings :  first,  American 
titles,  and,  second,  titles  other  than  American. 
This  bibliography  should  prove  extremely 
useful  for  libraries  in  cities  where  the  subject 
of  occupational  diseases  is  beginning  to  re- 
ceive considerable  attention. 

IMPEACHMENT.  U.  S.,  Bu.  of  Bibl.  Select 
list  of  references  on  impeachment;  com- 
piled under  the  direction  of  the  chief  bib- 
liographer, ist  ed.,  Appleton-Prentiss  Clark 
Griffith ;  2d  ed.,  with  additions,  by  Hermann 
H.  B.  Meyer.  Wash.,  D.  C,  Gov.  Pr.  Off. 
38  p.  4°,  pap.,  10  c. 

INDIANS.  Newberry  P.  L.  Pubs.  Narratives 
of  captivity  among  the  Indians  of  North 
America ;  list  of  books  and  mss.  on  this 
subject  in  the  Edw.  E.  Ayer  collection  of 
the  Newberry  L.  Chic.,  c.  9+120  p.  8°,  pap. 

INDUSTRIES.  N.  Y.  P.  L.  Great  industries  of 
America;  short  list  of  books  for  boys  and 
girls  on  lumbering,  mining,  cattle  ranching, 
etc.,  for  the  seventh  and  8th  grades  and 
high  school  students.  2  p.  12°,  pap. 

INSECTS.  O'Kane,  Wa.  C.  Injurious  insects; 
how  to  recognize  and  control  them.  N.  Y., 
Macmillan.  c.  114-414  p.  (8^  bibl.)  il.  12°, 

INSURANCE.  Dunham,  Howard  P.,  comp  and 
ed.  The  business  of  insurance;  a  text-book 
and  reference  work,  covering  all  lines  of 
insurance;  written  by  eighty  eminent  ex- 
perts. 3  v.  N.  Y.,  Ronald  Press  Co.  (bibls.) 
plan,  forms  (i  fold.),  8°,  $12.50. 

INTEMPERANCE.  Partridge,  G.  Everett.  Stud- 
ies in  the  psychology  of  intemperance.  N. 
Y.,  Sturgis  &  W.  c.  275  p.  (3  p.  bibl.)  12°,  $i. 

ITALIAN  COMEDY.  Smith  Winifred.  The  corn- 
media  dell'  arte;  a  study  in  Italian  popular 
comedy.  N.  Y.,  Lemcke  &  B.  c.  15+290  p. 
(25  p.  bibl.)  front.  8°,  (Columbia  Univ. 
studies  in  English  and  comparative  litera- 
ture.) $2. 

ITALIAN  LITERATURE.  New  York  P.  L.  Cata- 
logo  dei  libri  Italiani  che  travansi  presso  il 
dipartimento  di  circolazione.  31  p.  8°,  pap. 

ITALY.  Sedgwick,  H.  Dwight.  Italy  in  the 
thirteenth  century.  In  2  v.  Bost,  Houghton 
Mifflin.  c.  10+440;  395  p.  (13^  p.  bibl.) 
map,  fronts.  8°,  $5. 

Sully,  Ja.     Italian  travel   sketches;   with 

il.    by    P.    Noel    Boxer.      N.    Y.,    Scribner. 
10+326  p.  (6  jf.  bibl.)  8°,  $2. 

JESUS  CHRIST.  Zwemer,  Rev.  S.  Marinus.  The 
Moslem  Christ;  an  essay  on  the  life,  char- 
acter and  teaching  of  Jesus  Christ,  accord- 
ing to  the  Koran  and  orthodox  tradition. 

N.  Y.,  Am.  Tract  Soc.  198  p.  (3^  p.  bibl.) 
il.  facsim.  12°,  $i. 

LEPIDOPTERA.  Junk,  W.  Lepidoptera.  Berlin 
W.  15  p.  8°,  pap.,  gratis.  (No.  44;  57 

LITURGY.  Rosenthal,  Ludwig.  Bibliotheca 
liturgica.  Pt.  I.— Agendas,  Antiphonaria, 
Breviaria,  Horae,  Missalia,  Officia,  etc. 
Miinchen.  8°,  pap.  (No.  150;  719  titles.) 

LONDON.  Edwards,  Fs.  Catalog  of  books  re- 
lating to  London  and  environs ;  including 
a  portion  of  the  library  of  the  late  John  E. 
Gardner,  Esq.  London,  W.  8°,  pap.,  gratis. 
(691  titles.) 

MAINE.  A.  J.  Huston.  List  of  books  re- 
lating to  the  state  of  Maine.  Portland,  Me. 
25  p.  8°,  pap. 

MARINERS.  Spears,  J.  Randolph.  Master  mar- 
iners. N.  Y.,  Holt,  c.  256  p.  (3  p.  bibl.)  16°.. 
(Home  univ.  lib.  of  modern  knowledge.) 
50  c. 

MARITIME  HISTORY.  Nijhoff,  Martinus..  La. 
marine,  iere  partie;  archivalia,  bibliog- 
raphic, encyclopedies,  histoire  maritime,  etc. 
La  Haye.  8°,  pap.  (No.  391 ;  1282  titles.) 

MATHEMATICS.  Bowes  &  Bowes.  Catalog  of 
books  on  the  mathematics  pure  and  applied; 
earlier  periods,  histories,  dictionaries,  works 
of  reference.  Cambridge,  Eng.  8°,  pap. 
(No.  362;  1774  titles.) 

Liebisch,   Bernhard.     Mathematik;    Kon- 

gresse ;  Logarithmentaf  eln  ;  Unterricht ; 
Versicherungsmathematik.  Leipzig.  81  p. 
8°,  pap. 

MEDICINE.  Blair,  Vibray  Papin.  Surgery  and 
diseases  of  the  mouth  and  jaws;  a  practical 
treatise ;  with  384  il.  St.  Louis.,  C.  V.  Mos- 
by  Co.  c.  25+638  p.  (11  p.  bibl.)  il.  8°,  $5, 

Cofer,  Leland  E.  A  word  to  ship  cap- 
tains about  quarantine;  an  open  letter  to- 
ship  captains.  Wash.,  D.  C,  Gov.  Pr.  Off. 
19  p.  (4  p.  bibl.)  il.  8°,  (U.  S.  Public 
Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service,  Pub- 
lic health  bull.)  pap. 

Lavinder,  Claude  H.     Pellagra;  a  precis. 

Rev.  ed. ;  prepared  by  direction  of  the  sur- 
geon-general, F.  29,  '12;  il.  Wash.,  D.  C. 
Gov.  Pr.  Off.  37+4  p.  (4  p.  bibl.)  diagrs., 
8°,  (U.  S.  Treas.,  Dept.  Public  Health  and 
Marine  -  hospital  Service  of  the  United 

Medical     Literature     Committee     of    the 

Committee  on  Public  Health.  Education 
among  women.  List  of  books  on  the  pre- 
vention of  disease.  Chic.,  Amer.  Med.  Assn. 
14  p.  8°,  pap. 

Rosenau,     Milton    Jos.      The    immunity 

unit  for  standardizing  diphtheria  antitoxin 
(based  on  Ehrlich's  normal  serum.)  Offi- 
cial standard  prepared  under  the  act  ap- 

January,  1913] 



proved  July  i,  1902.  2d  ed.  Wash.,  D.  C, 
Gov.  Pr.  Off.  92+7  p.  (8  p.  bibl.)  il.  8°. 

—  Williams,  J.  Whitridge.  Obstetrics;  a 
text-book  for  the  use  of  students  and  prac- 
titioners. 3d  enl.  and  rev.  ed. ;  with  16  plates 
and  668  il.  in  the  text.  N.  Y.,  Appleton.  c. 
977  p.  (bibls.)  il.  (partly  col.)  pis.  (partly 
col.)  8°,  $6. 


sages  of  the  Men  and  Religion  Move- 
ment; including  the  revised  reports  of  the 
commissions  presented  at  the  Congress  of 
the  Men  and  Religion  Forward  Movement, 
April,  1912;  with  the  principal  addresses. 
7  v.  N.  Y.,  Assoc.  Press,  c.  (bibls.)  chart. 
12°,  $4- 

MILK.  Rosenau,  Milton  Jos.  The  milk  ques- 
tion. Bost,  Houghton  Mifflin.  c.  14+309  p. 
(5  p.  bibl.)  8°,  $2. 

U.   S.     Treas.  Dept.,  Public  Health  and 

Marine-hospital  Service  of  the  U.  S.s  Hy- 
gienic Laboratory.  Milk  and  its  relation  to 
the  public  health;  rev.  and  enl.  ed.  of  Bull. 
No.  41  (by  various  authors.)  2d  ed.  Wash., 
D.  C.  Gov.  Pr.  Off.  830+7  p.  (bibls.)  il. 
pis.  diagrs.  8°. 

MUNICIPAL  GOVERNMENT.  Springfield  (Mass.) 
P.  L.  List  of  books  and  articles  on  com- 
mission form  of  municipal  government. 

MUNICIPAL  HISTORY.  New  York  P.  L.  List 
of  city  charters,  ordinances  and  collected 
docs.  Pt.  I.  pp.  631-719.  4°,  pap. 

Music.  Carnegie  L.  of  Pittsburgh  Bull.,  O., 
'12.  List  of  music  scores,  pp.  436-508.  c.  8°, 

NEGRO.  Olbrich,  Emil.  The  development  of 
sentiment  on  negro  suffrage  to  1860;  a  the- 
sis. Madison,  Wis.,  Univ.  of  Wis.,  Bull. 
35  P.  (6^  p.  bibl.)  (History  ser.)  8°,  pap., 
25  c. 

NETHERLANDS.  Van  Stockum's  Antiquariat. 
Catalogue  d'une  collection  de  pamphlets 
ayant  rapport  a  I'histoire,  le  commerce  les 
guerres  par  terre  et  par  mer  des  Pays-Bas. 
Partie  2.  —  Pamphlets  historiques  publics 
pendant,  1560-1609,  avec  supplement:  Alle- 
magne,  Angleterre,  Espagne,  France,  etc. 
La  Haye.  50  p.  8°,  pap. 

NEW  TESTAMENT.  Bacon,  B.  Wisner,  D.D. 
The  making  of  the  New  Testament  N.  Y., 
Holt.  c.  6+7-256  p.  (4  p.  bibl.)  16°,  (Home 
univ.  lib.  of  modern  knowledge.)  50  c. 

NEWSPAPERS,  English.  Ellis.  Winter  catalog, 
'i2-'i3;  containing  an  unique  collection  of 
English  newspapers,  1620-21 ;  earlier  than 
hitherto  known;  first  London  directory, 
1677,  etc.  London,  W.,  12°,  pap.  (No.  743; 
575  titles.) 

NOVELISTS,  English.  Cooper,  Frederic  Taber. 
Some  English  story  tellers;  a  book  of  the 

younger  novelists.     N.   Y.,   Holt.   c.  464  p. 
(39  P-  bibl.)  pors.  12°,  $1.60. 

OREGON  LEGISLATION.  Eaton,  Allen  H.  The 
Oregon  system;  the  story  of  direct  legisla- 
tion in  Oregon ;  a  presentation  of  the  meth- 
ods and  results  of  the  initiative  and  refer- 
endum and  recall  in  Oregon;  with  studies 
of  the  measures  accepted  or  rejected;  and 
special  chapters  on  the  direct  primary,  pop- 
ular election  of  senators,  advantages,  de- 
fects and  dangers  of  the  system.  Chic.,  Mc- 
Clurg.  c.  8+195  P-  (7  P.  bibl.)  12°,  $i. 

ORNITHOLOGY.  Junk,  W.  Ornithologia.  Ber- 
lin, W.  15  p.  8°,  pap.  (No.  45;  3413  titles.) 

PANAMA  CANAL.  Riverside  (Cal.)  P.  L. 
Bull.  Panama  Canal;  an  old  way  to  Cali- 
fornia made  new.  16  p.  16°,  pap.,  10  c. 

PATIENCE  ;  a  West  Midland  poem  of  the  four- 
teenth century;  ed.,  with  introd.,  bibliog- 
raphy, notes  and  glossary,  by  Hartley  Bate- 
son.  N.  Y.,  Longmans.  8+149  p.  (3^2  p. 
bibl.)  12°,  (Manchester  Univ.  pubs.,  Eng- 
lish ser.)  $1.50. 

PATRIOTS.  Carnegie  L.  of  Pittsburgh.  Pa- 
triots; a  reading  list  for  boys  and  girls. 
Bulletin,  Jl.,  1912.  pp.  362-371.  8°,  pap. 

PEDAGOGY.  Burnham,  W.  H.,  ed.  Bibliograph- 
ies on  experimental  pedagogy.  Worcester, 
Mass.,  Clark  Univ.  48  p.  O.  (Clark  Univ. 
L.  pubs.)  pap.,  50  c. 

PERSIA.  Harrassowitz,  Otto.  Persian;  das 
Hochland  von  Iran  und  de  Kaukasus  Ver- 
gleichende  indogermanische  Sprachwissen- 
schaft,  Politische,  Religions,  etc.  8°,  pap. 
(No.  352;  2542  titles.) 

PHILIPPINE  ISLANDS.  Philippine  L.  Bulls. 
List  of  works  in  the  Filipiniana  division 
relating  to  the  study  of  the  bibl.  of  the 
Philippine  Islands.  Pts.  I.  and  II.  Manila, 
pp.  14-16;  27-32,  4°,  pap. 

PHILOLOGY.  Fox,  W.  S.  The  Johns  Hopkins 
tabellae  defixionum.  Bait.,  Johns  Hopkins 
Press.  68  p.  (4  p.  bibl.)  pis.  facsims.  8°, 
$1.25 ;  pap.,  75  c. 

Hartmann,  Jacob  Wittmer.  The  gongu- 

hrolfssaga;  a  study  in  old  Norse  philology. 
N.  Y.,  Lemcke  &  B.  12+116  p.  (5^2  p. 
bibl.)  8°,  (Columbia  Univ.  Germanic  stud- 
ies.) pap.,  $i. 

Klincksieck,  C  Philologie  classique; 

histoire  et  archeologie,  Grecques  et  Ro- 
maines;  livres  anciens.  8°,  pap.  (No.  6; 
2183  titles.) 

PHILOSOPHY.  Benn,  Alfr.  W.  History  of 
ancient  philosophy.  N.  Y..  Putnam.  5+ 
205  p.  (3*/2  p.  bibl.);  pors.  16°,  (History  of 
the  sciences.)  75  c. 

Liebisch,     Bernhard.       Philosophic     und 

Psychologic.     Leipzig.  170  p.  8°,  pap. 



[January,  1913 

PHYSIOLOGY.  Ransom,  Brayton  Howard,  and 
Hall,  Maurice  Crowther.  The  action  of  an- 
thelmintic  on  parasites  located  outside  of 
the  alimentary  canal.  Wash.,  D.  G.,  Gov.  Pr. 
Off.  23  p.  (4  p.  bibl.)  8°,  (U.  S.,  Dept.  of 
Agric.,  Bu.  of  Animal  Industry,  bull.)  pap. 

POETRY,  American.  Bronson,  Wa.  Cochrane, 
comp.  and  ed\  American  poems  (1625- 
1892)  ;  selected  and  edited,  with  illustrative 
and  explanatory  notes,  and  a  bibliography. 
Chic.  Univ.  of  Chic.  c.  18+699  p.  (20  p. 
bibl.)  12°,  $1.50. 

POLITICAL  ECONOMY.  Liebisch,  Bernhard.  Na- 
tional 6konomie.  Leipzig.  153  p.  8°,  pap. 
(No.  209.) 

PORTOLAN  CHARTS.  Anderson  Auction  Co. 
Portolan  charts  of  the  XV,  XVI  and  XVII 
centuries;  collected  by  the  late  Dr.  Thdr. 
Jules  Ernest  Hamy,  of  Paris,  etc.  N.  Y. 
4°,  pap. 

PORT-ROYAL.  Rea,  Lilian.  The  enthusiasts  of 
Port-Royal;  with  12  illustrations.  N.  Y., 
Scribner.  14+354  P-  (7  P-  bibl.)  8°,  $3. 

PORTRAITS.    Poole,  Mrs.  Reginald  Lane,  comp. 
Catalogue  of  portraits  in  the  possession  of 
the  university,   colleges,   city  and  county  of 
Oxford,     v.    i.      Oxford,    Clarendon    Press. 
xxxi+278  p.  il.  8°,  $4.15. 
This  first  volume  includes   the  portraits   in 
the  university  collections  and  in  the  town  and 
county   halls,    with   37    full-page   plates,    com- 
prising  reproductions   of   81    portraits.      It   is 
the  outcome  of  the  labors  of  a  committee  of 
the  Oxford  Historical  Society.     A  description 
of  the  collections  in  the  Bodleian  Library,  Ash- 
molean  Museum  and  Town  Hall  is  included  in 
the  introduction.     The  portraits  are  cataloged 
as  far  as  possible  in  the  chronological  order 
of  the  deaths  of  the  subjects,  and  are   fully 

PRINTING.     International  Association  of  Anti- 
quarian Booksellers.     Catalogue  of  an  exhi- 
bition  of  books,   broadsides,   proclamations, 
portraits,  autographs,  etc.,  illustrative  of  the 
history  and  progress  of  printing  and  book- 
selling in  England,  1477-1800.     London,    216 
p.  8°,  pap.  (12-29  titles.) 
An  exhibition  held  at  Stationers'  Hall,  June 
25-29,    1912.     Books   are   arranged   under   the 
names     of    printers,    as    nearly    as    possible, 
chronologically,  taking  the  dates  of  the  earliest 
production   of   each  press   as  a  guide.     Brief 
remarks    are   occasionally   added   to   items   on 
the  contents,  woodcuts  or  bindings.     Index  to 
printers,  publishers  and  booksellers  is  included. 

PROTOZOA.  Minchin,  E.  A.  An  introduction 
to  the  study  of  the  protozoa;  with  special 
reference  to  the  parasitic  forms.  N.  Y., 
[Longmans.]  11+520  p.  (29  p.  bibl.)  il.  8°, 

PSYCHOLOGY.  Dessoir,  Max.  Outlines  of  the 
history  of  psychology;  auth.  tr.  by  Donald 
Fisher.  N.  Y.,  Macmillan.  c.  29+278  p.  (8 
p.  bibl.)  12°,  $1.60. 

Fernald,  Mabel  Ruth.     The  diagnosis  of 

mental  imagery.  Princeton,  N.  J.,  Psycho- 
logical Review  Co.  4+169  p.  (7  p.  bibl.)  8% 
(Psychological  Review  publications;  the 
psychological  monographs.)  pap.,  $1.50. 

PUBLIC  DOCUMENTS.  N.  Y.  P.  L.  Bull.,  Nov., 
'12.  List  of  city  charters,  ordinances  and 
collected  documents,  pp.  799-871.  4°,  pap. 

RAILROAD  FINANCE.  Cleveland,  F.  Alb.,  and 
Powell,  Fred  Wilbur.  Railroad  finance.  N. 
Y.,  Appleton.  c.  15+462  p.  (76^  P-  bibl.) 
8°,  $2.50. 

RAMUS,  Peter.  Graves,  Fk.  Pierrepont.  Peter 
Ramus  and  the  educational  reformation  of 
the  sixteenth  century.  N.  Y.,  Macmillan.  c. 
11+226  p.  (4  p.  bibl.)  por.  12°,  $1.25. 

(111.)  P.  L.  Bull,  O.,  '12.  List  of  books  on 
school  recreations  and  amusements.  136  p. 
4°,  pap. 

RELIGION.  Barbour,  Clarence  A.,  D.D.,  ed. 
Making  religion  efficient.  N.  Y.,  Assn.  Press, 
c.  271  p.  (42  p.  bibl.)  12°,  $i. 

Y.    M.    C.    A.      International    Committee. 

Principles   and   methods    of  religious    work 

for  men  and  boys.    Atlantic  City  ed.    N.  Y.,. 

Assn.   Press,   c.   171   p.    (18  p.  bibl.)    front. 

8°,  75  c. 
RELIGION    AND    PHILOSOPHY.      Luzac    &    Co. 

Oriental  religion  and  philosophy   (including 

Buddhism).      London.       12°,     pap.,     gratis. 

(No.  10 ;  364  titles.) 

ROADS.     Washington    State  L.,  comp.  Select 

list   of  references  on  roads;    comp.  for  the 

Intra-high  school  debate,  1912-1913.  Olym- 
pia,  Wash.  41  p.  16°,  pap.,  gratis. 

ROME.  Rappaport,  C.  E.  Roma  aeterna. 
Rome.  8°,  pap.  (No.  27;  706  titles.) 

RUSSIA.  Goodrich,  Jos.  King.  Russia  in  Eu- 
rope and  Asia ;  with  33  il.  from  photographs. 
Chic.,  McClurg.  c.  10+302  p.  (7  p.  bibl.) 
12°,  (World  to-day  ser.)  $1.50. 

SAN  FRANCISCO.  Eldredge,  Zoeth  Skinner. 
The  beginnings  of  San  Francisco,  from,  the 
expedition  of  Anza,  1774,  to  the  city  charter 
of  April  15-  1850;  with  biographical  'and 
other  notes.  2  v.  (26  p.  bibl.)  San  Fran- 
cisco, [The  author.]  pis.  (i  fold.)  pors.  maps 
(partly  fold.),  plans,  8°,  $7. 

(Mass.)  F.  P.  L.  Bull.,  O.-N.,  '12.  Selected 
list  of  school  and  college  stories,  pp.  27-32. 
12°,  pap. 

January,  1913] 


SCIENCE.  Breckenridge,  Ja.  Miller.  Some  al- 
loys of  calcium;  a  thesis.  Madison,  Wis., 
Univ.  of  Wis.,  Bull.  37  P-  (3^  p.  bibl.)  8°, 
(Engineering  ser.)  pap.,  25  c. 

-  Wakeman,  Nellie.  The  monardas ;  a  phy- 
tochemical  study.  Madison,  Wis.,  Univ.  of 
Wis.,  Bull.  84  p.  (6  p.  bibl.)  8°,  (Science 
ser.)  pap.,  20  c. 

Liebisch,  Bernhard.  Physik  und  Astron- 
omic. Leipzig.  98  p.  8°,  pap. 

Sociological.  Edwards,  Fs.  Catalogue 

of  works  on  anthropology,  ethnology,  prim- 
itive society,  etc.;  also  mythology  and  folk- 
lore, including  a  portion  of  the  library 
of  Sir  H.  H.  Risley.  London,  W.  8°,  pap., 
gratis.  (705  titles.) 

SHORT  STORY.  Lieberman,  Elias.  The  Amer- 
ican short  story;  a  study  of  the  influence  of 
locality  in  its  development.  Ridgewood, 
N.  J.,  Editor  Co.  c.  16+183  p.  (&/2  p.  bibl.) 
12°,  $i. 

SOCIAL  PROGRESS.  Ogg,  Frederic  Austin.  So- 
cial progress  in  contemporary  Europe.  N. 
Y.,  Macmillan.  c.  7+384  p.  (20  p.  bibl.) 
12°,  $1.25. 

SOCIOLOGY.  Dealey,  Ja.  Quayle.  The  family 
in  its  sociological  aspects.  Bost,  Houghton 
Mifflin.  c.  4+137  P-  (3  P.  bibl.)  12°,  75  c. 

Metcalf,  H.  Clayton.  Industrial  and  so- 
cial justice;  trial  outline  and  bibliography. 
Tufts  College,  Mass.,  Tufts  Coll.  Press,  c. 

12  p.  12°,  3O  C. 

SPANISH  LITERATURE.  Baer,  Jos.  Literatura  y 
lengua  Espafiola  y  Portuguesa  obras  raras 
en  estas  lenguas,  dialectos,  impressos  del 
siglo  xv.  Frankfurt  a.  M.  8°,  pap.  (No. 
608;  1268  titles.) 

SPECIAL  LIBRARIES.     Meyer,  H.   H.  B.,   comp. 

Select  list  of  references  on  special  libraries. 

Boston,   Special   Libs.,   p,    172-176,   8°,   pap. 

(No.  8.) 
TAPESTRIES.     Hunter,  G.  Leland.     Tapestries; 

their  origin,  history  and   renaissance;   with 

4  il.  in  color  and  147  half-tone  engravings. 

N.  Y.,  J.  Lane.  c.  438  p.  (22  p.  bibl.)  8°,  $5. 

TAYLOR,  Samuel  Coleridge.  The  complete  po- 
etical $  works  of  Samuel  Taylor  Coleridge, 
including  poems  and  versions  of  poems  now 
published  for  the  first  time;  ed.,  with  bibli- 
ographical notes,  by  Ernest  Hartley  Cole- 
ridge. N.  Y.,  Oxford  Univ.  16+492;  8+496 
+1198  p.  (54  P-  bibl.)  8°,  $5.25. 

TECHNICAL  BOOKS.  Pratt  Institute  F.  L.  Tech- 
nical books  of  1911;  a  selection.  Brooklyn, 
N.  Y.  26  p.  16°,  pap.,  gratis. 

TEXTILES,  Household.  Gibbs,  Charlotte  Mitch- 
ell. Household  textiles.  Bost.,  Whitcomb  & 
Barrows,  c.  8+243  p.  (5  p.  bibl.)  il.  12°, 

THEOLOGY.  Baer,  Jos.,  &  Co.  Theologia  Cath- 
olica.  pt.  3,  Jus  Canonicum;  pt.  4,  Homi- 

letik  und   Mystik.     8°,  pap.     (Nos.  570-71; 
1432;  2460  titles.) 

TRANS-ALLEGHENY  REGION.  Alvord,  Clarence 
Walwprth,  and  Bidgood,  Lee.  The  first  ex- 
plorations of  the  trans-Allegheny  region  by 
the  Virginians,  1650-1674.  Cleveland,  O., 
A.  H.  Clark  Co.  c.  275  p.  (8  p.  bibl.)  fac- 
sims.,  maps,  8°,  $4. 

UNITED  STATES.  Dept.  of  Commerce  and  La- 
bor, Bu.  of  Standards.  Publications  of  the 
Bureau  of  Standards.  3d  ed.  Wash.,  D.  C., 
Gov.  Pr.  Off.  44  p.  4°,  pap. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  CALIFORNIA.  Publications  of 
the  University  of  California,  S.,  1911.  Berke- 
ley, Bull.  48  p.  12°,  pap.,  gratis. 

USEFUL  ARTS.  Norwich  (Eng.)  P.  L.  readers' 
guide.  Classified  catalog  of  works  on  the 
useful  arts.  pp.  175-202.  8°,  pap.,  id. 

VIVES.  Vives,  Juan  Luis.  Vives  and  the  Ren- 
ascence education  of  women;  ed.  by  Foster 
Watson.  N.  Y.,  Longmans.  15+259  p.  (3 
p.  bibl.)  12°,  (Educ.  classics.)  $1.25. 

WALES.  Cardiff  (Wales)  Central  L.  A  rec- 
ord of  books  in  Welsh  or  relating  to  Wales. 
14  p.  8°,  pap.  (No.  29.) 

WEST  (The).  Coman,  Katharine.  Economic 
beginnings  of  the  far  west ;  how  we  won  the 
land  beyond  the  Mississippi.  2  v.  N.  Y.,  Mac- 
millan. c.  19+418;  9+450  p.  (48  p.  bibl.) 
8°,  $4. 

WOMAN.  McMahon,  Theresa.  Women  and 
economic  evolution;  or,  the  effect  of  indus- 
trial changes  upon  the  status  of  women;  a 
thesis.  Madison,  Wis.,  Univ.  of  Wis.  131 
p.  (6l/2  p.  bibl.)  8°,  (Economics  and  polit- 
ical science  ser.)  pap.,  25  c. 

Dumot5  anfc  Blunders 


A  young  woman,  employed  in  a  hat  factory, 
whose  custom  was  to  borrow  two  books,  se- 
lected but  one,  saying,  "I  will  only  take  one 
to-night,  as  I  am  going  to  church,  and  I  don't 
want  to  go  in  looking  like  a  librarian." 


Child  to  attentive  librarian:  "Please  let  me 
have  the  'Blue  jay'  by  Meadow  Link;  also, 
'The  Lavendar  dress  trimmed  with  old  lace.' " 

Child  to  embarrassed  librarian :  "Have  you 
got  'A  sweetheart  for  somebody'?  Me  brother 
wants  it." 

Small  child  to  astonished  librarian:  "Here's 
the  liberry  books  me  brother  had  out,  and  he 
wants  you  to  stop  his  circulation." 


Housewife  to  librarian  :  "I  am  returning  the 
'Autocrat  of  the  breakfast  table.'  No,  I  didn't 
care  for  it  very  much.  I  thought  it  was  a 
cook  book  when  I  took  it  out." 



[January,  1913 


Bulletin  posted  by  a  prophetic  and  ingen- 
ious librarian  over  a  collection  of  books : 
"Books  by  our  next  President."  The  collec- 
tion included  books  by  all  three  candidates. 


New  York  Post  prophesies  that  some  day 
in  a  dictionary  we  shall  read  as  follows : 

Carnegie — A  building  used  to  house  books, 
so  called  for  a  rich  steel  manufacturer  who 
gave  many  library  buildings  to  the  world. 


The  following  entries  were  copied  exactly 
from  the  index  to  "The  history  of  the  church 
in  Burlington,  N.  J.,"  by  the  Rev.  G.  M.  Hills, 
D.D.,  ed.  2,  Trenton,  N.  J.,  1885: 

Door  open 83 

Ears    tingle 281 

Flame,    Congregation     in 104 

Great    weight    removed 612,  617 

More   work 174 

Not    much   progress 104 

Not   the    queen's    fault 89 

Somebody   must    answer 84 

Straying  sheep   return 273 

Vigorous    letter 376 

Widow,   Weeds  of 731 

Wig 289 


The  following  is  a  letter  received  by  a  col- 
lege president  in  the  east  recently  from  a 
clergyman  in  Iowa,  unknown  to  him.  The 
president  referred  the  gentleman  to  the  near- 
est public  library: 

DEAR  FRIEND:  I  am  trying  to  prepare  a  lecture 
on  the  greatness  of  the  United  States.  I  would 
like  to  have  you  or  any  other  member  of  the  faculty 
kindly  suggest  to  me  the  best  book  on  each  of  the 
following  series:  The  United  States  is  great  spirit- 
ually, morally,  intellectually,  aesthetically,  his\tori- 
cally,  geographically,  scientifically,  industrially,  com- 
mercially, financially,  economically,  politically,  legally 
—  in  law  —  internationally  —  in  its  international  re- 
lations—  socially,  domestically  —  comforts  in  the 
home  —  the  American  family  lives  more  comfortably 
than  any  other  family  in  any  country.  This  may  be 
a  little  confusing,  but  I  want  to  treat  the  subject 
fully.  Thanking  you  in  advance,  I  remain, 
Yours  sincerely, 


Editor  Library  Journal: 

The  Columbia  University  Library  is  mak- 
ing a  collection  of  views  of  universities  and 
colleges,  and  would  be  glad  to  receive  views 
of  other  universities  or  colleges,  especially  of 
American  colleges  before  1825,  in  exchange 
for  views  of  Columbia  University.  Address 
the  librarian  of  Columbia  University,  New 
York  City. 


Editor  Library  Journal: 

The  weekly  publication  entitled  Aero  is 
selling  what  purports  to  be  a  book  entitled 
"How  to  design  a  modern  aeroplane,  with 
designs  for  a  speed  monoplane  and  a  weight- 
carrying  biplane,"  by  E.  R.  Armstrong.  In 

reality,  the  book  consists  of  the  numbers  of 
the  Aero  from  January  to  March,  1912,  oc- 
cupying from  two  to  two  and  one-half  pages 
in  each  number  of  the  "book."  Aero  sells 
for  ten  cents  a  number.  The  "book"  sells  for 
$1.25.  It  is  very  cheaply  bound  in  tar  boards. 


Chief  of  Catalog  and  Order  Dept., 
St.  Louis  P.  L. 


THE  following  pamphlets  in  the  Brown 
University  Library  are  offered  for  free  dis- 
tribution to  other  libraries  as  long  as  the 
stock  holds  out. 

H.  L.  KOOPMAN,  Librarian. 

History  of  higher  education  in  R.   I.,  by  W.  H.  Tol- 

man,    U.     S.     Bureau    of    Education.      Circular    of 

Information,    no.    i,    1894. 
Life  and   services   of    Rev.    Alexis   Caswell,   by   J.    L. 


Ezckiel    Gilman    Robinson,    a    memorial 
John    Whipple   Jenks.   by   R.    A.    Guild. 
Life  and  character  of  Moses  Brown  Ives,  by  Francis 

Life    and    character    of    Hon.    Nicholas    Brown,    by 

Francis   Wayland. 

Memorial  exercises  in  honor  of  Albert  Harkness,  1907. 
Dedication  of  John  Hay  Library,  Brown  University. 
John  Hay,  scholar  and  statesman,  by  Joseph  Bucklm 


THE  executive  office  of  the  A.  L.  A.  has 
received  from  Mr.  W.  I.  Fletcher  copies  of 
his  address,  "The  public  library  in  its  moral 
and  religious  aspect,"  Boston,  1882.  18  pages. 
A  copy  will  be  sent  free  to  any  address  on 
receipt  of  2  cents  for  postage  until  the  sup- 
ply is  exhausted.  Address  American  Library 
Association,  78  East  Washington  street,  Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Editor  Library  Journal: 

QUITE  possibly  it  has  not  come  to  your  no- 
tice that  the  journal,  Progress,  Civics,  Social 
and  Industrial,  published  by  the  British  Insti- 
tute of  Social  Service,  quarterly,  London, 
price  6d.,  contains  an  admirable  bibliography 
of  books  relating  to  its  special  topic,  arranged 
in  the  order  of  separate  publications  and  arti- 
cles on  social  topics  from  current  periodicals 
covering  all  languages. 

Yours  truly, 


Oltbran?  Calenfcar 

i.     Sp.  Libs.  Assoc.  and  Boston  Co-op.  Inf. 

Bureau,  Boston. 

9.  N.  Y.  L.  Club  and  L.  I.  L.  Club,  Ethical 
Culture  Building,  2  W.  64th  street,  3 

10.    Rochester  Dist.  L.  Club. 
13.     Penn.  L.  Club,  Widener  Br.,  8 130  p.m. 
23.     Mass.  L.  Club,  Medford. 

F.  28-Mr.  i.    Joint    meeting,    Penn.    L.    Club, 
N.  J.  L.  Assoc.,  Atlantic  City. 

bfttfbl?  &&I    ,  ;      ;L.  J  '    -,V 

/^^^.Su     I"  !  _    >|lf 

-4       5 
PJ       > 

s  $ 

-<       X 



VOL.  38 

FEBRUARY,   1913 

No.  2 

THE  Hotel  Kaaterskill,  overlooking  the 
Hudson  River  from  the  heights  where  Rip 
Van  Winkle  slept  his  historic  sleep,  has  been 
determined  upon  as  the  place  for  the  A.  L.  A. 
conference  of  1913,  as  the  proposed  choice  of 
Eagle's  Mere  became  impracticable  when  the 
proprietor  of  the  leading  hotel,  after  election 
to  Congress,  lost  interest  in  the  A.  L.  A.  pro- 
posal. The  meeting  will  be,  as  usual,  in  the 
last  week  of  June,  and  the  location,  within 
easy  reach  of  librarians  from  all  the  eastern 
states,  should  bring  large  delegations  from 
the  eastern  centers.  It  is  to  be  hoped,  how- 
ever, that  the  charm  of  the  locality  and  other 
considerations  may  entice  large  representa- 
tion from  the  West  and  South  as  well,  and 
make  the  conference  of  1913  one  of  the  ban- 
ner conferences. 

The  Atlantic  City  meeting,  the  last  of  Feb- 
ruary, will,  as  usual,  bring  together  librarians 
from  other  states  as  well  as  from  New  Jer- 
sey and  Pennsylvania,  and  its  program  offers 
attractive  addresses  from  several  speakers 
outside  library  professions. 

AT  the  New  Year  meetings  in  Chicago, 
which  were  unusually  successful  through  the 
kindlier  treatment  of  the  clerk  of  the  weather, 
the  large  attendance  of  one  hundred  and 
thirty-four  representatives  from  eighteen 
states  and  two  Canadian  provinces,  and  the 
general  interest  evoked,  the  most  important 
subject  discussed  was  the  relation  of  the 
library  to  the  municipality,  especially  in  view 
of  the  commission  plan  for  municipal  govern- 
ment. It  was  hoped  that  Mr.  Bostwick's  com- 
mittee could  make  a  definite  report  which 
could  be  passed  upon  by  the  council  and  sub- 
mitted to  the  association,  laying  down  the 
principles  which  the  library  profession  be- 
lieves should  be  applied  to  the  municipal  situ- 
ation. Perhaps  it  is  too  much  to  expect  that 
there  will  or  can  be  an  entire  agreement  on 
this  subject,  and,  indeed,  situations  will  de- 
velop so  definitely  in  different  municipalities 
that  a  comprehensive  rule  would  scarcely  ap- 
ply. It  was  disappointing,  however,  that  the 
committee  had  not  made  further  progress,  in 
view  of  the  vogue  of  the  commission  plan 
and  the  injury  that  may  be  caused  to  library 

development  by  the  subordination  of  libraries 
under  it  to  other  interests.  It  is  to  be  hoped 
that  at  the  A.  L.  A.  conference  of  1913  the 
committeee  will  report,  if  not  definite  recom- 
mendations, at  least  outlines  or  alternatives, 
and  will  also  make  the  position  of  the  library 
profession  clearly  felt,  in  any  event,  in  oppo- 
sition to  the  submergence  of  library  interests. 

THE  commission  plan  is  only  one  instance 
of  an  increasing  distrust,  if  not  dislike,  of 
legislative  bodies,  whether  a  legislature,  a 
board  of  aldermen  or  a  library  board,  in  the 
present  temper  of  the  American  people.  There 
are,  perhaps,  two  reasons  for  this  impatience 
— one  the  bad  record  which  many  legislative 
bodies  have  made  for  carelessness  or  corrup- 
tion; the  other  the  desire  to  get  things  done 
by  a  real  executive,  unhampered  by  control 
or  advice.  But  the  wise  course,  after  all,  is 
that  balancing  of  function  and  powers  for 
which  the  fathers  provided  in  the  Constitu- 
tion of  these  United  States,  and  which  recog- 
nizes the  principle  that  one  man  alone  is  not 
as  strong  and  as  safe  as  one  man  with  the 
help  of  intelligent  and  efficient  counsellors. 
The  library  profession  has  necessarily  devel- 
oped strong  executives  as  municipal  library 
systems  have  become  great  and  complex;  but 
even  in  great  industrial  corporations  a  board 
of  directors  which,  from  its  varied  experi- 
ence and  with  its  advice,  helps  and  does  not 
hamper  the  executive,  is  a  gain  to  the  strong- 
est executive,  unless  he  is  self-willed  and 
dominant  to  the  extent  of  resenting  its  help- 
fulness as  interference.  The  library  board  of 
trustees  should,  we  think,  continue  to  be  a 
feature  of  library  administration,  therefore, 
in  municipal  as  well  as  in  other  libraries,  for 
only  thus  can  the  best  results  be  assured. 

THERE  is,  of  course,  danger  that  the  board 
may  be  perverted  either  into  "innocuous  desue- 
tude," or,  on  the  other  hand,  assume  undue 
dominance.  A  board  of  trustees  which  does 
nothing,  gives  no  advice,  and  holds  only  nom- 
inal relationship  with  the  library  and  the  li- 
brarian, beyond  filling  a  vacancy  in  that  post, 
is  of  no  use  to  anybody.  A  library  board 



[February,  1913 

which  seeks  to  dominate  the  situation,  espe- 
cially through  a  cabal  of  a  few  active  mem- 
bers, who  seek  to  take  the  place  of  the  libra- 
rian, is  much  worse  than  useless.  This  latter 
abuse  is  perhaps  most  frequent  in  self-perpet- 
uating bodies,  and  it  is  to  be  noted  that  in 
the  Queens  Borough  system  the  state  legisla- 
ture is  taking  a  hand  in  changing  the  method 
of  board  appointment.  The  final  outcome  of 
the  Queens  Borough  agitation  may  furnish, 
indeed,  a  happy  example  of  a  successful  en- 
deavor to  make  the  proper  balance  between 
an  active  board  and  an  efficient  and  respon- 
sible executive,  which  is  exemplified  elsewhere 
in  the  metropolis. 

THE  commission  plan,  as  presented,  involves 
two  dangers  to  the  municipal  library — one  the 
likelihood  of  its  subordination  in  the  hands 
of  a  commissioner  who  has  other  interests 
more  or  less  cognate  as  his  main  business, 
and  the  other  the  abolition  of  an  advisory,  if 
not  controlling,  board  of  trustees.  These 
dangers  are  not  necessarily  part  of  the  com- 
mission plan,  and  possibly  the  best  service 
the  A.  L.  A.  can  do  is  to  point  out  the  fact 
that  a  good  system  of  library  government  is 
not  incompatible  with  the  commission  form 
of  municipal  administration.  The  commis- 
sioner under  whom  the  library  is  placed 
should  be  responsible  for  it,  for  this  is  the 
gist  of  the  commission  plan;  but  the  library 
should  be  grouped  with  other  interests  of  an 
educational  character,  in  association,  and  not 
in  subordination.  It  would  seem  desirable 
that  the  commissioner  should  have  the  advice 
of  a  board  of  trustees,  to  whom  possibly  the 
choice  of  a  librarian  and  other  questions  of 
administration  should  be  referred,  whether 
with  power  or  only  for  advisory  purposes. 
Whatever  the  degree  of  power  given  to  such 
a  board,  its  decisions  or  recommendations  will 
probably  be  effective  in  proportion  to  their 
practical  wisdom,  if  the  commissioner  is  the 
man  he  should  be;  and  thus  the  best  advan- 
tages of  strong  executive  government  and 
associated  experience  may  be  conjoined.  On 
some  such  lines  as  these,  the  advice  of  the 
A.  L.  A.  may  be  determinant  in  adapting  the 
commission  plan  to  the  library  situation  in 

THE  library  profession  suffers  a  great  loss 
in  the  death  of  Charles  C.  Soule,  for,  although 

never  a  librarian,  he  has  been  one  of  the  most 
active  and  effective,  as  well  as  beloved,  mem- 
bers of  the  A.  L.  A.  since,  as  trustee  of  the 
Brookline  Public  Library,  he  joined  it  in 
1879.  In  later  years,  although  he  retained 
his  presidency  of  the  Boston  Book  Com- 
pany, he  had  given  less  attention  to  business 
matters  and  gave  himself  increasingly  to 
work  as  an  expert  adviser  on  library  archi- 
tecture. From  this  resulted  his  recently  pub- 
lished volume,  to  have  been  supplemented 
by  a  second  volume  of  illustrations  which 
he  had  largely  shaped  before  his  death. 
His  personal  geniality  and  his  kindling  devo- 
tion to  library  interests  were  the  basis  of  his 
important  relationships  with  the  A.  L.  A.  for 
thirty-three  years;  but  the  main  emphasis 
should  be  laid  on  the  fact  that  he  came  into 
these  relationships  as  a  layman,  and  to  a  cer- 
tain extent  had,  therefore,  an  outside  and 
different  point  of  view.  The  A.  L.  A.  will 
be  the  better  off  in  years  to  come  if  other 
trustees  come  into  the  field  and  emulate  the 
example  of  Mr.  Soule. 

THE  exhibition  of  the  book  industries  at 
Leipzig,  which  is  planned  for  1914,  as  to 
which  the  German  government  has  commu- 
nicated through  its  ambassador  with  our 
State  Department,  should  give  occasion  for  a 
good  representation  from  America  in  the  land 
of  scholarship,  in  which  libraries  are  just 
beginning  to  reach  the  people.  Unfortunate- 
ly, American  book  publishers  are  rather  slow 
to  recognize  obligation  to  participate  in  such 
exhibitions,  when  there  is  no  market  for 
their  publications ;  and  it  may  devolve  upon 
the  American  Library  Association,  in  coop- 
eration with  the  Library  of  Congress,  to  pre- 
sent some  adequate  exhibit  of  American 
books,  as  well  as  of  American  library  meth- 
ods. The  visit  of  Dr.  Schwenke  afforded 
practical  proof  of  the  desire  of  the  German 
library  profession  to  keep  step  with  America 
in  library  progress,  and  each  country  has 
much  to  learn  from  the  other  in  the  respec- 
tive directions  in  which  the  two  countries 
have  excelled.  There  is  a  practical,  as  well 
as  theoretical,  value  in  such  international  re- 
lations, for  in  respect  to  printed  catalog  cards 
alone,  American  libraries  should  ultimately 
profit  very  much  by  the  development  of  such 
a  system  as  that  of  which  Dr.  Schwenke  has 
made  himself  the  apostle  and  pioneer. 

February,  1913] 




BY  FREDERICK  C.  HICKS,  Assistant  Librarian  of  Columbia   University 

Extension  of  scope. 
Three  necessities: 

(1)  Bibliographical  information. 

(2)  Safety  in  transportation  and  indemnity 

for  loss. 

(3)  Financing  the  system. 

(a)  Cost: 

For  transportation. 

For  security  and  indemnity. 

For  administration. 

(b)  Distribution   of  cost. 

(c)  Accounting. 
Substitute  for  inter-library  loans. 

JUDGING  merely  by  statistics  of  the  use  of 
inter-library  loans  in  this  country,  our  prob- 
lem is  not  to  regulate  or  limit  this  use,  but  to 
increase  it.  The  largest  number  of  volumes 
lent  by  the  following  libraries  in  any  one  year 
is:  Columbia  University,  412;  Cornell  Univer- 
sity, 338;  Harvard  University,  1575;  Johns 
Hopkins,  43;  Princeton  University,  67;  Yale 
University,  222.  The  largest  figures  for  vol- 
umes borrowed  by  the  same  libraries  in  any 
one  year  are,  respectively,  620,  150,  56,  171, 
103,  136.  The  libraries  in  the  United  States 
making  the  largest  number  of  inter-library 
loans,  as  shown  by  available  records,  are  the 
Forbes  Library,  Northampton,  Mass.,  the  li- 
brary of  the  Surgeon  General's  Office,  and  the 
Library  of  Congress.  These  libraries  have 
lent  in  one  year  as  many  as  5000,  2000,  and 
1617  volumes,  respectively.  The  statement  that 
the  use  of  inter-library  loans  has  increased  50 
or  75  or  100  per  cent,  in  ten  years  loses  much 
of  its  force  when  we  realize  that  the  total 
annual  inter-library  lending  of  any  one  library 
can  usually  be  expressed  in  three  figures,  and 
that  during  the  same  period  the  number  of 
students  attending  colleges  and  universities  in 
the  United  States  has  increased  40  per  cent. 

Compare  with  these  figures  the  statistics  of 
inter-library  loans  in  Europe.  The  libraries 
of  Europe  borrow  and  lend  thousands  of  vol- 
umes while  we  exchange  hundreds.  The 
Royal  Library  of  Berlin  records  the  annual 

Rod  at  the  conference  of  Eastern  College  Libra- 
rians, New  York  City,  Nov.  30,  1912. 

loan  to  Prussian  libraries  alone,  during  a  pe- 
riod of  seven  years,  of  volumes  increasing  in 
number  from  11,920  to  28,499.  During  the 
same  period  additional  annual  loans  were  made 
to  other  libraries  of  the  world,  varying  in 
number  from  6500  to  12,459.  The  reports 
show  that  in  one  year  Strassburg  University 
lent  10,000  volumes;  Gottingen  University, 
6600  volumes;  and  Vienna  University,  6852 

European  libraries  long  ago  passed  through 
the  experimental  stage  in  the  lending  of  books 
by  one  library  to  another,  while  we  are  just 
beginning  to  experiment.  But  we  have  done 
enough  to  demonstrate  the  value  of  the  priv- 
ilege of  borrowing  and  lending,  and  to  show 
the  desirability  of  organizing  into  a  system  a 
function  thus  far  performed,  through  courtesy, 
by  voluntary  cooperation. 


To  the  scholar,  the  importance  of  a  system 
of  inter-library  loans  is  unquestioned.  Every 
university  librarian  can,  in  his  own  experience, 
give  proof  of  this  statement;  but  the  experi- 
ences of  an  American  scholar  in  Berlin  may 
perhaps  be  interesting.  "In  1905,  while  work- 
ing at  the  Royal  Library,"  said  he,  "I  wished 
to  see  thirty  books  not  to  be  found  in  Berlin. 
Through  the  Auskunfts  Bureau  I  learned  that 
by  visiting  the  Royal  libraries  in  Dresden  and 
Munich,  and  the  university  libraries  in  Bres- 
lau  and  Greiswald,  I  could  see  all  of  these 
books.  Instead,  I  asked  the  officials  of  the 
Berlin  library  to  borrow  them  for  me.  In  a 
week's  time  all  of  the  books  were  on  my  table 
at  the  Royal  Library,  and  I  was  privileged  to 
use  them  for  four  weeks,  the  total  expense  to 
me  being  12  marks.  In  addition  to  saving  time 
and  money  for  me,  this  system  enabled  me  to 
do  work  that  could  not  have  been  done  in  any 
other  way,  for  I  was  engaged  in  the  minute 
comparison  of  editions  and  texts." 

It  is  for  this  kind  of  service  that  university 
and  college  libraries  in  the  United  States  have 
chiefly  availed  themselves  of  inter-library 
loans.  As  has  been  well  said,  figures  give  no 
adequate  conception  of  the  importance  of  such 
service.  But  since  this  is  so,  may  we  not  have 
more  of  it?  One  of  the  most  searching  crit- 



[February,  1913 

icisms  of  university  libraries  is  that  they  pay 
most  money  for  the  books  that  they  use  least. 
Dr.  Richardson  has  estimated  "that  in  the 
case  of  three-fourths  of  the  books  that  have 
been  published,  one  to  four  copies,  somewhere 
in  America,  will  supply  every  reasonable  need, 
and  that  perhaps  not  more  than  one-tenth  of 
the  remainder  need  be  in  each  large  university 
library  doing  full  graduate  work."  Undoubt- 
edly our  libraries  need  more  books,  but  in  or- 
der to  justify  this  increase  the  books  which 
they  have  must  be  more  used. 

The  advantages  of  a  system  of  inter-library 
loans  have  often  been  reiterated,  such  as 
prompt  service,  enabling  a  library  to  provide 
a  book  sooner  than  if  it  were  purchased,  espe- 
cially in  the  case  of  out-of-print  books;  econ- 
omy in  service,  reducing  the  amount  of  money 
that  must  be  expended  for  books ;  economy  in 
cost  of  cataloging,  classifying  and  binding,  and 
in  shelf  room;  satisfaction  in  having  one's 
books  used,  in  serving  a  sister  institution,  and 
in  adding  prestige  to  one's  own  library.  The  ad- 
vantages evidently  are  mutual  when  two  libra- 
ries are  able  often  to  supplement  each  other's 
collections.  The  advantages  to  a  library  which 
is  continually  lending  to  a  library  which  has 
little  to  offer  in  return  are  not  so  apparent, 
but  they  exist  nevertheless  quite  apart  from 
the  satisfaction  of  service  well  rendered.  Re- 
quests from  small  libraries  for  the  loan  of 
books  often  disclose  to  large  libraries  the  ex- 
istence of  important  lacunae  in  their  collec- 
tions. In  the  library  of  Columbia  University 
a  request  for  the  loan  of  a  book  is  considered 
a  recommendation  for  purchase  if  the  book  is 
not  already  in  the  library.  Of  the  95  volumes 
requested  but  not  loaned  because  not  owned 
by  the  library  last  year  (1911-12),  it  was  found 
that  44  ought  to  have  been  in  the  library,  and 
they  were  recommended  for  purchase.  Sim- 
ilarly, 16  out  of  the  33  titles  asked  for  but  not 
loaned  thus  far  in  the  present  year  have  been 
recommended  for  purchase.  Inter-library  loan 
requests  serve  also  to  call  attention  to  the 
non-receipt  of  continuations  and  serials  which 
otherwise  might  be  overlooked  for  some  time. 


If  I  am  right  in  thinking  that  the  advantages 
of  inter-library  loans  far  outweigh  their  dis- 
advantages, it  is  logical  to  suggest  not  only 
that  they  should  be  more  extensively  used, 
but  that  their  scope  should  be  extended.  The 

customary  statement  of  the  purpose  of-  inter- 
library  loans  is  that  they  are  intended  chiefly 
to  provide  for  the  unusual  need  of  serious 
students,  and  not  to  provide  books  which  theo- 
retically should  be  supplied  by  the  local  li- 
brary. Undoubtedly  the  supplying  of  books 
for  bona-fide  scholars  is  an  important  func- 
tion of  inter-library  loans.  But  unfortunately 
the  very  books  which  are  most  needed  for  this 
purpose  are  those  which  libraries  often  do  not 
now  feel  able  to  lend.  The  limitation  of  the 
scope  of  inter-library  loans  to  a  class  of  books 
which  often  cannot  be  lent  operates  also  to 
reduce  the  number  of  requests  for  books,  and 
therefore  the  amount  of  use.  Few  libraries 
refuse  to  lend  a  book,  when  asked  for,  simply 
because  it  does  not  come  within  the  scope  of 
such  loans  as  ordinarily  stated.  Would  it  not 
be  better,  therefore,  to  let  it  be  understood 
that  the  purpose  of  inter-library  loans  is  to 
supply  books  which  cannot  under  existing 
conditions  be  supplied  by  the  local  library,  and 
that  their  scope  is  limited  only  by  the  need  of 
the  borrowing  library,  and  the  ability  of  the 
lending  library  to  lend?  Necessarily,  the  abil- 
ity of  a  library  to  lend  varies  with  its  pur- 
pose and  scope.  What  is  the  usual  book  for 
one  library  is  not  the  usual  book  for  another. 
And  so  also  with  usual  and  unusual  needs. 
The  usual  book  and  the  usual  need  for 
a  public  library  are  quite  different  from 
the  usual  book  and  need  for  the  university 
library.  The  necessity  for  recognizing  a 
broader  principle  is  seen  when  it  is  applied  to 
libraries  of  unlike  character  and  scope,  as 
when  a  university  library  borrows  from  a 
public  library.  For  instance  last  year  Colum- 
bia University  borrowed  358  volumes  from 
the  New  York  Public  Library.  These  were 
usual  books,  easily  obtainable  in  the  market, 
and  needed  for  the  use  of  undergraduates. 
These  readers  were  not  serious  readers  in  the 
ordinary  sense  of  the  word;  but,  after  all, 
what  is  a  serious  reader?  Is  he  one  who 
reads  a  serious  book,  or  one  who  reads  seri- 
ously? Must  his  attitude  toward  the  book 
come  from  within,  or  be  imposed  on  him  by  a 
professor?  Must  he  read  for  the  purpose  of 
writing  a  dissertation  on  the  pluperfect  tense, 
or  is  he  entirely  frivolous  if  he  reads  because 
he  enjoys  good  literature?  Must  he  take  his 
pleasure  seriously,  or  worse,  be  engaged  in 
turning  out  a  book  so  serious  that  no  one  will 
read  it,  in  order  to  be  a  serious  reader? 

February,  1913] 




It  may  fairly  be  contended  that  if  it  were 
known  libraries  had  adopted  a  liberal  policy, 
occasions  for  recourse  to  inter-library  loans 
would  vastly  increase.  And  with  this  increase 
three  needs,  insistent  enough  now,  would  be- 
come imperative.  These  three  needs  are  (i) 
More  information  as  to  the  location  of  books ; 
(2)  a  greater  measure  of  safety  in  the  trans- 
portation of  books,  and  indemnity  for  the  loss 
of  books;  and  (3)  provision  for  financing  the 
system.  If  these  three  needs  were  satisfied,  a 
library  to  which  application  was  made  by  an- 
other library  would  have  a  simple  practical 
question  to  decide,  namely,  Can  or  cannot  this 
book  be  spared? 


It  is  not  necessary  here  to  discuss  plans  for 
a  central  bureau  of  information,  nor  to  men- 
tion the  possibilities  of  development  in  union 
catalogs.  One  phase  of  the  problem  of  sup- 
plying information  concerning  the  location  of 
books,  however,  may  well  be  emphasized. 
There  has  recently  been  published  by  the 
United  States  Bureau  of  Education,  Bulletin 
number  23,  entitled  "Special  collections  in  li- 
braries in  the  United  States."  This  is  virtually 
a  new  edition  of  a  work  prepared  by  Messrs. 
Lane  and  Bolton,  and  issued  by  Harvard  Uni- 
versity in  1892.  It  is  necessarily  incomplete 
and  doubtless  contains  errors,  but  it  will  be  a 
valuable  aid  to  librarians  in  determining  where 
to  apply  for  the  loan  of  a  book.  Its  chief 
value,  however,  ought  to  be  to  serve  as  a  point 
of  departure  in  the  preparation  and  publica- 
tion of  union  lists  of  titles  on  numerous  spe- 
cial subjects.  It  has  already  served  as  the 
inspiration  for  at  least  one  such  list.  Observ- 
ing that  three  university  libraries  each  con- 
tained notable  collections  of  the  works  of 
William  Dunlap,  a  specialist  determined  im- 
mediately to  prepare  a  union  list  for  publica- 
tion. As  a  means  of  serving  scholars  and 
students,  I  suggest  that  hereafter  no  univer- 
sity shall  publish  a  catalog  of  its  works  on  a 
special  subject  without  giving  other  libraries, 
having  similar  collections,  an  opportunity  to 
unite  in  the  publication  of  a  union  list.  Often 
the  cost  to  any  one  library  would  be  reduced 
by  such  cooperation,  although  the  increased 
value  of  the  lists  as  a  basis  for  inter-library 
loans  would  justify  an  increased  expenditure. 

Safe  Transit  and  Delivery 
Granted  that  a  library  has  a  book,  and  that 
it  can  be  spared  for  the  use  of  another  library, 
the  next  question  to  answer  is,  Is  it  safe  to 
ship  that  book  by  mail  or  express  ?  With  rare 
books  and  unique  manuscripts  it  is  not  in- 
demnity for  loss,  but  certainty  of  safe  transit 
and  delivery  that  libraries  seek.  And  the 
measure  of  safety  that  will  satisfy  a  library 
may  be  quite  unrelated  to  the  marketable  value 
of  the  book.  The  nearest  approach  to  cer- 
tainty of  safe  transit  combined  with  indem- 
nity is  provided  by  the  express  companies 
when  the  declared  value  of  a  shipment  is  more 
than  fifty  dollars.  Such  shipments  are  handled 
with  as  much  care  as  if  they  were  currency. 
They  are  shipped  in  steel  safes,  and  their  pas- 
sage from  hand  to  hand  is  receipted  for.  To 
receive  this  treatment  the  actual  value  of  a 
book  need  not  be  more  than  fifty  dollars,  pro- 
vided payment  is  made  at  the  rate  for  pack- 
ages of  that  value.  In  other  words,  it  is  pos- 
sible to  pay  for  increased  security  without 
regard  to  the  question  of  indemnity  for  loss. 
By  this  method  the  possibilities  of  losing  or 
injuring  a  book  or  manuscript  are  reduced  to 
a  minimum,  and  I  suppose  that  in  some  cases 
such  books  are  more  safely  guarded  while  in 
the  hands  of  the  express  companies  than  when 
in  the  library  to  which  they  belong.  Trans- 
portation by  registered  mail  is  scarcely  less 
safe  than  shipment  by  express,  but  it  is  less 
serviceable  because  it  insures  indemnity  only 
in  case  of  total  loss.  Last  year  the  total 
losses  of  domestic  registered  letters  and  pack- 
ages were  only  one  in  47,178  pieces. 


The  common  methods  of  obtaining  indem- 
nity for  loss  or  injury  to  books  in  transit  are 
by  postal  registration,  and  by  the  responsibil- 
ity of  common  carriers. 

There  is  no  redress  for5  the  loss  of  unregis- 
tered mail,  but  for  the  total  loss  of  domestic 
mail  of  the  third  class,  registered  at  a  cost  of 
ten  cents  a  package,  there  is  an  indemnity  of 
not  to  exceed  twenty- five  dollars.  There  is 
no  indemnity  for  injury  to  a  registered  pack- 
age. The  limit  of  indemnit}'  for  registered 
packages  lost  in  the  international  mail  is  50 

Within  certain  financial  limits  the  express 
companies  are  liable  for  either  injury  or  loss 


[February,  1913 

to  articles  entrusted  to  their  care.  Their  spe- 
cial rates  for  printed  books  apply  only  to  books 
valued  at  not  more  than  ten  dollars.  The 
limit  of  indemnity  on  books  shipped  at  regular 
merchandise  rates  is  $50.  In  order  to  make 
the  companies  liable  in  larger  sums,  a  mini- 
mum charge  of  ten  cents  for  each  $100  or  part 
thereof  is  made.  There  is  no  question  about 
the  payment  of  an  indemnity,  but  its  amount 
depends  first,  on  the  rate  paid,  and  second,  on 
the  actual  value  of  the  book.  This  value  is 
always  a  question  foil  proof,  and  the  tendency 
of  the  companies  is  to  contend  for  the  actual 
marketable  value  of  the  article. 

A  third  method  of  obtaining  indemnity  is  by 
commercial  insurance.  There  are  several  comr 
panics  which  issue  various  kinds  of  floating 
policies  covering  articles  in  transit,  and  they 
assure  indemnity  not  only  for  total  loss  from 
any  cause,  including  theft,  but  for  injury  to 
the  article  insured.  One  of  these  policies  is 
issued  in  the  form  of  a  book  containing  the 
contract  and  a  series  of  stubs  with  detachable 
coupons,  each  of  which  represents  a  prepaid 
premium  of  either  2r/2  cents  or  5  cents.  This 
is  known  as  a  parcels  post  policy,  and  it  covers 
only  articles  shipped  by  mail. 

By  means  of  these  coupons  the  following 
rates  of  insurance  can  be  obtained: 

Unregistered  mail  packages  valued  at  not  to 
exceed  $5,  $15,  $20  and  $30  may  be  insured 
for  2^,  5,  7^  and  10  cents,  respectively. 

Registered  mail  packages  valued  at  not  to 
exceed  $50,  $100,  $125  and  $150  may  be  in- 
sured for  2^2,  5,  jl/2  and  10  cents,  respectively. 

The  formalities  to  be  observed  are  these: 

(1)  on  each  coupon  used  the  shipper  writes 
or  stamps  his  name  and  the  date  of  mailing; 

(2)  on  the  corresponding  stub,  like  informa- 
tion is  placed,  together  with  the  valuation  of 
the  merchandise  mailed  and  the  name  and  ad- 
dress on  the  package;  (3)  the  coupon  is  then 
detached  and  enclosed  either  in  the  package 
with  the  merchandise  or  in  the  envelope  with 
the  invoice. 

Another  kind  of  floating  policy  applies  to 
all  other  means  of  transportation  except  the 
post,  and  it  covers  all  kinds  of  losses  and  in- 
juries to  merchandise.  The  policy  runs  for 
one  year,  and  the  limit  of  indemnity  and  the 
amount  of  the  annual  premium  are  based  on 
the  estimated  total  value  of  the  shipments  for 

the  year.  Several  libraries  might  take  out  a 
policy  jointly  covering  all  of  their  inter-library 
loans  for  the  year.  For  instance  if  the  total 
value  of  the  shipments  of  three  libraries  for 
one  year  amounted  to  $7500,  a  policy  would 
be  issued  to  them  for  $1000  at  an  annual  pre- 
mium of  $25.  Any  or  all  of  the  libraries 
would  then  be  indemnified  until  the  total 
amount  for  the  year  equalled  the  face  value 
of  the  policy.  In  order  to  recover  on  this 
policy  it  is  necessary  to  prove  by  proper  re- 
ceipts that  the  shipment  was  made  in  good 
order,  and  to  establish  the  actual  amount  of 
the  loss. 


The  problem  of  financing  a  system  of  inter- 
library  loans  has  not  been  scientifically  inves- 
tigated. The  elements  in  this  problem  are, 
first,  the  cost;  second,  the  distribution  of  this 
cost;  and  third,  a  method  of  accounting  by 
which  payment  may  be  made  most  easily. 

The  total  cost  of  inter-library  loans  is  made 
up  of  expense  for  transportation,  for  security 
and  indemnity,  and  for  administration. 

Cost  of  transportation  and  insurance 

Unfortunately,  a  reduction  in  the  cost  of 
transportation  by  mail  has  again  been  deferred 
by  the  failure  of  Congress  to  include  third 
class  matter  among  those  articles  which  may 
be  sent  by  the  new  domestic  parcels  post, 
which  is  to  become  effective  on  Jan.  I,  1913. 
For  the  present,  therefore,  the  cost  of  ship- 
ment by  mail  remains  at  one  cent  for  each  two 
ounces  or  a  fraction  thereof,  the  limit  of 
weight  being  four  pounds,  except  for  single 
books  in  separate  packages  on  which  the 
weight  is  not  limited.  This  rate  is  the  same 
as  for  the  English  book-post,  but  it  is  higher 
than  the  French  and  German  rates.  Free 
postage  is  granted  to  government  libraries  in 
some  European  countries,  for  example,  Italy, 
and  libraries  in  other  states  are  attempting  to 
get  the  franking  privilege. 

Present  express  rates  in  the  United  States 
are  likely  soon  to  be  somewhat  reduced.  The 
rates  proposed  by  the  Commission  for  the  Gov- 
ernment of  Express  Carriers  are  set  forth  in 
considerable  detail  in  Opinion  number  1967  of 
the  Interstate  Commerce  Commission,  entitled 
"In  the  matter  of  express  rates,  practices,  ac- 
counts and  revenues."  The  proposed  rates 

February,  1913] 


contemplate  a  reduction  of  about  20  per  cent. 
Final  action  with  respect  to  these  rates  has 
been  postponed  to  enable  the  Commission  to 
complete  the  computation  of  rates  between  all 
points  in  the  United  States.  This  work  is  now 
going  forward  rapidly,  and  when  completed 
the  express  carriers  have  been  given  30  days 
additional  time  in  which  to  submit  to  the  Com- 
mission comparisons  with  their  present  rates 
in  order  to  show  the  effect  thereof  upon  their 
revenue.  Following  the  submission  of  the  car- 
riers' statements  the  Commission  will  give  fur- 
ther consideration  to  the  proposed  rates. 

A  fact  which  librarians  should  not  overlook 
in  connection  with  inter-library  loans  is  that 
publishers'  express  rates  can  be  obtained  for 
the  shipment  and  return  of  the  same  books. 
Under  this  arrangement  the  cost  is  reduced 
one-fourth,  i.e.,  a  half-rate  is  granted  for  the 
return  shipment.  This  rate  is  advantageous 
only  when  several  books  are  shipped.  For  one 
book  the  rates  under  Section  D  of  the  express 
schedules  are  cheaper.  For  making  the  pub- 
lisher's rates  operative,  a  special  label  must  be 
pasted  on  the  package  when  shipped  and  when 

Cost  of  administration 

The  administrative  cost  of  inter-library  loans 
is  not  easily  estimated,  and  there  seem  to  be 
no  figures  available  as  a  basis  for  such  an 
estimate.  In  the  earlier  reports  of  university 
libraries  we  find  statements  that  the  adminis- 
trative cost  is  so  inconsiderable  that  it  can  be 
ignored.  Only  in  recent  years  do  we  hear 
something  like  a  protest  against  this  cost.  The 
elements  of  this  expense  are  charges  for  corre- 
spondence, for  searching  in  the  catalogs,  for 
getting  the  books  from  the  shelves,  for  time 
spent  in  deciding  whether  they  can  be  lent, 
and  for  packing  and  shipping.  The  two  first 
items  will  be  greatly  reduced  as  information 
concerning  the  location  of  books  increases. 
Application  will  then  seldom  be  made  to  a 
library  which  does  not  own  a  book,  and  when 
a  book  is  owned  but  cannot  be  spared,  the 
application  can  be  passed  on  directly  to  the 
next  most  probable  lender.  The  cost  of  search- 
ing would  be  greatly  reduced  if  uniform 
blanks  were  used,  giving  full  bibliographical 
data.  It  is  a  reflection  on  present  library 
methods  that  illegible,  incomplete  titles  are 
now  sent  out.  Eighty  per  cent,  of  the  requests 

received  at  the  Columbia  University  Library 
are  unnecessarily  incomplete  and  inaccurate, 
and  are  not  typewritten,  but  carelessly  written 
by  hand.  It  has  been  estimated  by  one  library 
that,  when  applications  are  carefully  prepared, 
the  cost  of  searching  in  the  catalog,  getting 
books  from  the  shelves,  wrapping  them,  send- 
ing them  to  the  shipping  office,  and  notifying 
the  borrowing  library  is  about  ten  cents  for 
each  package  containing  not  more  than  three 
volumes.  If  this  estimate  is  correct,  the  ad- 
ministrative cost  to  this  library  last  year  was 
less  than  fifty  dollars. 

Distribution  of  cost 

It  has  not  been  decided  what  is  the  best 
method  of  distributing  the  cost  of  inter-library 
loans.  Thus  far,  administrative  charges  have 
been  paid  by  the  lending  library,  while  trans- 
portation charges  both  ways  are  paid  by  the 
borrowing  library,  which  usually  is  reimbursed 
by  the  reader  for  whom  the  book  is  borrowed. 
As  far  as  I  know,  only  one  university  library 
has  had)  a  separate  fund  for  the  maintenance 
of  inter-library  loans.  In  1908,  Mr.  George  E. 
Dimock,  of  Elizabeth,  N.  J.,  gave  Yale  Uni- 
versity one  hundred  dollars,  which  was  used 
to  meet  administrative  expenses  of  loans.  The 
library  and  not  the  reader  benefited  by  this 

The  practice  of  European  libraries  is  not 
uniform.  In  Sweden  the  extensive  lending 
system  causes  no  expense  whatever  to  the  bor- 
rower. The  Royal  Library  of  Berlin  makes  a 
uniform  charge  of  10  pfennigen  a  volume  for 
booksr  borrowed  from  Prussian  libraries.  For 
books  borrowed  from  non-Prussian  libraries 
the  charge  varies,  sometimes  being  for  the 
actual  expense  of  expressage,  and  sometimes 
with  an  extra  charge  for  packing,  etc. 

The  librarian  of  Clark  University  has  gone 
so  far  as  to  contend  that  "until  libraries  be- 
come more  liberal  in  lending  to  one  another, 
it  is  perfectly  legitimate  for  a  well  endowed 
library  to  pay  the  expenses  of  a  student  in  or- 
der that  he  may  visit  other  libraries  where  the 
special  literature  he  needs  is  to  be  found." 

The  practice  of  another  university  is  to  pay 
all  charges,  both  for  administration  and  trans- 
portation, when  a  book  is  borrowed  on  the 
recommendation  of  a  professor  for  the  use  of 
a  graduate  student  doing  university  work. 


{February,  1913 

There  is  much  justice  in  this  practice,  for  a 
graduate  student  may  fairly  contend  that  when 
a  university  library  does  not  own  a  book,  it 
should  choose  the  less  expensive  alternative  of 
borrowing  the  book  instead  of  buying  it. 

I  make  the  suggestion  that  university  libra- 
ries endeavor  to  obtain  funds  for  financing  all 
legitimate  requests  for  loans,  without  cost  to 
the  borrower,  either  by  obtaining  gifts  or  by 
inserting  an  item  in  their  library  budgets. 


In  order  equitably  to  distribute  the  cost  of 
inter-library  loans  among  the  participating  li- 
braries, some  simple  system  of  accounting 
should  be  adopted.  In  Prussia,  where  a  uni- 
form charge  of  10  pfennigen  a  volume  is  made 
on  the  borrower,  each  library  keeps  a  record 
of  the  costs  of  transportation  and  of  the  num- 
ber of  volumes  sent.  At  the  end  of  March 
and  September  of  each  year  the  accounts  of 
the  respective  libraries  are  balanced.  Some 
such  system  might  be  applied  to  libraries  in 
the  United  States,  at  least  to  the  extent  of 
balancing  administrative  charges.  For  in- 
stance, assuming  that  ten  cents  a  title  is  a  fair 
charge  for  administration,  two  libraries  which 
borrowed  from  each  other  300  and  450  titles 
respectively  would  clear  their  accounts  by 
transferring,  at  the  end  of  the  year,  the  dif- 
ference between  $45  and  $30,  or  $15.  The 
same  method  could  be  used  in  balancing  ac- 
counts for  transportation. 


At  the  beginning  of  this  paper  it  was  urged 
that  the  scope  of  inter-library  loans  be  ex- 
tended. This  argument  may  now  be  strength- 
ened by  the  fact  that  in  the  case  of  rare  books 
and  manuscripts  there  is  a  very  adequate  sub- 
stitute for  lending.  I  refer  to  copies  made 
on  photographic  reproducing  machines.  At 
comparatively  slight  expense  even  bulky  printed 
books  and  manuscripts  may  be  copied,  so  that, 
for  all  practical  purposes,  these  volumes  may 
become  the  property  of  a  dozen  libraries. 
Pages  from  these  books  and  manuscripts  may 
be  copied  at  very  low  rates.  The  copies  are 
accurate  and  lasting.  In  most  cities  there  are 

firms  which  operate  these  machines  commer- 
cially, so  that  their  benefits  may  be  had  with- 
out initial  expense  or  loss  of  space  by  libra- 
ries. Many  libraries  have,  however,  installed 
machines  and  are  operating  them  economically, 
not  only  as  a  substitute  for  inter-library  loans, 
but  to  reduce  the  expense  of  copying  generally. 
It  is  quite  feasible  for  several  libraries  in  one 
locality  jointly  to  meet  the  expense  of  in- 
stalling a  machine,  and  to  charge  a  uniform 
rate  for  each  exposure. 

The  comparative  merits  of  the  several  ma- 
chines cannot  be  discussed  here,  but  I  have 
asked  three  companies  to  furnish  me  with  a 
statement  of  the  merits  of  their  respective  ma- 
chines, and  to  duplicate  this  statement  for  dis- 
tribution at  this  meeting  as  samples  of  their 
work.  To  this  statement  I  need  add  only  that 
confusion  will  be  avoided  if  it  is  remembered 
that  the  word  cameragraph  is  not  a  general 
term  for  all  kinds  of  photographic  reproduc- 
ing machines,  but  is  a  trade  name  for  one  of 
these  machines.  This  machine  is  manufac- 
tured at  Kansas  City,  Missouri.  The  two 
other  machines  with  which  I  am  familiar  are 
the  photostat  and  the  rectigraph,  both  manu- 
factured at  Rochester,  New  York. 


It  is  a  hackneyed  statement  that  libraries 
exist  solely  for  use,  but  we  must  return  to  it 
whenever  any  new  development  of  our  library 
methods  is  under  consideration.  In  order  to 
increase  the  use  of  our  college  and  university 
libraries,  it  is  recommended,  therefore,  that 
the  scope  of  our  inter-library  loans  shall  be 
extended  now,  without  waiting  for  cheaper 
means  of  transportation.  In  the  train  of  this 
recommendation  come  three  others:  (i)  that 
special  lists  of  books  hereafter  published  shall 
be  union  lists ;  (2)  that  the  financing  of  inter- 
library  loans  shall  be  recognized  in  our  library 
budgets ;  and  (3)  that  a  system  of  accounting 
involving  the  distribution  of  cost  among  libra- 
ries shall  be  agreed  upon.  If  we  develop  the 
system  to  its  limits  under  the  conditions  which 
now  exist,  we  shall  be  in  a  position  to  better 
those  conditions.  Lower  express  rates  and  a 
cheaper  book-post  will  come  when  we  have 
made  the  demand  great  enough. 

February,  1913] 




BY  CLIFFORD  B.  CLAPP,  Head  Cataloger,  Dartmouth  College  Library 

ARRANGEMENT  of  cards  in  a  dictionary  cata- 
log is  one  of  those  subjects  from  the  study 
of  which  the  cataloger  is  likely  to  emerge  a 
sadder,  but  not  much  wiser,  person.  Probably 
the  most  important  division  of  the  subject  is 
arrangement  under  names  of  places.  There 
are  three  ways  in  which  the  place  name  oc- 
curs at  the  head  of  catalog  cards:  (i)  as 
author,  or  main  entry;  (2)  as  subject;  (3)  as 
first  word  of  a  title.  The  publications  of 
governments  and  of  societies  or  institutions 
bearing  place  names  are  enormously  increas- 
ing. There  is  also  a  tendency  among  catalog- 
ers  to  get  more  and  more  subjects  under 
country,  state  and  city  heads.  The  little  at- 
tention that  -has  been  given  to  the  arrange- 
ment of  the  cards  involved  is  surprising,  in 
view  of  the  complications  that  arise  in  a 
large  catalog,  where  from  one  to  a  dozen 
trays  may  be  taken  up  by  the  cards  under  one 
country  or  state.  But  it  is  not  only  in  the 
cases  where  there  are  several  trays  (or  even 
several  inches)  of  cards  under  one  head  that 
difficulties  abound.  These  cases  can  be  prop- 
erly "guided";  but  where  cards  are  so  few 
that  there  are  but  two  or  three  to  a  category, 
it  is  difficult  to  make  intelligible  any  arrange- 
ment except  the  strictly  alphabetical. 

It  would  seem  that  in  a  dictionary  catalog 
the  first  thing  thought  of  would  be  a  single 
alphabet.  But  many  libraries  have  some  sort 
of  classed  arrangement  under  local  names. 
One  of  the  largest  has  five  alphabets  or  divi- 
sions under  state  names.  What  they  are  is 
immaterial  to  this  discussion.  Suffice  it  to 
say  that  there  are  too  many;  moreover,  three 
are  too  many,  and  so,  probably,  are  two. 
For  my  own  use  I  like  a  classed  rather  than 
a  dictionary  catalog;  but  such  people  as  our 
catalogs  are  expected  most  to  serve  are  bet- 
ter served  by  one  that  clings  to  the  only  prin- 
ciple they  know— strict  alphabetization.  The 
producing  of  this  single  alphabet  arrangement 
is,  however,  no  easy  matter. 

As  a  point  of  departure  for  a  discussion  of 
particular  methods,  it  is  convenient  to  speak 
of  the  arrangement  of  cards  at  the  library 
with  which  I  am  connected.  Under  the  scheme 
used  up  to  the  present  time,  we  have  had 

three  alphabets,  as  follows:  (i)  Official  (i.  e., 
government)  publications,  the  main  or  author 
cards  only.  (2)  About  the  place,  including 
works  about  government  bodies,  such  as  legis- 
lature, president,  bureaus,  etc.,  and  divisions 
like  politics  and  government,  description  and 
travel,  social  conditions,  manufactures,  etc. 
These  are  all  subject  headings,  with  the  place 
name  in  red,  followed  by  the  division  in  black. 
(3)  Unofficial  (i.  e.,  non-government)  publica- 
tions, works  about  unofficial  bodies  bearing 
the  place  name,  and  titles  of  works  beginning 
with  the  place  name,  all  in  one  alphabet.  The 
works  about  the  unofficial  bodies  have  the 
whole  subject  heading  in  read. 

For  several  reasons  it  seemed  desirable  to 
change  this  arrangement.  Difficulty  in  find- 
ing a  desired  heading  or  kind  of  information 
was  not  entirely  avoidable,  even  for  members 
of  the  staff,  and  was  great  for  students  or 
others  using  the  catalog  intermittently.  A 
person  who  ultimately  found  what  he  wanted 
lost  time  by  getting  at  first  into  the  wrong 
division.  A  student  directed  to  such  a  head- 
ing as  Navy  department  under  United  States 
for  works  about  the  department  was  likely  to 
find  the  heading  United  States  Navy  depart- 
ment as  author,  and  lose  whatever  informa^ 
tion  there  might  be  under  United  States  Navy 
department  as  subject. 

Facility  of  use  (and  a  possible  economy  of 
cards)  seemed  to  make  advisable  bringing  to- 
gether such  headings  as  United  States  Com- 
merce and  labor  department  (author),  the 
same  (subject),  and  United  States  Commerce 
(subject).  We  use  the  inverted  form  of  the 
author  heading  for  American  government 
bodies,  which  gives  us  an  opportunity  that 
should  not  be  lost  of  gaining  some  of  the 
advantages  of  a  classed  catalog  while  clinging 
to  the  dictionary  form. 

Cards  will  be  misarranged  under  any  scheme 
through  carelessness  or  oversight,  but  mis- 
takes must  frequently  be  the  result  of  ignor- 
ance of  the  official  or  unofficial  status  of  the 
body  in  question.  It  has  been  customary  for 
us  to  obtrude  into  the  heading  of  official  state 
bodies  the  word  "State,"  whether  it  were 
actually  a  part  of  the  name  or  not,  to  dis- 



[February,  1913 

tinguish  these  from  unofficial  bodies.  This 
resulted  in  cumbersome  headings,  and  was  not 
as  effective  as  might  be  supposed.  It  is  not 
always  possible  to  determine,  without  use  of 
too  much  time,  whether  a  body  is  official  or 
not.  Good  cases  in  point  are  the  universities 
calling  themselves  by  the  state  name,  and  so- 
cieties using  the  word  "State"  in  their  names, 
such  as  various  state  historical  societies,  some 
of  which  have  an  official  connection.  If  the 
cataloger  could  not  determine  the  truth,  could 
the  user  of  the  catalog? 

Three  other  schemes  were  proposed,  as  fol- 
lows: (i)  Put  works  about  official  (govern- 
ment) bodies  in  the  first  alphabet  with  the 
works  by  the  respective  bodies,  instead  of  in 
the  second  division  with  works  about  the 
place,  thus  bringing  together  such  publications 
as  those  by  and  about  the  Library  of  Con- 
gress; (2)  arrange  all  headings,  beginning 
with  the  place  name  in  one  alphabet  except 
titles  of  works  beginning  with  the  place 
name,  which  would  form  a  second  alphabet ; 
(3)  arrange  all  headings  (official  publications, 
works  about  official  bodies,  unofficial  publica- 
tions, works  about  unofficial  bodies,  works 
about  various  aspects  of  the  place  as  a  place, 
and  works  whose  titles  begin  with  the  place 
name)  together  in  one  alphabet. 

A  fourth  possibility  would  be  to  adopt  the 
arrangement  suggested  by  the  typography  of 
the  Library  of  Congress  headings,  which  is 
for  author  entry  approximately  as  follows : 
Three  alphabets,  the  first  containing  the  pub- 
lications of  official  boards,  bureaus,  commis- 
sions, courts,  departments,  legislature  or  coun- 
cil, offices  and  officers,  and  also  charters,  con- 
stitutions, constitutional  conventions  and  laws ; 
the  second  containing  official  institutions,  like 
library  and  museum,  and  also  unofficial  insti- 
tutions and  societies  whose  names  do  not 
begin  with  the  place  name,  but  are  entered 
under  it;  the  third  containing  unofficial  insti- 
tutions and  societies  whose  names  begin  with 
the  place  name,  and  titles  beginning  with 
the  place  name.  The  proper  location  of  sub- 
ject cards,  with  reference  to  these  author  or 
main  entry  cards,  would  be  a  complicating 
factor ;  they  would  probably  fall  partly,  but 
not  entirely,  into  a  fourth  alphabet;  but  I 
have  avoided  the  problem,  as  I  have  found 
nothing  to  recommend  to  me  the  scheme  here 
indicated.  It  seemed,  indeed,  to  have  all  the 
objections  to  our  practice  mentioned  above, 

and  the  additional  ones  of  emphasizing  a  dis- 
tinction between  divisions  of  the  government 
and  institutions  operated  by  it  (a  distinction 
many  people  do  not  find  clear),  and  of  sepa- 
rating unofficial  institutions  and  societies  into 
two  classes  on  the  basis  of  the  initial  use  of 
the  place  name  (a  rather  pointless  distinction 
when  both  are  entered  under  the  place). 
Whether  or  not  it  is  worth  while  to  try  to 
indicate  the  status  and  nature  of  a  corporate 
entity  by  means  of  typography  and  punctua- 
tion, the  idea  of  expecting  the  public  to  know 
anything  of  the  kind  is  a  delusion,  and  its 
outcome  in  arrangement  of  cards  is  a  snare, 
warranted  easily  to  discourage  intrusion  into 
these  carefully  cultivated  precincts. 

The  first  scheme  suggested  above  seems  not 
to  go  far  enough  to  remedy  most  of  the 
troubles.  The  second  and  third  both  involve 
a  weakness  worthy  of  consideration.  A  per- 
son who  wants  all  the  information  about  a 
country  finds  it  mixed  up  with  a  lot  of 
entries  that  he  cares  nothing  about,  and  being 
impatient,  turns  several  cards  at  a  time,  prob- 
ably missing  some  subject  divisions  of  im- 
portance. Where  there  are  but  a  few  cards 
it  is  not  possible  to  call  attention  by  tab 
guides  to  all  the  subject  divisions,  but  some 
good  can  be  done  by  inserting  "see  also" 
cards.  In  spite  of  some  weaknesses,  the  third 
plan  seems  the  best.  On  this  matter  we  have 
had  valuable  advice  from  a  source  that  I 
would  gladly  acknowledge  here  but  for  com- 
mitting to  this  plan  an  institution  which  is  as 
yet  only  seriously  experimenting  with  it.  The 
separation  of  subject  divisions  is  not  so  seri- 
ous a  matter  as  it  might  at  first  seem,  for  we 
must  remember  that  nowhere  in  the  principle 
of  a  dictionary  catalog  is  there  provision  for 
getting  together  all  the  material  about  any 
subject,  large  or  small.  The  virtues  and  the 
faults  of  this  sort  of  catalog  are  just  as  great 
under  place  names  as  anywhere  else,  and  with 
sufficient  danger  signals  this  admittedly  im- 
perfect arrangement  will  serve  in  this  case  as 
well  as  in  any  other.  For  the  benefit  of  those 
who  are  used  to  the  undesirable  three-fold 
arrangement,  guide  cards,  so  far  as  employed, 
can  be  placed  on  the  left,  center  and  right  to 
correspond,  respectively,  with  official,  subject 
and  unofficial  headings. 

There  are  minor  questions  of  usage  that  in 
specific  cases  become  anything  but  minor; 
they  would  have  their  place  in  a  large  work 

February,  1913] 



on  arrangement,  but  it  is  not  worth  while  to 
consider  them  here.  An  important  question, 
however,  grows  out  of  the  complications  aris- 
ing from  the  use  by  many  government  divi- 
sions, societies  and  book  titles  of  the  word 
"State."  This  is  in  itself  a  difficult  question 
of  entry  rather  than  of  arrangement,  yet  it 
is  so  closely  bound  up  with  arrangement  that 
it  must  almost  necessarily  be  discussed  here, 
at  least  briefly.  The  question  has  been  brought 
home  to  me  by  having  the  word  used,  as 
above  mentioned,  to  distinguish  official  from 
unofficial  publications.  But  all  of  us  have 
had  only  too  much  experience  with  the  word 
in  other  ways.  To  begin  with,  the  state  gov- 
ernment divisions  are  anything  but  consistent 
in  their  use  of  the  word  "State,"  and  when 
we  realize  that  the  same  bureau  or  institution 
may  at  various  periods  of  its  existence  use  it 
and  not  use  it,  we  may  be  pardoned  for  wish- 
ing to  blind  ourselves  to  official  usage,  and 
simply  do  as  we  think  best.  To  be  regarded 
as  good  cataloging,  however,  the  results  of 
our  best  thought  must  be  made  into  a  rule 
that  will  fit  most  occasions.  In  making  this 
rule  (the  A.  L.  A.  did  not  make  any),  we 
must  remember  that,  however  successful  the 
cataloger  may  be  in  finding  the  right  usage, 
the  user  of  the  catalog  is  ignorant  of  it  and 
indifferent  to  it.  He  is  baffled,  for  example, 
by  our  use  of  the  word  for  State  highway 
commission,  but  not  for  Tax  commission. 
Any  attempt  to  find  out  what  he  is  likely 
to  expect  is  equally  baffling  to  the  cataloger. 
Yet  an  improvement  can  be  made  over  the 
usual  practice  in  the  direction  of  simplifica- 

A  good  way  is  to  omit  the  word  "State" 
in  nearly  every  case,  even  when  it  is  officially 
correct  to  use  it.  An  exception  should  be 
made  in  the  case  of  certain  state  institutions, 
such  as  state  library  and  state  museum.  Here 
it  is  probably  impossible  to  make  a  rule  that 
will  satisfy  everybody.  One  university  library 
made  this  distinction:  use  the  word  "State" 
for  all  state  institutions;  drop  it  for  all  state 
offices  and  divisions  of  the  government.  That 
rule  would  not  satisfy  me,  because  I  believe 
that  catalog  users  do  not  discriminate  be- 
tween government  institutions  and  govern- 
ment offices,  and  I  do  not  believe  that  the 
common  usage  of  the  word  "State"  in  the 
name  is  dependent  upon  that  distinction.  It 
is  dependent,  it  seems  to  me,  upon  the  fact 

that  a  state,  and  not  a  private  or  local  insti- 
tion,  is  designated,  in  a  sense  where  there 
might  easily  exist  a  private  or  a  local  insti- 
tution bearing  the  name.  My  rule,  then 
(even  though  some  might  think  it  put  too 
much  burden  of  decision  upon  the  cataloger), 
would  be  this:  Always  use  the  word  "State" 
for  New  York  and  Washington  state  offices, 
government  divisions  and  institutions,  but 
omit  it  for  those  of  other  states,  except  in 
the  case  of  state  institutions  using  the  word 
and  having  for  the  important  or  distinctive 
part  of  the  name  a  short,  common  term,  such 
as  might  be  used  with  the  state  name  by  a 
private  or  local  institution.  Though  falling 
into  the  latter  category,  state  universities 
should  not  be  included  in  the  exception,  un- 
less there  is  known  to  be  another  institution 
of  similar  name,  for  these  universities  are 
about  as  often  known  without  the  word 
"State"  as  with  it.  But  the  cataloger  may  be 
allowed  to  take  the  whole  rule  as  a  guide 
and  not  a  mandate,  making  such  exceptions 
as  may  be  derived  from  general  or  local 
usage  plus  common  sense,  always,  however, 
referring  from  the  unused  form  if  an  ex- 
ception is  made.  There  ought  to  be  a  single 
reference  card  under  [name  of  state]  State, 
reading,  "Other  government  divisions,  offices, 
.or  institutions  beginning  with  the  word 
'State'  are  filed  omitting  that  word,  but  re- 
garding the  next  distinctive  word,"  a  some- 
what clumsy  reference,  no  doubt,  but  suffi- 
cient for  anybody  who  chances  to  look  at  it. 

We  then  come  to  the  case  where  the  word 
"State"  has  to  be  used  to  distinguish  the  place 
from  a  city  of  the  same  name.  It  is  partly 
because  this  case  is  sure  to  be  brought  up 
that  it  is  necessary  to  consider  the  use  of  the 
word  in  a  discussion  of  card  arrangement. 
And  at  this  point  we  are  introduced  to  com- 
plications in  arrangement  arising  from  the 
use  on  printed  cards  of  variations  in  type  and 
punctuation.  These  variations  are  intended 
to  exhibit  corresponding  differences  in  the 
actual  nature  of  the'  divisions  following  the 
place  name  or  to  differentiate  one  sequence 
of  cards  from  another  in  the  file  of  the  print- 
ing library.  The  Library  of  Congress  uses 
the  word  "State"  in  parentheses  with  official 
boards,  bureaus,  offices,  etc.,  under  Washing- 
ton and  New  York,  but  with  official  institu- 
tions the  parentheses  are  omitted,  so  that  the 
printed  cards  give  us  New  York  (State) 



[February,  1913 

Governor  and  New  York  (State)  Legislature, 
but  New  York  State  hospital  and  New  York 
State  library.  Something  has  already  been 
said  about  the  practice  of  regarding  typog- 
raphy in  filing.  Certain  signs  or  fonts  may 
be  necessary  or  advisable  to  express  certain 
ideas,  but  arrangement  of  cards  should  be 
strictly  alphabetical,  disregarding  all  other 
logical  principles.  We  should  have,  then,  the 
following  easily  understood  order: 

New  York  (State)  Governor 

New  York  (State)  History 

New  York  State  hospital 

New  York  State  in  the  war 

New  York  (State)  Legislature 

New  York  State  library 

Even  a  period  should  not  block  the  alphabet- 
ical progress.  The  word  "State"  must  always 
be  used  in  the  case  of  the  states  of  New  York 
and  Washington.  But  it  should  never  be 
doubled.  It  is  unnecessary  to  say  New  York 
(State)  State  library,  for  the  mind  bearing 
the  word  "State"  easily  transfers  it  from  one 
category  to  another,  provided  the  order  re- 
main the  same;  indeed,  it  will  be  only  the 
exceptional  user  of  the  catalog  who  will  no- 
tice parentheses  and  periods  at  all.  New  York 
State  library  is  the  most  serviceable  form, 
and  it  is  correct. 

The  next  point  is  the  order  of  the  various 
kinds  of  places  of  the  same  name.     I  should 
have  no  hesitation  in  arranging  in  the  strict- 
est alphabetical  order: 
New  York  academy  of  sciences 
New  York  and  Boston  R.  R. 
New   York    (City)    Advisory   commission   on 


New  York  City  and  her  sins 
New   York    (City)    College    [of    the   city   of 

N.  Y.] 

New  York  (City)  Committee  of  fifteen 
New  York  (City)  Description 
New  York  (City)  in  your  vestpocket 
New  York  (City)  Social  conditions 
New  York  (City)  Union  league  club 
New  York  (City)  Water  commissioners 
New  York  (County)  Board  of  supervisors 
New  York  historical  society 
New  York  (State)   [various  divisions] 
New  York  (State)  University 
New  York  university 
The    same    would    be    true    of    Washington. 

Here  there  is  the  question  whether  titles  like 
"Washington  Irving  and  his  Sketch  book" 
and  "Washington  the  man"  should  fall  into 
the  same  alphabet  as  the  others.  I  should 
say  that,  if  the  existence  of  .such  cards  could 
not  be  avoided,  they  ought  to  fall  into  the 
same  alphabet;  but,  of  course,  there  would 
also  be  cards  under  Irving,  Washington  and 
Washington,  George.  Another  question  that 
comes  up  is  where  to  put  a  society  or  a  title 
known  to  be  identified  with  a  particular  one 
of  the  many  places  of  the  same  name,  but 
not  bearing  the  distinctive  word.  Examples: 
Washington  &  Alaska  steamship  company, 
Washington  directory,  Washington  county 
pioneer  association,  Washington  the  national 
capital.  These  may  well  be  put  in  two  places 
in  a  large  library,  but,  if  in  one  place  only,  a 
reference  ought  to  be  made  from  the  other. 
There  is  an  advantage  in  having  under  a 
local  heading  all  that  is  associated  with  the 
place,  but  it  involves  much  alteration  of  Li- 
brary of  Congress  cards.  This  is  really  a 
matter  of  entry,  not  of  arrangement,  for  the 
filer  will  follow  the  wording  of  the  heading; 
but,  to  a  certain  extent,  entry  should  be  adapt- 
ed to  meet  the  problem  of  arrangement. 

One  more  suggestion  relates  to  entry,  also, 
and  has  the  same  justification  for  considera- 
tion here.  Since  a  state  and  its  government 
are  the  successors  of  a  territory,  a  province, 
a  colony,  and  not  different  entities,  they  should 
come  together  with  these  in  the  catalog. 
Moreover,  any  state  body  or  office,  being  the 
successor  of  that  of  the  preceding  form  of 
government,  should  come  next  to  it  in  the 
catalog.  Dates  could  be  used  in  the  heading, 
or,  if  desired,  the  entries  could  be  as  follows : 

Oklahoma.  Auditor's  dept.  (Oklahoma  Ter.) 
Oklahoma.  Auditor's  dept.  (State) 

In  our  Library  of  Congress  depository  file 
there  are  at  least  thirty-five  cards  between 
the  two  cards  headed: 

Oklahoma.     Constitution 

Oklahoma    (Ter.)     Constitutional  convention, 

There  are  obvious  advantages  in  bringing 
these  entries  together.  In  a  small  catalog 
especially,  there  would  be  an  economy  of 
cards,  as  certain  additional  cards  indicated  by 
the  Library  of  Congress  might  then  be  omit- 

February,  1913] 



ted.  There  seems  to  be  no  good  reason  why 
we  should  not  use  the  following  forms: 

New  Jersey  (dates,  Province) 
New  Jersey  (dates,  Colony) 
New  Jersey.   Convention,  1776  (N.  J.  Colony) 
New  Jersey.    Convention,  1787 
New  Jersey.    Council  (N.  J.  Colony) 
New  Jersey.     General  assembly,   1772   (N.  J. 

I  should  also  approve : 

New  York  (Colony) 

See  New  York  (State) 
New  York  (Province) 

See  New  York  (State) 
New  \ork  (State)  Committee  of  safety,  1775- 

1776  (N.  Y.  Colony) 

New  York  (State)  Governor,  1710-1719  (Hun- 
ter)  (N.  Y.  Colony) 

This  form  is  just  as  correct  and  just  as  use- 
ful as  the  current  practice  of  using  a  subject 
heading  in  the  form : 

New    York    (State)    Pol.    &   govt.— Colonial 

It  must  be  understood  that  the  suggestions 
for  strict  alphabetization  given  in  this  paper 
do  not  go  beyond  the  heading,  or  what  would 
ordinarily  appear  as  the  first  line  on  a  catalog 
card.  Thus,  it  is  the  entry  headings  on  main 
cards,  the  subject  headings  only  and  not  what 
follows  on  subject  cards,  and  the  first  few 
words  only  of  title  entries  that  are  under  con- 
sideration. I  should  by  no  means  advocate  ar- 
ranging works  by  and  about  an  institution  in 
one  alphabet  any  more  than  I  should  those  by 
and  about  an  author.  In  all  cases  the  subject 
headings  should  follow  the  main  entry  or 
added  entry  headings,  even  though  worded 
and  spelled  the  same.  The  subject  heading 
being  ordinarily  differentiated  from  the  others 
by  color  or  kind  of  type,  the  subject  cards 
can  readily  be  discerned  and  filed  immediately 
after  all  others  that  have  the  same  wording 
and  spelling. 

BY  WALTER  LICHTENSTEIN,  Librarian  Northwestern  University  Library,  Evanston,  III, 

THE  origins  of  the  three  European  trips 
which  I  have  made  in  the  last  seven  years  for 
the  purpose  of  purchasing  books  go  back  to 
the  time  of  the  founding  of  the  Hohenzollern 
Collection  of  German  History  at  Harvard.  It 
may  be  interesting  to  note  what  the  reasons 
were  which  led  Harvard  to  commission  me  to 
go  abroad  on  a  quest  for  books.  In  1903  Pro- 
fessor Archibald  Cary  Coolidge  offered  to  pre- 
sent to  the  Harvard  University  Library  10,000 
volumes  relating  to  the  history  of  the  present 
German  Empire  or  any  of  its  component  parts. 
This  collection  was  to  be  known  as  the  Hohen- 
zollern Collection.  From  1903  until  1905  we 
read  carefully  all  the  second-hand  dealers'  cat- 
alogs as  far  as  they  related  to  German  history, 
and  also  sent  lists  of  desiderata  to  our  agent 
in  Germany.  In  spite  of  all  our  efforts  it 
seemed  improbable  that  in  this  way  it  would 
ever  be  possible  to  gather  together  10,000  vol- 
umes of  the  type  we  desired,  namely :  sets  of 
documents,  historical  periodicals  and  mono- 
graphs of  permanent  value.  As  a  last  resort, 
therefore,  it  was  decided  in  June,  1905,  that  I 
go  abroad  and  see  what  results  might  be  ob- 
tained. Originally,  the  idea  was  that  I  should 

stay  abroad  three  months.  Gradually  this  time 
was  extended  so  that  instead  of  three  months 
I  remained  abroad  fourteen.  As  for  the  re- 
sults, I  cannot  do  better  than  quote  Mr.  Lane's 
report,  included  in  "Reports  of  the  president 
and  treasurer  of  Harvard  College,  1905-1906," 
pp.  221-222: 

"For  the  Hohenzollern  collection,  Mr.  Licht- 
enstein  bought  3801  volumes  for  $3443;  with 
the  Skinner  gift,  460  volumes  for  $404;  and 
for  the  Motley  collection,  538  volumes  for  $655. 
The  total  cost  of  these  4799  volumes  was  thus 
$4502 ;  to  this  may  be  added  the  cost  of  binding 
and  freight,  $1838,  the  amount  of  Mr.  Lichten- 
stein's  salary  and  traveling  expenses,  $2162, 
and  Harrassowitz's  commission  of  about  $128, 
making  a  total  of  $8622.  The  result  is  striking 
because  the  average  per  volume,  $1.83,  includ- 
ing all  expenses  and  salary,  is  well  below  the 
general  average  that  the  library  pays  for  books 
purchased  in  the  usual  way.  Of  course  it  must 
be  remembered  that  the  library  every  year  buys 
a  few  very  expensive  works,  that  it  subscribes 
to  numerous  societies  and  periodicals  which 
are  costly  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  vol- 
umes procured,  and  also  buys  many  new  books 
at  approximately  the  published  price.  Mr. 
Lichtenstein,  on  the  other  hand,  bought  noth- 
ing but  second-hand  books,  and,  with  few  ex- 
ceptions, no  very  expensive  works.  In  addi- 


[February,  1913. 

tion  to  this  highly  satisfactory  financial  result 
of  the  experiment,  it  is  to  be  noticed  that  prob- 
ably in  no  other  way  could  we  have  procured 
so  many  books  on  this  subject  in  so  short  a 
time,  and  that  Mr.  Lichtenstein  had  the  further 
advantage  of  being  able  to  examine  and  select 
the  books  themselves,  instead  of  having  to  de- 
pend on  bibliographies  and  catalogs.  The 
Hohenzollern  collection  has  thus  been  built  up 
in  a  remarkably  short  time  and  at  a  surprising- 
ly low  cost,  until  it  contains  (including  ship- 
ment yet  to  come)  about  8000  volumes.  The 
2000  volumes  still  needed  to  make  up  the  prom- 
ised 10,000  will  consist  mainly  of  continuations. 
This  plan  of  sending  a  representative  abroad 
to  buy  works  in  one  or  two  special  subjects 
was  looked  upon  at  the  start  as  a  rather  doubt- 
ful experiment,  but  has  proved  to  be  a  decided 

At  that  time  I  made  a  report  summarizing 
my  impressions  in  regard  to  the  experiment : 

"Being  on  the  spot  I  was  often  able  to  pur- 
chase many  large  sets  at  much  cheaper  rates 
from  dealers  whose  catalogs  rarely  reach  us, 
or  who  often  have  no  regular  catalogs  at  all. 
Another  advantage  I  enjoyed  in  that  I  had  a 
choice  of  books  to  an  extent  one  never  has 
from  catalogs ;  in  no  other  way  than  by  going 
to  Germany  itself  could  the  Hohenzollern  col- 
lection have  been  completed  for  years,  and 
even  when  completed  many  of  the  best  sets 
now  a  part  of  the  collection  most  likely  would 
have  been  lacking.  I  purchased  many  books, 
the  titles  of  which  are  too  obscure  to  have 
been  purchased  from  catalogs,  and,  on  the  other 
hand,  I  refrained  from  buying  many  volumes, 
the  titles  of  which  would  have  proved  very  at- 
tractive in  a  catalog.  I  bought  a  part  of  the 
Pfister  collection,  which  purchase  was  only 
made  possible  by  my  presence  in  Munich ;  and 
in  this  collection  there  are  many  treasures, 
which,  I  trust,  will  prove  of  great  value  to  stu- 
dents of  German  history  and  economics  in  the 
years  to  come. 

"In  all,  I  visited  about  300  German  book- 
dealers,  purchasing  books  from  fifty  of  them. 
As  for  the  actual  books  obtained,  the  fact  is 
worth  mentioning  that  we  have  now  nearly 
every  German  historical  periodical,  general  as 
well  as  local,  large  as  well  as  small.  The 
same  is  true  of  the  expensive  sets  of  Urkun- 

"The  works  on  the  history  of  Bavaria  alone 
number  1500  volumes,  and  include  a  special 
collection  of  material  relating  to  King  Louis  n. 
and  his  tragic  end.  Among  the  many  interest- 
ing single  volumes  may  be  mentioned  a  manu- 
script economic  survey  of  Bavaria,  made  at  the 
end  of  the  sixteenth  century,  not  hitherto 
printed  (the  famous  Sahl:  Stuff t  und  Grundt- 
peuch),  and  several  volumes  of  manuscript 
records  of  the  early  Bavarian  diets.  The 
Niimberg  manuscripts  include  three  volumes 
of  Milliner's  'Relationes,'  a  history  of  the 
Niirnberg  guilds,  adorned  with  water-color 

illustrations    of   the    implements    used   by   the 

"In  the  field  of  German  history  outside  of 
Bavaria  I  obtained  a  complete  collection  of  the 
original  dispatches  issued  by  the  Prussian  and 
Bavarian  governments  during  the  Franco- 
Prussian  War;  a  collection  of  157  contempor- 
ary pamphlets  bearing  upon  the  questions  dis- 
cussed in  the  Frankfort  Parliament  of  1849; 
and  a  small  collection  of  broadsides  bearing 
on  the  Berlin  Revolution  of  the  i8th  of  March, 
1848,  including  the  famous  proclamation  of 
Frederick  William  iv.,  'An  meine  lieben  Ber- 
liner,' in  which  this  Prussian  king  forgives  his 
subjects  the  riots  which  they  had  caused.'' 

This  trip,  to  be  sure,  was  made  under  very 
favorable  conditions.  I  was  about  to  take  my 
doctor's  degree  at  Harvard  in  the  field  of  Ger- 
man history.  I  was  as  familiar  with  German 
as  with  English,  and  I  was  buying  for  a  col- 
lection of  which  I  had  charge  from  the  be- 
ginning, and  was  not  hampered  very  much  by 
financial  or  other  considerations.  Therefore  it 
may  be  contended  that  this  trip  did  not  prove 
that  similar  trips  would  be  satisfactory  if  un- 
dertaken for  several  institutions  and  if  the  pur- 
chases covered  so  large  a  field  of  human 
knowledge  that  the  intellect  of  any  individual 
would  be  unable  to  scrutinize  it  all.  Still  this 
trip  of  1905-1906  really  brought  about  the  re- 
cent attempts  to  establish  a  system  of  coopera- 
tive book  buying. 

At  a  meeting  called  by  Professor  E.  D.  Bur- 
ton in  the  fall  of  1910  to  consider  the  question 
of  cooperative  shipping  on  the  part  of  the  libra- 
ries of  Chicago  and  vicinity,  Dr.  C.  W.  An- 
drews, of  the  John  Crerar  Library,  Mr.  New- 
man Miller,  director  of  the  University  of  Chi- 
cago Press,  and  I  were  appointed  a  committee 
to  consider  the  advisability  of  undertaking 
cooperative  buying  as  well  as  cooperative  ship- 
ping. At  a  meeting  of  the  University  and  College 
Librarians  of  the  Middle  West,  held  in  Jan- 
uary, 1911,  in  Chicago,  a  printed  plan  was  sub- 
mitted by  the  committee,  and  libraries  were 
invited  to  join  in  an  experiment  to  be  under- 
taken that  summer.  Ultimately  the  following 
libraries  agreed  to  commission  me  to  go  abroad 
for  a  period  of  five  months :  the  University  of 
Chicago,  the  John  Crerar  Library,  Harvard 
University  Library  and  Northwestern  Univer- 
sity Library.  Each  library  was  free  to  place 
its  commission  in  any  manner  which  seemed 
to  suit  its  needs  best.  The  University  of 
Chicago  gave  me  a  limited  list  of  old  outstand- 
ing orders,  with  prices  carefully  fixed  in  each 

February,  1913] 



case,  which  price  I  was  not  supposed  to  ex- 
ceed. Dr.  Andrews  gave  me  a  large  list,  with 
a  lump  sum  of  money,  trusting  to  my  judgment 
as  to  what  limit  of  price  to  place  upon  indi- 
vidual works.  Harvard  University  commis- 
sioned me  in  the  same  way  as  in  the  case  of 
the  Hohenzollern  Collection.  This  time  I  was 
to  buy  chiefly  in  the  field  of  Austrian  history 
and  Italian  history.  Northwestern  University 
wished  me  to  buy  a  few  large  sets. 

I  left  America  in  May,  1911,  and  returned  at 
the  end  of  December  in  the  same  year.  Italy, 
Germany,  England,  France  and  Spain  were 
visited  in  the  order  named.  On  the  whole,  the 
result  proved  very  satisfactory.  Dr.  Andrews, 
in  his  report  for  the  year  1911,  pp.  21-22.  sum- 
marizes the  results  for  his  library  as  follows : 

''The  purchases  of  the  year  were  greatly  af- 
fected in  character  by  the  experiment  already 
mentioned.  Four  libraries,  Harvard  University, 
Northwestern  University,  the  University  of 
Chicago,  and  the  John  Crerar,  sent  a  joint 
representative  to  Europe.  They  were  fortunate 
in  securing,  through  the  courtesy  of  North- 
western University,  the  services  of  its  libra- 
rian, Dr.  Walter  Lichtenstein,  who  had  very 
special  qualifications  for  the  task.  Dr.  Lichten- 
stein brought  together  for  Harvard  its  Hohen- 
zollern collection,  and  in  so  doing1  obtained  an 
exceptional  familiarity  with  the  European  book 

"Each  institution  was  free  to  give  its  com- 
mission in  the  way  that  seemed  to  best  suit 
its  needs,  and  in  fact  no  two  commissions  were 
in  the  same  terms  or  covered  the  same  field. 
While  it  is  understood  that  the  results  were 
satisfactory  to  all,  it  is  only  those  affecting 
this  library  which  have  any  place  here.  A  com- 
mission amounting  to  $5000  was  given  with  in- 
structions to  purchase  along  four  lines :  first, 
out-of-print  books  which  the  library  had  tried 
in  vain  to  obtain  from  the  regular  dealers; 
second,  from  lists  on  the  ethnology  of 
eastern  Europe  furnished  by  Professor  Thomas, 
of  the  University  of  Chicago;  third,  to  com- 
plete or  fill  gaps  in  the  sets  of  serials;  fourth, 
public  documents.  Important  and  valuable  pur- 
chases were  made  along  all  these  lines :  over 
100  titles  of  the  first ;  nearly  100  of  the  second ; 
more  than  50  serials  were  completed  or  greatly 
extended:  and  quite  a  number  of  Italian  doc- 
uments secured.  The  purchases  cover  all  the 
departments  of  the  library,  and,  indeed,  most 
of  the  individual  subjects.  The  principal  ob- 
ject of  the  experiment  was  to  obtain  books 
which  could  not  be  obtained  through  the  reg- 
ular channels  of  trade,  but  it  is  pleasant  to  be 
able  to  add  that,  after  allowing  for  all  ex- 
penses, the  purchases  were  made  at  less  cost 
than  they  could  have  been  made  through  these 

"The  most  important  result  for  the  library, 

however,  was  secured  by  the  action  of  our 
representative,  relying  on  a  general  under- 
standing rather  than  on  specific  instructions. 
This  was  the  purchase  of  the  library  of  the  late 
Dr.  Karl  Ehrenburg,  privat-docent  in  geogra- 
phy at  the  University  of  Wiirzburg.  It  was 
purchased  in  the  name  of  the  John  Crerar 
Library,  but  really  with  joint  interests.  Har- 
vard took  a  small  portion  on  Franconia  for  its 
Hohenzollern  collection,  and  Northwestern  the 
long  sets  already  in  this  library.  The  ship- 
ment has  been  received  and  is  being  examined 
and  separated  as  fast  as  possible.  Exact  fig- 
ures cannot  be  given  at  present,  but  it  seems 
probable  the  library  will  enter  about  1000  vol- 
umes and  250  maps  and  add  1000  pamphlets. 
The  library  is  especially  strong  in  physical 
geography  and  geology,  and  the  descriptive 
material  has  been  collected  largely  with  refer- 
ence to  these  points.  The  duplication  is  not 
great,  while  the  total  cost,  even  before  adjust- 
ment with  the  other  libraries,  is  very  low. 

"The  purchase  of  a  set  of  British  Parlia- 
mentary Papers  running,  with  very  few  gaps, 
from  1878  to  1900,  should  also  be  mentioned. 
The  five  years  that  were  duplicated  by  the  set 
already  in  the  library  were  sold  to  the  Univer- 
sity of  Chicago,  and  the  net  cost  of  the  set 
materially  reduced.  Fortunately  most  of  the 
missing  volumes  are  obtainable  and  have  been 

"One  purchase  of  an  individual  work, 
Hooker's  'Icones  Plantarum,'  should  also  be 

Similar  satisfactory  results  were  obtained  for 
Harvard  University  and  in  a  somewhat  lesser 
degree  for  the  University  of  Chicago.  To  be 
sure,  the  most  striking  result  of  the  trip,  the 
purchase  of  the  Olivart  collection  for  the  Har- 
vard Law  School,  at  a  very  reasonable  price  — 
for  less  than  half  of  what  was  originally  de- 
manded—  has  in  itself  little  to  do  with  the 
whole  question  of  cooperative  purchasing,  for, 
after  all,  it  would  pay  to  send  a  man  especially 
from  America  to  undertake  a  purchase  of  as 
large  a  collection  as  the  Olivart  collection,  re- 
gardless of  whether  or  not  other  libraries  par- 
ticipated in  the  undertaking. 

The  trip  of  1911  was  followed  by  one  which 
lasted  from  February  until  September,  1912. 
The  countries  visited  were  Germany,  France, 
Italy  and  Portugal.  The  immediate  cause  of 
this  trip  was  the  publication  by  Dr.  Richardson, 
of  Princeton,  of  a  list  of  sources  for  European 
history  to  be  found  in  American  libraries. 
Harvard  and  Columbia  were  anxious  to  fill  in 
gaps  in  their  collections  as  shown  by  the  list; 
Harvard  to  obtain  an  almost  complete  collec- 
tion; Columbia  to  buy  such  material  as  was 
found  to  be  missing  from  the  second  geograph- 



[February,  1913 

ical  division  of  Dr.  Richardson's  list.  When 
I  started  on  the  trip  Harvard  lacked  nearly 
600  sets.  To-day  it  lacks  less  than  300.  Be- 
sides these  sets  I  was  able  to  purchase  for 
Harvard  in  Italy  an  almost  complete  collection 
of  the  Italian  "statuti,"  so  that  at  present  Har- 
vard possesses  nearly  every  title  and  edition 
mentioned  by  Luigi  Manzoni's  Bibliografia 
Storica  Municipale,  and  I  also  obtained  for 
Harvard  a  collection  of  Portuguese  and  Bra- 
zilian material  probably  unrivaled  in  this  coun- 
try. For  Columbia  a  large  proportion  of  the 
sets  desired  were  purchased,  and  a  large  num- 
ber of  German  literary  periodicals  which  Co- 
lumbia had  long  wished  to  possess. 

The  John  Crerar  Library  and  the  University 
of  Chicago  also  participated  in  this  last  trip, 
giving  their  commissions  much  as  they  had 
done  previously.  For  the  John  Crerar  Library 
Dr.  Andrews  reported  at  the  recent  meeting 
of  the  University  and  College  Librarians  of  the 
Middle  West  as  follows : 

"The  library  was  fortunate  enough  to  be 
able  to  repeat  the  experiment  of  cooperative 
buying  in  Europe  through  Dr.  Lichtenstein,  of 
Northwestern  University.  Its  commission  was 
for  $4500,  nearly  the  same  amount  as  in  1911, 
and  on  exactly  the  same  lines.  The  results  were 
equally  satisfactory.  Dr.  Lichtenstein  secured 
for  the  library  168  volumes  of  miscellaneous 
works;  264  volumes  on  the  ethnology  of  east- 
ern Europe;  1127  volumes  to  complete  or  ex- 
tend the  files  of  62  periodicals ;  204  volumes  on 
the  history  of  science  and  industrial  arts ;  and 
259  volumes  of  government  documents  and 
publications  of  international  congresses.  All  of 
the  miscellaneous  works  and  many  of  the  others 
were  out  of  print  or  not  in  trade,  and  had 
been  ordered  in  vain  from  second-hand  dealers. 
A  considerable  number  were  Spanish  and 
South  American  publications,  which  are  espe- 
cially hard  to  obtain.  All  departments  of  the 
library  and  nearly  all  its  subjects  were  repre- 
sented in  the  purchases.  They  were  chiefly 
works  of  moderate  cost,  but  the  facsimile  edi- 
tion of  Hubner's  Sammlung  exotischer 
Schmetterlinge'  and  a  set  of  the  works  of 
Archduke  Ludwig  Salvator  were  exceptions." 

For  the  University  of  Chicago  I  purchased 
a  larger  proportion  of  the  titles  given  than  in 
1911,  the  reason  being  that  I  was  not  so 
strictly  limited  as  to  the  price  in  the  case  of 
each  individual  item. 

It  may  be  well  to  summarize  the  purely 
financial  results  of  these  two  trips  by  means 
of  the  following  tables: 

191 1 

Orders  Purchases  Ii.-- 
The  University  of  Chicago.   $5,000       $2,050         $584 

Harvard    University 5,000         2,600  648 

The  John  Crerar  Library..      5,000         4,600  879 

Northwestern  University...     3,000         1,550  389 

Totals $18,000     $10,800      $2,500 


»  Purchases  Expenses 

The   University  of  Chicago $1,400  $269.46 

Harvard   University 8,900  1712.98 

The    John    Crerar    Library....      3,650  702.51 

Columbia    University i»55o  298.33 

Totals $15,500  $2983.28 

The  basis  of  dividing  expenses  was  not 
quite  the  same  for  both  trips.  In  the  case  of 
the  first  trip  it  was  agreed  that  half  of  the 
expenses  were  to  be  assessed  on  the  basis  of 
orders  placed,  and  half  on  the  basis  of  the 
money  actually  expended,  while  in  the  case  of 
the  second  trip  it  was  agreed  thai  the  expenses 
should  be  apportioned  entirely  in  proportion  to 
the  amount  purchased.  It  will  be  noticed  that 
in  the  case  of  the  first  trip,  the  expenses  were 
approximately  twenty-five  per  cent,  of  the 
amount  expended,  while  in  the  case  of  the  sec- 
ond trip,  where  the  amount  expended  was  con- 
siderably larger,  the  expenses  dropped  to  about 
twenty  per  cent,  of  the  amount  expended. 

It  is  obvious  from  all  this  that  on  the  whole 
the  most  valuable  results  can  be  obtained  by 
one  working  in  his  own  field,  trying  to  com- 
plete existing  collections  without  being  bound 
definitely  to  obtain  certain  titles.  This  was  the 
case  in  the  trip  made  by  the  writer  in  1905- 
1906.  The  second  best  method  is  that  of  the 
John  Crerar  Library,  as  explained  by  Dr. 
Andrews  in  the  report  already  cited.  This 
latter  method,  however,  is  impracticable  for  a 
university  library  which  is  divided  into  depart- 
ments, each  of  which  has  a  limited  appropria- 
tion which  cannot  be  overstepped.  The  range 
of  choice  in  such  instances  is  so  narrow  and  a 
buyer  must  be  so  hampered  that  few  unusual 
results  can  be  produced. 

The  advantages  of  trips  of  the  nature  de- 
scribed are  various.  Aside  from  the  mere 
speed  with  which  a  collection  may  be  gathered, 
it  seems  unquestionable  that  here  and  there 
discounts  can  be  obtained  to  an  extent  that  is 
impossible  by  correspondence.  It  has  always 
seemed  to  me,  however,  that  this  is  in  itself  a 
minor  advantage.  It  seems  to  me,  and  I  be- 
lieve that  the  three  trips  which  I  have  made 

February,  1913] 



prove  it,  that  many  books  which  are  not  to  be 
secured  through  ordinary  trade  channels  can 
be  obtained  by  a  special  representative  sent  to 
Europe  from  America.  This  advantage,  how- 
ever, is  not  equally  true  in  the  case  of  all 
countries.  In  England  and  in  France,  where 
the  book  business  is  practically  concentrated  in 
one  city,  a  foreign  representative  has  no  ad- 
vantage over  the  local  book  dealer,  who  is  able 
to  send  his  messenger  around  with  a  list  of 
desiderata  from  place  to  place  and  immediately 
obtain  the  books  that  are  in  stock.  It  is  very 
different,  however,  in  countries  like  Germany, 
and  still  more  so  in  countries  like  Italy,  Spain 
and  Portugal.  In  Germany,  the  book  business 
is  scattered  over  the  whole  country,  and  as  the 
German  book  dealers  themselves  are  ready  to 
admit,  advertisements  in  the  Borsenblatt  no 
longer  bring  the  results  which  they  once  did. 
Personal  presence,  on  the  other  hand,  will  in- 
duce many  a  bookseller  who  will  pay  no  atten- 
tion to  the  Borsenblatt  to  go  through  his  stock 
and  find  out  whether  or  not  he  has  the  desired 

In  Italy,  Spain,  Portugal  and  some  other 
countries  the  advantage  of  being  on  the  ground 
is  still  more  obvious.  The  smaller  dealers  in 
these  regions,  even  if  they  are  able  to  read  and 
write  —  which  is  not  always  the  case  —  rarely 
answer  letters,  and  certainly  are  much  too 
indolent  as  a  class  to  read  trade  journals  and 
to  hunt  through  their  stock  to  supply  demands. 
Only  the  actual  presence  of  the  buyer  with  the 
cash  in  hand  will  induce  them  to  deliver  the 
goods,  and  since  in  these  countries  the  price  is 
purely  the  result  of  long-continued  bargaining, 
it  is  obvious  to  what  variations  the  prices  are 

I  have  sometimes  been  asked  about  the  ad- 
visability of  establishing  a  central  bureau 
abroad  for  the  purpose  of  making  this  work 
permanent.  It  seems  to  me  that  there  is  no 
inherent  impossibility  or  even  impracticability 
in  such  a  plan  as  far  as  the  European  book 
trade  itself  is  concerned.  There  are  also  many 
incidental  services  which  might  be  rendered  by 
such  a  bureau.  Probably  there  is  hardly  a 
year  in  which  some  American  institution  or 
other  is  not  purchasing  a  large  collection  of 
some  kind  in  Europe,  and  the  presence  of  a 
direct  representative  as  distinguished  from  the 
ordinary  agent  would  have  great  advantages. 
Furthermore,  such  a  bureau  might  readily  be- 
come an  intermediary  between  scholars  in 

America  and  archives  and  libraries  in  Europe, 
for  ,the  purpose  of  obtaining  for  American 
scholars  copies  and  transcripts  of  the  material 
desired  by  them  and  not  to  be  found  at  home. 
Furthermore,  small  libraries  that  rarely  have 
occasion  to  order  books  from  abroad  would 
be  able  in  cases  of  necessity  to  deal  directly 
with  the  European  book  trade  and  thus  receive 
efficient  service  from  an  American  bureau  for 
their  occasional  needs. 

The  insurmountable  difficulty  seems  to  me  to 
rest  in  America.  It  is  inconceivable  how  it 
would  be  possible  to  bring  together  any  large 
number  of  American  institutions  for  the  finan- 
cial support  of  any  scheme  of  the  rather  com- 
plicated nature  of  the  one  described.  It  might 
be  possible  to  run  a  bureau  of  this  kind,  pro- 
vided some  large  American  institution  were  to 
establish  it  at  its  own  risk  and  permit  other 
institutions  to  employ  it,  paying  a  commission 
for  services  performed. 

The  best  that  can  be  hoped  for  at  present,  it 
seems  to  me,  is  that  somebody  from  time  to 
time  be  sent  to  Europe  to  buy  books  for  the 
larger  American  institutions.  My  experience 
would  lead  me  to  suggest  that  the  number  of 
institutions  be  limited  to  four  or  five;  that  the 
trip  be  extended  to  one  year,  during  which 
time  the  representative  can  expend  profitably 
about  $25,000.  As  the  expenses  for  one  year 
would  be  approximately  $4000  or  $5000,  the 
proportion  of  expense  to  the  amount  purchased 
would  be  about  the  same  as  it  was  in  the  case 
of  my  last  trip;  which,  in  view  of  the  results 
obtained,  did  not  seem  excessive  to  any  of  the 
participating  institutions. 



IT  is  not  often  that  a  library  of  over  five 
hundred  thousand  volumes  is  called  upon 
hastily  to  vacate  its  premises  and  find  tem- 
porary quarters  in  which  to  store  its  books 
and  carry  on  its  work,  but  such  has  been  the 
recent  experience  of  the  Harvard  Library  in 
making  way  for  the  erection  of  the  new 
library  building — the  Widener  Memorial  Li- 
brary. The  problems  to  be  faced,  and  the 
way  in  which  they  were  solved,  may  be  worth 
a  brief  record  in  the  pages  of  the  LIBRARY 
JOURNAL.  Once  before  it  has  been  necessary 
to  move  the  Harvard  Library  under  pressure 
of  sudden  calamity,  but  at  that  time  the  col- 
lection probably  contained  not  much  more 
than  five  thousand  volumes.  On  the  15th  of 
June,  1775,  when  Cambridge  was  occupied  by 



[February,  1913 

Massachusetts  troops  and  war  was  at  hand, 
the  Provincial  Congress  voted  "that  the  li- 
brary, apparatus  and  other  valuables  of  Har- 
vard College  be  removed  as  soon  as  may  be 
to  the  Town  of  Andover."  Work  began  with- 
out delay.  On  the  I7th,  the  day  of  the  Battle 
of  Bunker  Hill,  Samuel  Phillips  wrote :  "Amid 
all  the  terrors  of  battle,  I  was  so  busily  en- 
gaged in  Harvard  Library  that  I  never  even 
heard  of  the  engagement  until  it  was  com- 
pleted. On  that  day  the  librarian,  James 
Winthrop,  who  was  an  ardent  patriot,  was 
bearing  his  part  in  the  battle,  and  received  a 
wound  in  the  neck,  but  the  books  were  safely 
boxed  up  and  carried  in  wagons  to  Andover. 
A  few  months  later,  when  the  students  were 
called  together  in  Concord,  some  of  the  books 
were  taken  there,  but  they  were  not  all  re- 
stored to  the  college  buildings  until  May, 

Again,  in  the  summer  of  1912,  the  library 
has  been  under  the  same  necessity,  and  there 
has  been  the  same  occasion  for  the  promptest 
action.  While  the  plans  for  the  new  library 
were  being  worked  out  during  the  early  sum- 
mer, it  had  been  taken  for  granted  that,  al- 
though part  of  the  new  building  was  to  occupy 
the  site  of  Gore  Hall,  it  would  be  possible  to 
build  first  the  other  part  which  was  to  stand 
on  free  ground  and,  when  that  was  finished, 
to  move  the  library  into  it,  take  down  Gore 
Hall,  and  then  complete  the  new  building. 
On  August  17,  however,  it  was  determined 
that  Gore  Hall  must  be  taken  down  imme- 
diately, as  soon  as  it  could  be  vacated,  in 
order  to  build  the  whole  of  the  new  library 
at  once.  Quick  decision  and  immediate  action 
were  necessary,  for  the  term  was  to  open  on 
September  28,  and  before  that  date  the  read- 
ing-room, at  least,  must  be  ready  for  use  in 
some  new  place.  The  moving  of  the  reading- 
room  was  the  easiest  part  of  .the  problem, 
for  already,  in  1895,  when  repairs  were  being 
made  in  Gore  Hall,  readers  had  been  accom- 
modated on  the  upper  floor  of  Massachusetts 
Hall,  and  thither  it  was  decided  to  transfer 
the  reading-room  again.  At  the  same  time, 
the  lower  floor  of  Massachusetts  Hall  was 
taken  possession  of  for  a  supplementary  read- 
ing-room and  for  the  storage  of  the  full  sets 
of  United  States  documents  and  British 
parliamentary  papers.  A  certain  amount  of 
preliminary  strengthening  of  floors,  cleaning 
of  walls  and  ceilings,  and  building  of  new 
shelves  came  first.  Though  we  wished  to  use 
old  material  as  far  as  possible  in  fitting  up 
new  quarters,  we  found  it  cheaper  not  to  pull 
out  old  shelving  from  Gore  Hall  and  put  it 
up  again  elsewhere,  but  to  build  new  shelving, 
in  the  form  of  unit  cases  of  standard  size — 
three  feet  wide  by  seven  feet  or  more  high. 
Giving  up  the  convenience  of  adjustable 
shelves,  these  cases  could  be  economically  and 
quickly  nailed  together  and  set  up  side  by 
side  wherever  wanted.  It  was  found  possible 
to  arrange  tables,  delivery  desk,  etc.,  in  the 
upper,  large  rooms  on  almost  the  same  plan 

as  in  the  old  reading-room  in  Gore  Hall, 
and  to  provide  almost  as  many  seats  and 
quite  as  much  shelving  for  books.  The  room 
itself  is  a  much  more  attractive  room  than 
the  old  reading-room  had  ever  been,  and 
probably  will  be  more  comfortable  in  sum- 
mer, so  that,  except  for  it's  being  at  a  distance 
from  the  rest  of  the  library,  the  readers  there 
are  as  well  off  as  ever  before. 

The  problem  of  storing  the  general  collec- 
tion of  books  and  of  finding  an  abiding  place 
for  administration  was  more  difficult.  Many 
suggestions  were  made — that  the  books  should 
be  stored  under  the  seats  of  the  Stadium; 
that  the  east  wing  of  Gore  Hall  should  be 
moved  bodily  far  enough  to  the  east  to  be 
out  of  the  way  of  the  new  building;  or  that 
a  new  building  should  be  put  up  as  econom- 
ially  as  possible  close  to  and  back  of  Massa- 
chusetts Hall.  The  best  suggestion,  however, 
and  the  one  finally  adopted,  was  to  borrow 
Randall  Hall,  built  some  years  ago  for  a 
dining-room  to  supplement  Memorial  Hall. 
It  was  also  most  fortunate  for  us  that  the 
Andover  Theological  Seminary  had  recently 
come  to  Cambridge  and  had  erected  a  hand- 
some new  building  and  library,  with  one 
empty  floor  and  much  basement  space  unoc- 
cupied, which  was  generously  placed  at  our 
disposal,  and,  moreover,  that  the  library  of 
the  Divinity  School  had  recently  been  com- 
bined with  the  Andover  Library,  so  that  the 
stack  at  the  Divinity  School  was  likewise 
available.  Several  other  college  buildings 
were  also  pressed  into  service,  since  it  was 
evident  that  not  even  in  the  three  places  al- 
ready mentioned  could  all  the  books  be 
shelved.  Books  on  Philosophy  were  sent  to 
Emerson  Hall,  which  is  occupied  by  the  de- 
partment of  philosophy;  Archaeology  was 
moved  to  the  basement  of  Robinson  Hall,  the 
headquarters  of  the  department  of  Architec- 
ture; books  on  Fine  Arts  were  hospitably  re- 
ceived in  the  Fogg  Museum  of  Art;  Zoology,. 
Geology  and  Botany  were  sent  to  the  Univer- 
sity Museum;  Anthropology  to  the  Peabody 
Museum:  books  on  Education  to  Lawrence 
Hall,  where  the  education  department  is  es- 
tablished, and  the  library's  great  collection  of 
maps  was  installed  in  the  basement  of  the 
Semitic  Museum.  As  a  result,  the  library's 
collections  are  now  divided  among  thirteen 
depositories — 94,000  volumes  in  the  Andover 
Library,  58,000  in  the  Divinity  School  Library, 
25,000  in  Massachusetts  Hall,  60,000  in  other 
scattered  buildings,  and  the  remaining  350,000 
in  Randall  Hall. 

Moving  began  August  20  with  the  transfer 
of  books  to  the  Andover,  Divinity  and  other 
buildings,  and  here,  whenever  new  shelving 
was  required,  the  unit  cases  spoken  of  above 
were  found  to  be  the  most  economical  and 
expeditious  method  of  providing  it. 

At  Randall  Hall,  the  problem  of  turning 
a  dining-hall  into  a  library  was  a  new  one, 
and  the  results  are  better  than  we  anticipated. 
The  main  body  of  Randall  Hall  is  one  large 

February,  1913] 


room,  90  x  66  feet  and  about  35  feet  high, 
with  all  windows  on  the  two  long  sides,  north 
and  south.  On  the  north  side,  below  the  level 
of  the  window  sills,  runs  a  serving-room, 
82  x  21  feet,  lighted  from  overhead  and  open- 
ing into  the  dining  hall  by  four  swinging 
doors.  Outside  of  this,  again,  is  the  scullery, 
formerly  used  for  dish  washing,  62  x  12  feet. 
Several  other  smaller  rooms  connecting  with 
these  larger  ones  waited  to  be  changed  over 
to  library  purposes ;  below  was  a  large 
kitchen,  53  x  34  feet,  with  ranges,  soup  ket- 
tles and  ovens,  and  under  the  main  part  of 
the  building  a  variety  of  other  storerooms 
and  offices.  In  the  main  dining  hall  above, 
we  found  that  we  could  build  a  stack  four 
stories  in  height,  made  up  of  thirty-four 
rows  running  across  the  building  from  north 
to  south,  each  row  composed  of  eighteen 
three-foot  sections,  the  whole  capable  of  hold- 
ing some  400,000  volumes.  A  narrow  passage- 
way runs  down  the  middle  and  along  one  side, 
while  along  the  other  side  is  a  wider  passage- 
way, with  room  enough  for  small  tables  and 
chairs  for  readers.  The  stack  is  of  simple 
construction,  built  of  scantling,  4x3  inches 
on  the  two  lower  stories  and  2x3  inches  on 
the  two  upper  stories.  On  the  floor  are  laid 
heavy  beams,  to  distribute  the  weight  better, 
and  on  these  the  successive  rows  of  shelving- 
are  built  up.  This  is  composed  essentially  of 
a  series  of  ladders  set  upright,  each  one  pre- 
cisely the  same  as  every  other,  tied  together 
at  the  top  and  steadied  by  the  iron  floor  plates 
which  span  the  rows.  The  only  new  material 
used  in  the  stack  is  the  upright  supports  and 
boards  for  a  little  of  the  flooring.  The 
shelves,  the  cleats  to  support  them,  and  the 
flooring  of  the  alleys  all  come  from  the  old 
building.  One  of  the  difficult  problems  of 
the  game  was  for  the  carpenters  to  clear  out 
the  shelves  and  rip  up  the  floor  of  the  old 
stack,  pressing  close  upon  the  heels  of  the 
men  who  were  moving  books,  and  then  to 
work  this  material  into  the  new  stack  in  time 
for  the  books  to  be  shelved.  It  was  almost 
as  if  we  were  forced  to  hold  the  books  in 
our  arms  while  floor  and  shelves  were  being 
torn  out  of  one  place  and  built  into  the  other. 
The  fact  that  we  had  made  a  beginning  by 
using  the  other  depositories  first,  and  so  giv- 
ing the  carpenters  a  start  before  we  began 
at  Randall,  alone  made  it  possible. 

For  moving  the  books,  open  wooden  boxes 
were  used,  about  four  and  a  half  feet  long 
and  fifteen  inches  wide,  with  strong  iron 
handles  at  the  end.  A  crew  of  men  in  Gore 
Hall,  working  under  the  direction  of  one  of 
the  young  men  familiar  with  the  shelves, 
placed  the  b»oks  in  these  boxes  in  precisely 
the  same  order  in  which  they  stood  on  the 
shelves  and  numbered  the  boxes  in  succes- 
sion. They  were  then  passed  through  a  win- 
dow and  slid  down  a  chute  built  up  outside 
and  ending  in  a  platform  at  just  the  height 
of  the  automobile  truck  which  carried  them 
to  Randall.  Each  load  consisted  of  twenty- 

four  boxes.  The  position  of  the  chute  was 
changed  from  time  to  time  as  books  were 
taken  from  different  floors  of  the  stack.  At 
Randall  another  crew  of  men  took  the  boxes 
.from  the  truck  and  carried  them  in  by  num- 
ber to  the  shelves,  where  the  books  were  put 
up  in  the  same  order  in  which  they  stood 
before.  After  the  lower  floor  was  filled,  a 
slanting  cable  was  stretched  to  the  second, 
third,  and  fourth  floors,  successively.  On  the 
cable  ran  two  trolley  wheels,  to  which  was 
attached  a  stout  piece  of  timber,  from  which 
two  hooks  hung  and  grappled  the  handles 
of  the  boxes;  they  were  then  hauled  up  to 
the  place  where  they  belonged.  All  carrying 
up  and  down  stairs  was  thus  avoided.  From 
thirty  to  forty  thousand  volumes  were  moved 
each  week,  the  count  running  up  to  fifty  and 
fifty-five  thousand  volumes,  respectively,  for 
two  weeks.  Other  libraries  have  moved  into 
new  buildings  much  more  rapidly  than  this, 
but  considering  that  the  construction  of  the 
stack  was  going  on  at  the  same  time  with  the 
moving,  and  that  the  new  stack  could  be  built 
only  as  fast  as  the  old  one  was  dismantled, 
the  record  seems  a  good  one,  and  great  credit 
is  due  to  Mr.  Frank  Carney,  the  superinten- 
dent of  the  building,  for  the  smoothness  and 
speed  witt  which  the  whole  operation  was 
carried  on.  The  first  books  were  moved  to 
Randall  Hall  October  10,  and  the  work  was 
practically  completed  December  7,  about  350,- 
coo  volumes  having  been  put  in  place. 

As  soon  as  the  books  began  to  disappear 
from  Gore  Hall,  where  the  delivery  desk  still 
remained  open,  an  electric  runabout  was  put 
into  commission  and  made  the  rounds  of  all 
tlie  depositories  three  times  a  day,  bringing 
back  books  foi  which  requests  had  been  left 
at  Gore  Hall  and  taking  back  to  their  places 
books  which  had  been  returned  there  by  bor- 
rowers. In  this  way,  throughout  the  moving, 
no  books  were  inaccessible,  except  those  which 
were  actually  in  transit,  and  we  could  main- 
tain what,  under  the  circumstances,  was  con- 
sidered a  reasonably  prompt  service.  As  the 
number  of  books  outside  of  Gore  Hall  in- 
creased, the  difficulty  of  serving  the  public 
increased  in  the  same  proportion,  but  the  de- 
livery desk  could  not  be  set  up  in  Randall 
until  the  moving  was  finished;  with  the  de- 
livery desk  had  to  go  the  catalog,  and  the 
catalog  had  to  be  followed  by  the  staff.  On 
Saturday,  December  7,  the  book  moving  hav- 
ing been  finished,  so  far  as  the  stack  in  Ran- 
dall Hall  was  concerned,  the  delivery  counter 
and  other  furniture  were  taken  over  to  Ran- 
dall, and  the  impedimenta  of  the  catalog  de- 
partment were  transported  at  the  same  time. 
On  Sunday  most  of  the  men  of  the  staff  as- 
sembled either  at  Gore  Hall  or  Randall  Hall, 
and  with  everyone's  help  the  3382  trays  of  the 
public  catalog  and  of  the  Library  of  Congress 
file  were  safely  moved  from  one  building  to 
the  other.  It  was  no  small  task,  for  the  cata- 
log cases  had  to  be  emptied  of  their  trays,  so 
that  their  frames  could  be  taken  over  sepa- 



[February,  1913 

rately  and  put  in  place  first.  The  trays  them- 
selves could  not  be  piled  up  one  on  another 
without  injury  to  the  cards,  because  the  back 
end  of  each  tray  is  lower  than  the  front  end. 
Two  small  empty  cases,  holding  seventy-five 
trays  each,  were  placed  in  the  truck,  the  trays 
were  passed  out  in  their  right  order  and  slid 
into  these  cases  as  carriers.  At  the  other  end 
they  were  taken  out  in  the  same  order  and 
passed  along  into  the  building  and  put  back 
into  the  cases  where  they  belonged.  To 
transfer  the  whole  3300  trays  in  this  way  in 
one  day  required  rapid  and  systematic  work, 
but  the  next  morning  the  library  opened  in 
Randall  Hall  ready  for  service,  as  usual.  The 
other  portions  of  the  staff  moved  over  at 
intervals  of  a  day  or  two,  and  suffered  no 
serious  interruption  in  their  work. 

The  administrative  work  of  the  library  is 
now  distributed  in  Randall  Hall  as  follows: 
In  the  west  end  of  the  main  hall,  the  space 
not  occupied  by  stack  runs  from  one  side  to 
the  other  and  measures  25  x  66  feet.  The 
delivery  desk  from  Gore  Hall  is  at  the  right- 
hand  end,  with  sufficient  room  behind  it  for 
convenience  and  with  direct  access  to  the 
stack.  The  catalog  cases  stand  in  four  rows 
down  the  length  of  the  other  end  of  this 
space.  Stairs  go  up  from  near  the  end  of 
the  delivery  counter  to  the  three  upper  floors 
of  the  stack.  Quite  unexpectedly  we  get  a 
good  reading-room  over  a  portion  of  this 
delivery  space.  To  stiffen  the  stack  and  pre- 
vent it  from  pitching  forward,  it  was  neces- 
sary to  brace  it  with  heavy  beams  running 
across  the  twenty-five-foot  space  to  the  other 
wall.  These  were  at  the  level  of  the  third 
floor,  and  it  was  found  that  we  could  floor 
them  over  and  make  a  reading-room  at  this 
level  25  x  45  feet,  and  yet  not  interfere  in 
the  least  with  the  light  below,  since  the  floor- 
ing did  not  reach  out  to  the  north  and  south 
walls.  The  serving-room  along  the  north  side 
of  the  building  is  occupied  by  the  order  de- 
partment and  the  shelf  department.  The 
scullery  accommodates  the  cataloging  staff. 
The  auditor's  office  becomes  a  small  reference 
room,  opening  out  from  the  delivery  room. 
After  some  shifting  of  partitions,  the  "stu- 
dent waiters'  dressing-room"  becomes  the  li- 
brarian's outer  office  and  registrar's  office;  a 
small  room,  called  a  "dormitory"  on  the  old 
plans,  is  turned  into  the  librarian's  office,  and 
another  "dormitory"  is  occupied  by  typewrit- 
ers. Typewriters  also  are  placed  in  the 
"pastry  and  ice-cream  room."  Below  in  the 
kitchen,  the  ranges  have  been  boarded  up, 
though  the  big  red  soup  cauldrons  may  still 
be  seen,  and  the  room  gives  ample  space  for 
unpacking  boxes  of  books,  collating  them, 
putting  in  seals,  etc.,  while  the  dumbwaiters 
going  up  to  the  shelf  department,  just  above, 
are  a  luxury  we  never  knew  in  Gore  Hall. 
A  bakery,  cut  off  from  one  side  of  the 
kitchen,  becomes  a  capital  bindery.  A  large 
space  in  the  basement,  divided  off  by  netting 
and  formerly  used  for  "dry  stores,"  is  the 

newspaper  room.  The  potato  room,  with  its 
brick  walls  and  hard  cement  floor,  newly 
whitened  and  shelved  with  the  sliding  cases 
from  the  Treasure  Room  in  Gore  Hall, 
makes  a  safe  depository  for  our  rarest  and 
most  valuable  books.  There  are  refrigerators 
in  bewildering  variety,  some  of  which  are 
used  for  storing  boxes  of  books  before  they 
are  unpacked,  and  in  one  of  which  we  may 
put  the  books  of  the  "Inferno."  The  dining- 
room  which  had  been  used  for  the  servants 
of  the  building  gives  a  better  lunch  and  rest- 
room  for  the  staff  than  they  had  before.  The 
stack  is  directly  accessible  from  the  delivery 
desk  and  from  the  workrooms.  The  card 
catalog  is  equally  accessible  to  staff  and  to 
public.  The  passageways  along  the  south  side 
of  the  stack  give  better  chance  for  working 
in  the  stack  than  we  have  had  in  Gore  Hall 
in  recent  years,  and,  on  the  whole,  we  find 
ourselves  able  to  carry  on  the  work  of  the 
library  with  unexpected  ease  and  efficiency 
while  waiting  for  the  new  building  which  is 
in  prospect. 

Of  the  new  building,  some  account  may  be 
given  in  another  number  of  the  LIBRARY 


THE  cornerstone  of  this  library  was  laid  in 
October,  1911,  and  the  building  was  formally 
opened  on  Dec.  12,  1912.  Funds  for  its  erec- 
tion were  provided  by  a  legacy  of  $50,000 
from  the  late  Benjamin  P.  Davis,  of  Brook- 
lyn, N.  Y.,  but  accumulated  interest  and  sup- 
plementary appropriations  bring  the  total  cost 
to  $70,000.  The  recent  buildings  of  the  Acad- 
emy are  of  colonial  brick  architecture,  which 
harmonizes  with  the  colonial  wooden  houses 
of  Exeter  and  the  surrounding  country. 

The  library  realizes  all  the  refined  dignity 
and  grace  of  the  best  colonial  culture.  It  has 
a  frontage  of  seventy-two  feet  and  a  depth  of 
forty-seven  feet  two  inches,  with  rear  projec- 
tions, which  brings  the  extreme  depth  to  sixty- 
six  feet  four  inches.  The  material  is  Exeter 
brick,  with  trim  of  Vermont  marble.  The 
foundation  is  of  concrete,  and  the  construc- 
tion is  fireproof,  with  reinforced  concrete  un- 
derfloors,  partitions  and  wall  linings  of  tubu- 
lar terra-cotta  blocks,  steel  beams  and  roof 
trusses  and  metal  lathing.  All  wiring  is  run 
in  metal  pipes,  and  steam  for  heat  is  brought 
from  the  central  heating  plant. 

Fixtures  for  lighting  by  both  gas  and  elec- 
tricity have  been  installed.  Special  effort  has 
been  made  to  have  the  heating  and  ventilating 
system  thoroughly  efficient  and  yet  unobtru- 
sive. The  finish  and  furniture  are  of  wood, 
as  are  the  upper  floors  of  the  principal  rooms. 
The  main  corridors  have  marble  upper  floors, 
and  minor  halls  and  stairways  are  of  concrete 
and  iron. 

The  main  entrance  opens  into  a  commodi- 
ous vestibule,  and  this  into  the  spacious  cen- 

February,  1913] 


tral  corridor.  In  this  will  be  placed  a  bronze 
memorial  tablet  to  the  donor  of  the  building. 
To  the  left  of  the  corridor  is  a  large  room 
which  will  for  the  present  be  used  as  a  class- 
room. To  the  right  is  a  smaller  classroom, 
which  communicates  directly  with  the  stacks 
and  basement.  Both  rooms  can  be  put  to 
convenient  library  use  when  needed. 

At  the  rear  of  the  corridor  is  the  main 
stairway,  of  marble,  with  bronze  railings. 
From  the  landing,  double  stairways  of  marble 
run  to  the  upper  corridors.  A  large  arched 
window  above  the  landing  brilliantly  lights 
the  stairway  and  both  corridors.  The  upper 
corridor  opens  in  its  full  width  into  the  read- 
ing room.  The  entrance  is  marked,  however, 
by  an  arched  canopy,  borne  by  four  columns, 
under  which  is  a  raised  platform  for  the  de- 
livery desk. 

The  reading  room  extends  across  the  entire 
front  of  the  building,  and  is  twenty-four  feet 
in  width.  It  is  well  lighted  by  three  large 
and  eleven  small  windows,  and  by  the  large 
corridor  window.  At  either  end  is  a  fireplace. 
The  ceiling  is  divided  into  three  deeply  re- 
cessed panels,  and  both  the  ceiling  and  walls 
are  richly  ornamented  with  plaster  work. 
They  are  tinted  in  a  soft  gray  throughout  the 
building.  Bookcases  are  built  in  around  the 
walls,  and  low  cases  project  into  the  room 
and  divide  the  floor  into  three  parts  to  corre- 
spond to  the  paneling  of  the  ceiling.  This 
gives  readers  the  retirement  and  quiet  of  a 
small  room,  while  the  attendant  at  the  desk 
or  a  person  standing  anywhere  in  the  room 
can  see  over  the  whole.  The  furniture  is  of 
Flemish  oak.  In  the  reading  room,  delicacy 
and  charm  are  added  to  the  dignity  and  grace 
of  the  exterior. 

To  the  right  of  the  upper  corridor  is  a 
room,  twenty  by  twenty-four  feet  in  size,  for 
the  valuable  library  and  collections  which  Mr. 
Edwin  F.  Rice  has  presented  to  the  Academy. 
To  the  left  of  this  corridor  is  the  librarian's 
room,  sixteen  by  eleven  feet  in  size.  This  has 
direct  communication,  also,  with  the  reading 
room,  the  stacks  and  the  basement  work- 
rooms. Under  the  librarian's  room  is  the 
cataloging  room,  fifteen  feet  ten  inches  by 
eleven  feet  five  inches  in  size,  which  has  the 
same  access  as  the  librarian's  room  to  the 
stacks  and  basement.  In  the  cataloging  room 
is  a  vault  for  rare  books  and  papers.  The 
librarian's  room,  the  cataloging  room  and  the 
basement  workrooms  have  excellent  light. 

The  stack  projection  is  fitted  with  Snead 
steel  stacks  for  25,000  volumes,  and  the  plans 
allow  extension  to  the  rear  as  new  space  is 
required.  Below  the  stacks  is  an  unpacking 
room,  with  built-in  tables  on  three  sides  and 
a  book-lift  which  runs  up  through  the  stacks, 
conveniently  near  the  doors  to  the  cataloging 
and  librarian's  rooms  and  corridors. 

The  architects  were  Cram,  Goodhue  &  Fer- 
guson, of  Boston  and  New  York.  The  prin- 
cipal contractor  was  the  Central  Building 
Company,  of  Worcester,  Mass. 

The  library,  which  is  in  charge  of  Miss 
Mabel  Cilley,  now  numbers  5000  volumes. 
The  Rice  collections  more  than  double  this 
number,  and  other  gifts  already  promised  will 
soon  tax  the  present  book  capacity  of  the  new 
building.  ASA  C.  TILTON. 


IN  a  recent  number  of  the  Survey,  Florence 
Rising  Curtis  describes  the  state  of  the  libra- 
ries provided  for  the  inmates  in  23  prisons 
chosen  from  all  sections  of  the  country. 
Eight  were  in  the  east,  twelve  in  the  middle 
west,  two  in  the  west  and  one  in  the  south. 

"With  few  exceptions,"  says  the  writer, 
"they  are  far  below  the  grade  of  the  average 
public  library  of  the  same  size;  the  classes 
of  history,  biography  and  travel,  which  should 
be  especially  strong,  are  often  filled  with  out- 
of-date  and  unreadable  books.  It  is  surpris- 
ing that  detective  stories  figure  largely  in  the 
fiction  lists,  for  it  would  seem  dubious  policy 
to  furnish  stories  of  crime  which  suggest  in- 
genious plans  and  point  out  the  weak  spots 
in  the  method  of  their  execution. 

"Books  which  emphasize  sensual  details  are 
surely  not  good  mental  food  for  men  taken 
out  of  normal  human  intercourse  and  shut 
away  with  their  thoughts;  yet  the  prison  li- 
braries contain  the  novels  of  many  modern 
'realistic'  writers.  .  .  . 

"The  make-up  of  the  prison  library  catalog 
is  seldom  good ;  of  those  examined,  only  four- 
teen were  classified,  and  in  many  cases  the 
divisions  were  too  general  to  be  of  much 

"Two  were  arranged  only  by  author,  four 
by  title  only ;  two  had  no  authors  given,  and 
one  of  these  was  arranged  in  the  order  ot 
the  receipt  of  the  books.  In  many  catalogs 
the  printing  was  poor  and  the  entries  inaccu- 
rate. In  one,  the  books  seemed  to  have  been 
classified  by  the  sound  of  the  title,  as  the  sec- 
tion of  'Religious  books'  included  The  sor- 
rows of  Satan/  The  breath  of  the  gods/ 
The  conquest  of  Canaan/  The  little  minister/ 
The  choir  invisible'  and  The  fruit  of  the 
tree.'  .  .  . 

"These  libraries  have  received  in  bulk  a 
large  number  of  the  old  Sunday  school  collec- 
tions of  out-of-date  religious  and  temperance 
books;  they  are  decidedly  lacking  in  readable 
informational  literature  —  biography,  travel, 
science  and  books  on  present-day  invention 
and  progress.  Such  literature  is  especially 
needed  here,  for  it  is  the  experience  of  those 
in  charge  that  prison  men  tire  of  stories  and 
crave  more  solid  reading.  Books  on  the  tech- 
nical trades  are  being  added  to  the  prison  li- 
braries in  very  fair  proportion.  The  fiction 
generally  makes  a  poor  showing,  the  quality 
being  usually  inferior,  although  the  quantity 
is  in  good  proportion." 

A  detailed  report  of  the  N.  Y.  L.  A.  com- 
mittee on  libraries  in  penal  institutions  of 
New  York  state  for  the  year  1911-1912  tells 



[February,  1913 

of  progress  in  creating  a  sentiment  in  favor 
of  definite  action  on  the  part  of  those  who 
are  -responsible  for  the  administration  of 
penal  institutions.  The  reports  of  the  Super- 
intendent of  State  Prisons  for  the  year  end- 
ing Sept.  30,  1911  (published  in  January, 
1912),  gives  evidence  of  this  fact.  The  actual 
accomplishments  of  the  year  in  the  various 
prisons  are  not  very  substantial,  but  the  mere 
fact  that  space  is  given  to  the  libraries  in  the 
reports  of  the  chaplains  and  heads  of  prison 
schools  shows  an  encouraging  advance  over 
the  situations  existing  only  a  few  years  ago. 

In  some  prisons,  the  library  is  considered 
primarily  as  a  means  of  recreation;  in  others, 
such  as  Auburn,  the  library  is  chiefly  made 
up  of  text-books,  carefully  graded  and  given 
out  to  the  men  only  when  they  are  well  pre- 
pared to  understand  and  digest  them.  In 
many  prisons  every  inmate  has  one  or  two 
books  each  week.  At  the  Clinton  prison 
school  less  than  fifteen  dollars  was  spent 
last  year  on  books,  including  text-books  and 
library  books.  The  circulation  at  the  Elmira 
reformatory  was  85,000  for  6000  books.  At 
least  a  third  of  this  number  consisted  of  non- 
fiction  books. 

The  committee  states  that  the  best  method 
of  caring  for  the  libraries  in  penal  and  char- 
itable institutions  is  that  employed  in  Wis- 
consin, where  the  Library  Commission  has  a 
representative,  whose  duties  are  to  organize, 
develop  and  supervise  these  libraries.  The 
supervising  librarian  visits  the  institutions, 
makes  a  study  of  the  books  on  hand,  the  pos- 
sibilities in  the  way  of  rooms,  equipment,  as- 
sistance on  the  part  of  employees,  etc.,  and 
advises  as  to  the  purchase  of  books,  the  ar- 
rangement of  the  collection,  the  installation  of 
a  record  and  loan  system,  trains  inmates  who 
are  to  have  charge  of  the  libraries,  and  main- 
tains supervision  by  occasional  visits. 

A  movement  toward  such  a  method  has 
been  begun  in  New  York,  and  it  is  hoped 
that  such  a  legislative  enactment  may  be  the 
ultimate  result  in  that  state. 


Ix  view  of  the  movement  in  Wisconsin  and 
other  states  for  the  establishment  of  legisla- 
tive bureaus  and  libraries,  we  note  the  intro- 
duction in  the  New  York  State  Assembly  of 
a  bill  to  provide  such  a  bureau  in  that  state. 
The  provisions  are  as  follows : 

The  new  bureau  is  to  be  in  charge  of  a 
director,  appointed  by  joint  ballot  of  the  two 
Houses.  It  is  to  establish  a  legislative  li- 
brary, open  the  year  round,  and  is  to  have  in 
its  office  an  official  index  of  all  bills  and  the 
journals  of  each  House. 

Before  it  is  introduced,  a  bill  must  first 
have  the  scrutiny  of  the  bureau  experts  as  to 
its  form  and  constitutionality.  If  amended, 
it  must  again  be  examined  by  them.  For  this 
purpose,  a  new  committee  in  the  Assembly 

is  to  be  created,  known  as  the  committee  on 

One  of  the  most  important  functions  of 
the  bureau  will  be  its  authority  to  recom- 
mend that  a  bill  be  referred  to  a  certain  com- 
mittee. It  will  also  read  the  proof  on  all 
bills,  and  will  take  charge  of  the  publication 
of  all  state  reports  and  documents. 

The  director  will  have  the  appointment  of 
expert  assistants,  and  it  is  suggested  that  they 
be  appointed  from  an  eligible  list,  prepared 
by  the  Civil  Service  Commission,  so  the  state 
will  always  have  the  services  of  trained  legis- 
lative experts. 

The  purpose  of  maintaining  the  bureau 
throughout  the  year  is  that  it  will  consult 
with  the  various  state  officers  and  with  the 
heads  of  departments  with  reference  to  legis- 
lation that  may  be  desired  in  the  next  session, 
and  is  to  prepare  and  submit  detailed  reports 
of  its  researches.  The  bureau  also  will  serve 
in  connection  with  special  legislative  commit- 
tees, in  this  way  doing  away  with  the  cost  of 

The  bill  provides  for  the  construction  of 
the  Senate  and  Assembly  library,  with  the 
use  of  the  new  legislative  library  in  connec- 
tion with  the  bureau.  This  library  is  to  in- 
clude the  present  Senate  and  Assembly  libra- 
ries, and  books,  pamphlets  and  records  from 
the  State  Library  and  other  sources.  It  is 
to  be  a  part  of  the  State  Library,  and  no 
change  is  to  be  made  in  the  legislative  refer- 
ence department  of  the  State  Library. 


THE  International  Exhibition  for  the  Book 
Industry  and  the  Graphic  Arts,  to  be  held  at 
Leipzig  in  1914,  is  to  embrace: 

1.  The   entire  book  industry,  inclusive  of 

2.  The  graphic  arts. 

3.  All     allied     industries     and     auxiliary 

The  exhibition  will  be  international,  and  all 
the  civilized  countries  of  the  world  will  be 
permitted  to  participate. 

The  exhibition  is  to  be  opened  early  in 
May,  1914,  and  closed  at  the  end  of  October, 

Notification  of  exhibiting  on  forms  pro- 
vided by  the  management  must  be  returned, 
at  the  latest,  by  June  30,  1913. 

There  is  to  be  a  group  devoted  to  libraries, 
bibliography,  bibliophilism  and  collections,  and 
will  embrace  the  following  classes: 

Fitting  up  of  libraries,  library  plans,  views, 
furniture,  catalogs  of  libraries,  etc. 

Public  libraries  and  reading  rooms. 

Bibliography  organization  of  intellectual 

Amateur  printing. 

Collections  of  posters,  ex  libris,  stamps 

Fuller  information  on  this  subject  may  be 
found  in  an  article  in  the  Publishers'  Weekly 
for  Jan.  18,  1913. 

February,  1913] 




Amory,    Mississippi $10,000 

McMinville,    Oregon 10,000 

Morris,    Illinois 12,500 

Clarkston   and    Vineland,    Washington    (two 

towns    combined) 10,000 

Garland,    Utah 5,000 

Gibsonburg,  Ohio 9.000 

Coalinga,    California 10,000 

Memphis,   Texas 10,000 

Metropolis,    Illinois 9,000 

Osborne,    Kansas 6,000 

Pickerington,    Ohio 10,000 

Pomeroy,   Ohio 1 0,000 

Spring  Valley,  Illinois 15,000 

Kilbourn,   Wisconsin 6,000 

Oakland,   Maine 6,000 

Puyallup,    Washington 12,500 

Tiffin,   Ohio 25,000 

Wellsville,  Ohio 10,000 

*Benson,  Minnesota 7,5oo 

*Brookfield,    Illinois 10,000 

*Caldwell,    Idaho 12,500 

*Cedir   City,    Utah 10,000 

*Gainesville,     Texas 15,000 

*Gilmer.     Texas 7.500 

*Latta,    South    Carolina 5,ooo 

*  Martin,  Tennessee 9,000 

*Minncapolis,   Minnesota   (four  branches)..  125,000 

*Seward,     Nebraska 8,000 

*  Sherman,    Texas 20,000 

*Alpena,    Michigan 25,000 

*Cherryvale,   Kansas 10,000 

*Mexico,    Missouri 12,500 

*Valdosta,     Georgia 15,000 

*  Auburn,   Washington 9,000 

*Barron,   Wisconsin 6,500 

*Cuthbert,    Oregon 5,ooo 

*Gibbon,    Nebraska 6,000 

*Glen    Ellyn,    Illinois 8,000 

Grand    Ledge,    Michigan 10,000 

*Grattan    Township,    Nebraska    (for    town- 
ship and  city  of  O'Neil) 10,000 

*Columbus,   Kansas 10,000 

*Fu11erton.    Nebraska '. 6,000 

*Kendallville,    Indiana 12,500 

*Lakeville,    Massachusetts 5,ooo 

*Oakland,    Indiana 7,5oo 

*Paulding  County,   Ohio. 40,000 

*Perry,    New   York 12,000 

*Port  Townsend,    Washington 12,500 

*  Spokane.    Washington    (two   branches)  ....  70,000 
*White    Bear,    Minnesota 

*  Wichita,    Kansas 75,000 

*  Palestine.  Texas 15,000 

*Richmond,    Utah 8,000 

*Thornton,   Indiana 6,000 

*Corydon,   Indiana 1 1,000 

*  Boston,     Georgia 6,000 

*Chardon,    Ohio 8,000 

*Hood  River,  Oregon 1 7,500 

*Hopkinsville,    Kentucky 15,000 

*Or.tario,   Oregon 7,500 

Somerville.   Massachusetts 80,000 

*  Portland,    Oregon    (four   branches) 

*Elizabeth,  New  Jersey   (new  branch) 




Knirhtstown,    Indiana $1,000 

Wp.yne,  Nebraska 1,500 

Eldon,    Iowa 2,500 

Muskogee.    Oklahoma 15,0°° 

Longmont,    Colorado 2,500 

Napoleon,     Ohio 3,ooo 

Rushville,    Illinois 2,500 

Hot   Springs,  South   Dakota 2,500 

New    Orleans,    Louisiana 25,000 

Missonla.    Montana 0,000 

Ocala,     Florida 

Union,    Oregon 500 

^lirabfth.    New    Jersey *,7O3 

*Nashville,  Tennessee  (two  branches) 50,000 



Chesley,    Ontario $10,000 

*New  Hamburg,  Ontario 6,000 

*Watford,    Ontario 6,000 



Calgary,    Alberta $30,000 

Beayerton,    Ontario 2,000 

Whitby,   Ontario 4,250 

Elmira,    Ontario 2,000 

Regina,    Sask 9,500 

;  $47,750 


*Catton    England  (contribution  toward  cost)  £50 

*Sproatley,  Hull   (contribution  toward  cost)  80 

*Barrow-in-Furness 12,000 

*I<lantrisant,  Glam 3,500 



Saint    Albans £597 





Mid    Yell,    Shetland    (contribution    towards 

cost) £190 

Juniper  Green   (contribution  towards  cost) .         100 



Castleisland £1,500 

*Pembroke  U.  D.   C.   (two  buildings) 7,000 

'Newcastle    (seven   buildings) 3,900 

*Dundrum  Division,  Rathdown  No.  i,  Rural 

District  Council 1,500 



*Potchefstroom,   South   Africa £2,500 


U.   S.   and  Canada,  64  new  gifts,  including 

68  new  buildings $984,000 

U.  S.  and  Canada,  21  increases  to  previous 

gifts,  including  7  new  buildings 255,453 

United  Kingdom,  10  new  gifts,  including 

13  new  buildings 149,100 

United  Kingdom,  2  increases  to  previous 

gifts 5,150 

*South  Africa,  i  new  building 12,500 


75  new  gifts,  comprising  82  new  buildings. 
23    increases    to   previous    gifts,    including    7 

new   buildings. 
Total,   89   new   library  buildings    (and   four 

assisted    partially) $1,406,203 

This  makes  the  total  gifts  for  1912   $1,406,203,    as 
against  $2,611,46010  1911. 

The  total  library  gifts  to  date,  Dec.  31,  1912,  is  as 
follows : 

7320  Public    library    buildings $55, "7,425 

115  College    library   buildings 3,675,753 

2435  $58,793,178 

NOTE.  —  Those   items    marked    with    an    asterisk    are 
given  through  the  Carnegie  Corporation  of  New  York. 



[February,  1913 


THE  librarian  at  the  Kansas  State  Normal 
School,  W.  H.  Kerr,  in  the  Kansas  School 
Magazine  for  January,  1913,  advocates  an  ex- 
tension of  the  state's  present  system  for  trav- 
eling libraries  by  having  a  library  field  agent 
to  cooperate  with  schools  and  communities 
and  thus  centralize  the  library  service  of  the 

"Oregon  and  Washington  are  receiving  big 
dividends  from  their  hearty  encouragement  of 
library  organization.  The  fountain-head  of 
library  activity  in  these  and  many  other  states 
is  the  well-supported  state  library  commission, 
with  its  traveling  books  plus  its  traveling 
library  visitor.  The  book  alone  cannot  da  the 
work;  the  vital  touch  comes  from  the  library 
visitor.  The  library  visitor  studies  the  field, 
uses  the  agencies  already  in  existence,  unites 
them,  gives  them  a  common  interest,  and  sets 
them  to  work. 

"The  legislature  will  be  asked  to  amend 
Section  9029  of  the  General  Statutes,  1909,  so 
as  to  authorize  the  Traveling  Libraries  Com- 
mission to  employ  a  library  visitor  or  organ- 
izer, and  to  grant  an  additional  appropriation 
of  $2000  per  annum  for  the  salary  and  travel- 
ing expenses  of  said  visitor." 


THE  library  exhibit  at  the  Rhode  Island 
Child  Welfare  Conference,  which  was  held  at 
Providence,  January  7-13,  represented  a  chil- 
dren's room.  It  was  typical  in  every  respect, 
excepting  that  books  were  not  issued  for  cir- 

The  low  cases  were  filled  with  children's 
books  lent  by  various  libraries  in  the  state. 
The  card  catalog  was  complete  from  A  to  Z. 
The  attendant's  table  was  fitted  out  with  all 
necessary  paraphernalia,  so  that  the  uniniti- 
ated might  learn  what  to  do  in  a  real  library. 
Colored  prints  upon  the  wall  and  potted  plants 
furnished  spots  of  color  against  the  soft  gray 
of  the  screens  forming  the  alcove.  The  tables 
were  surrounded  every  minute  with  boy  and 
girl  readers,  many  of  whom  had  never  before 
realized  what  treasures  the  libraries  had  in 
store  for  them. 

Following  the  precedent  of  other  exhibits 
of  the  kind,  the  furnishings  were  borrowed 
from  the  Library  Bureau.  Booklists  from 
libraries  outside  the  state,  as  well  as  from 
several  Rhode  Island  libraries,  were  distrib- 
uted by  the  attendants. 

The  Providence  Public  Library  printed  for 
the  occasion  a  list  of  selected  books  relating 
to  the  various  phases  of  child  welfare  in- 
cluded in  the  conference,  and  with  each  title 
was  given  the  call-number  of  that  library — 
those  volumes,  also,  to  be  found  at  the  public 
libraries  of  Pawtucket,  Westerly,  Newport  or 
Woonsocket  being  checked  with  initials.  The 

books,  which  were  shelved  near  the  attend- 
ant's table,  found  many  interested  readers 
among  the  parents  and  child  welfare  workers 
who  visited  the  exhibit. 

The  Deborah  Cook  Sayles  Public  Library, 
of  Pawtucket,  sent  for  distribution  copies  of 
a  booklist  for  the  children,  entitled  "A  library 
A  B  C."  In  the  form  of  a  merry  jingle,  this 
gave  an  alphabetical  list  of  many  of  the  best- 
known  authors  of  children's  books. 

Statistics  on  the  screens  called  attention  to 
the  many  good  things  which  Rhode  Island 
libraries  are  doing  for  the  children.  Greater 
emphasis,  however,  was  laid  upon  the  things 
yet  to  be  done.  The  committee  tactfully  con- 
trived to  take  seriously  to  task  the  public 
libraries  of  the  state  and  the  state  itself. 

One  screen  effectively  chronicled,  by  a  chain 
of  links,  the  development  of  the  work  of  the 
children's  department  at  the  Providence  Pub- 
lic Library  with  the  schools.  Since  1900,  when 
the  children's  room  was  opened,  the  children's 
department  of  that  library  has  grown  so  as 
to  include  a  teacher's  library  and  a  classroom 
devoted  to  school  reference  books.  Special 
privileges  are  granted  teachers  in  borrowing 
books  for  school  use,  and  books  are  loaned 
to  the  schools,  to  be  reissued  to  the  pupils. 
Lectures  on  the  use  of  books  and  of  the  library 
are  given  to  school  children,  to  school  moth- 
ers' clubs  and  to  the  student  teachers  of  the 
Rhode  Island  Normal  School,  who  visit  the 
library  in  class. 

The  adjoining  screen  displayed  photographs 
of  the  children's  rooms  of  the  libraries  at 
Pawtucket,  Westerly,  Newport,  Olneyville, 
Central  Falls  and  Pontiac,  where  similar  work 
is  being  developed,  so  far  as  the  varied  re- 
sources of  these  libraries  will  permit. 

These  two  screens,  although  telling  of  the 
splendid  work  that  is  being  done,  forcefully 
brought  home  to  the  people  of  Rhode  Island 
the  fact  that  only  seven  of  the  fifty-eight  pub- 
lic libraries  of  the  state  are  making  an  at- 
tempt to  carry  on  organized  work  of  this  sort. 

A  cartoon  which  was  designed  to  bring  out 
the  ineffectiveness  of  children's  work  without 
leadership  and  sufficient  advertising,  repre- 
sented a  troop  of  soldiers,  each  of  whom  bore 
a  well-known  child's  book  as  his  shield. 

"Soldiers  who  march: 
Into  every  child's  home. 

Every    child's    heart. 

Every   child's   soul. 
The  soldiers  must  have  a  captain  and  a  trumpeter." 

A  carefully  worked-out  chart  brought  to 
light  the  rather  significant  fact  that  those 
public  libraries  in  Rhode  Island  which  have 
the  largest  circulation  per  capita  are  those 
receiving  the  greatest  support,  financially. 

That  the  children  of  the  out-of-town  dis- 
tricts are  being  provided  with  good  reading 
was  brought  to  mind  by  a  case  of  books, 
typical  of  the  traveling  libraries  sent  out  un- 
der the  direction  of  the  R.  I.  State  Board  of 
Education.  Statistics  stated  that  of  the  182 
traveling  libraries  now  in  circulation  in  Rhode 
Island,  107  are  for  the  use  of  the  children 


February,  1913] 



of  the  rural  communities.  A  map,  showing 
the  towns  to  which  these  libraries  are  sent, 
also  made  obvious  the  fact  that  there  are 
many  rural  districts  in  Rhode  Island  in  which 
traveling  libraries  have  not  yet  been  placed. 

The  screens  of  all  departments  of  the  con- 
ference were  cataloged  and  classified,  and  at 
the  close  of  the  conference  they  were  de- 
posited at  the  Providence  Public  Library. 
From  time  to  time,  those  comprising  various 
exhibits  will  be  loaned  for  exhibitions  and 
lectures  throughout  the  state,  and  will  be 
brought  forth  when  legislation  upon  some 
phase  of  child  welfare  is  pending. 



CHARLES  CARROLL  SOULE,  long  identified  with 
the  book  publishing  business  and  interested  in 
library  work,  died,  January  7,  in  his  home  in 
Brookline,  Mass.,  aged  70.  Mr.  Soule  was 
born  in  Boston,  June  25,  1842,  was  educated 
at  the  Boston  Latin  School,  and  graduated 
from  Harvard  in  1862.  With  the  formation 
of  the  Forty-fourth  Massachusetts  Regiment, 
he  joined  it  as  a  private  in  October.  Three 
weeks  after  he  was  commissioned  lieutenant 
in  Company  B.  When  the  term  of  service 
expired,  he  joined  the  Fifty-fifth  Massachus- 
etts as  captain  of  Company  K,  remaining  with 
it  through  the  war. 

In  May,  1866,  he  became  a  clerk  with  Lit- 
tle, Brown  &  Co.,  in  Boston.  In  October, 
1869,  he  went  west,  and  became  the  senior 
partner  in  a  new  firm  of  Soule,  Thomas  & 
Winsor,  law  and  general  booksellers  in  St. 
Louis.  This  firm  later  became  Soule,  Thomas 
&  Wentworth,  but  in  May,  1878,  Mr.  Soule 
accepted  an  offer  of  partnership  in  Little, 
Brown  &  Co.,  sold  out  his  interest  in  the  St. 
Louis  firm  and  came  back  to  Boston.  He  was 
with  Little,  Brown  &  Co.  until  May,  1881. 
At  that  time  he  formed  a  partnership  with 
James  A.  Bugbee,  of  Boston,  under  the  name 
of  Soule  &  Bugbee,  doing  a  law  book  business 
in  Boston.  Mr.  Bugbee  retired  from  the  firm 
Oct.  i,  1884,  and  the  business  was  then  car- 
ried on  by  Mr.  Soule  alone. 

In  1889,  Mr.  Soule  incorporated  the  busi- 
ness under  the  name  of  the  Boston  Book  Co., 
becoming  its  first  president  and  its  only  presi- 
dent up  to  the  time  of  his  death.  At  the  time 
of  incorporation,  a  library  department  was 
added  to  the  law  bookstore,  specializing  in 
back  files  of  periodicals  for  libraries.  This 
was  a  dkect  result  of  a  need  for  such  mate- 
rial that  Mr.  Soule  felt,  probably  through 
his  connection  with  the  Brookline  Public  Li- 
brary as  trustee. 

Mr.  Soule  was  always  keenly  interested  in 
the  development  of  libraries.  He  joined  the 
A.  L.  A.  in  1879.  He  was  a  trustee  of  the 
Brookline  Public  Library  from  1880-1899,  was 
a  member  of  the  Publishing  Board  of  the 
A.  L.  A.  from  1890-1908,  vice-president  of 

the  A.  L.  A.,  1890;  member  of  the  Council, 
1893-1806  and  1900-1905;  trustee  endowment 
fund,  i894-rioo6;  and  a  member  of  the  Amer- 
ican Library  Institute  since  its  inception. 

Always  especially  interested  in  the  planning 
of  library  buildings,  Mr.  Soule,  during  recent 
years,  had  been  known  as  an  adviser  on  li- 
brary planning,  and  helped  thus  to  secure 
good  buildings  for  many  communities. 

His  publications  were :  Article  on  "Library" 
for  Sturgis'  "Dictionary  of  architecture" 
(1901)  ;  A.  L.  A.  tract  on  "Library  rooms  and 
buildings"  (1902)  ;  "How  to  plan  a  library 
building  for  library  work"  (1912).  Among 
the  legal  profession,  his  "Lawyers'  reference 
manual  of  law  books  and  citations,"  published 
in  1883,  has  always  been  one  of  the  necessary 

Mr.  Soule  was  particularly  well  known  as 
an  expert  on  library  planning. 


IN  reporting  a  December  special  meeting 
of  the  'Queens  Borough  Library  trustees,  the 
Long  Island  Weekly  Star  tells  of  the  defeat 
of  a  scheme  to  appoint  a  director  at  a  salary 
of  $6000.  "The  attorney,"  says  the  Star,  "by 
the  use  of  unexpended  balances,  had  found  a 
way  by  which  this  $6000  could  be  raised,  and 
so  he  recommended  the  appointment  of  the 
director.  It  also  developed  that  Dr.  Harris 
A.  Houghton  was  slated  for  this  position.  He 
is  a  member  of  the  board  of  trustees,  and  of 
late  he  has  been  spending  time  familiarizing 
himself  with  the  administration  of  the  library 
in  anticipation  of  his  election  to  this  impor- 
tant post.  But  a  majority  of  the  board  re- 
fused, on  Friday  night,  to  sanction  the  plan 
of  the  attorney." 

In  the  same  issue  of  the  Star  appears  this 
letter  from  Dr.  Houghton: 

Editor  Star. 

Dear  Sir:  I  notice  with  some  amusement 
that  in  the  course  of  an  account  of  the 
monthly  meeting  of  the  board  of  trustees  of 
the  Queens  Borough  Public  Library,  the  Star 
mentioned  my  name  in  connection  with  a  pro- 
posed new  position  in  the  library  service, 
namely,  that  of  director. 

I  will  be  duly  apprciative  if  the  Star  will 
publish  my  contradiction  of  this  statement. 
In  the  first  place,  it  is  not  at  all  likely  that 
if  I  desired  the  position  that  I  could  get  it, 
as  the  general  feeling  among  the  members  of 
the  board  is  decidedly  in  favor  of  a  technical- 
ly trained  head,  to  be  chosen  from  among  the 
best  the  country  has  produced  by  competitive 
examination — a  feeling  with  which  I  am  in 
hearty  accord.  In  the  second  place,  I  have 
not  had  such  technical  training.  In  the  third 
place,  it  would  not  pay  me  in  dollars  to  take 
it.  Fourthly,  I  love  my  profession  too  much 
to  leave  it.  Fifthly,  I  am  not  a  candidate 
for  any  public  office  which  has  a  salary  at- 


[February,  1913 

tached  to  it,  such  service  I  can  give  to  the 
community  being  gladly  given  voluntarily. 
Sixthly,  there  are  several  other  good  reasons 
which  I  might  give,  but  which  would  occupy 
too  much  space  in  your  valuable  paper. 
Very  cordially  yours, 

There  is  now  before  the  New  York  State 
Legislature  a  bill  amending  the  provisions  of 
incorporation  of  the  Queens  Borough  Public 
Library.  It  specifies  that  the  terms  of  office 
of  the  trustees  must  not  exceed  five  years, 
and  that  the  trustees  shall  be  chosen  and 
vacancies  filled  by  appointment  by  the  Mayor 
of  New  York  City.  At  present,  the  terms  of 
office  and  the  manner  of  selecting  the  trus- 
tees, subject  to  the  Mayor's  approval,  are  pro- 
vided in  the  by-laws.  This  act  also  legislates 
out  of  office  the  present  trustees  of  the  li- 
brary, upon  the  appointment  of  their  suc- 

WITHIN  the  last  two  months  attention  has 
been  directed  to  a  well-organized  business  in 
the  sale  of  fake  "rare"  and  "de  luxe"  books. 
A  suit,  involving  a  Mrs.  Bird,  of  Salt  Lake 
City,  was  the  first  noteworthy  development, 
for  that  action  disclosed  the  various  aliases 
of  the  band  operating  and  their  cunning 
methods  of  misrepresentation.  Most  of  the 
purchasers  bought  in  the  expectation  of  re- 
selling at  a  much  higher  figure  to  some  mil- 
lionaire purchaser,  to  be  produced  by  the 
agents  when  the  time  was  ripe.  These  second 
buyers,  being  generally  fictitious,  never  ap- 
peared. The  stories  of  the  dealers  were  most 
specious,  such  as  when  books  said  to  be  part 
of  the  library  of  Charles  W.  Morse,  the 
banker,  were  offered  for  sale  at  a  time  when 
he  might  very  reasonably  have  been  willing 
to  sell  at  a  sacrifice.  Following  far-reaching 
government  investigation,  came  numerous  in- 
dictments and  arrests,  including  Glen  Farmer, 
a  principal  in  the  case  mentioned  above,  and 
sixteen  others. 

Among  the  last  to  be  indicted  in  connection 
with  the  sale  of  alleged  valueless  "Americana" 
to  a  Mr.  H.  H.  Livingston,  of  Saratoga 
Springs,  N.  Y.,  was  Mr.  William  Beer,  the 
well-known  librarian  of  the  Howard  Memo- 
rial Library  in  New  Orleans. 

When  arraigned  before  United  States  Com- 
missioner Browne,  Mr.  Beer  entered  a  plea 
of  not  guilty  to  the  charge  of  using  the  mails 
with  intent  to  defraud,  and  was  released  on 
$1000  bail.  In  a  statement  made  after  his 
arraignment,  Mr.  Beer  said:  "The  charge  is 
either  a  mistake  or  a  work  of  malice.  I  have 
never  heard  of  several  of  the  men  who  were 
indicted  with  me.  My  only  connection  with 
the  affair  is  that  I  gave  an  option  on  the  set 
of  books  from  May,  1909,  to  May,  1911,  to 
W.  Y.  C.  Humes,  of  Chicago,  for  $15,000. 
Before  the  option  expired,  James  Plunkett,  of 
New  York,  tried  to  purchase  the  books,  and 
finally  bought  the  option  from  Humes.  I  re- 

ceived a  check  for  $15,000,  and  thought  this 
ended  my  connection  with  the  affair." 

Afterward  the  set  passed  through  several 
other  hands,  he  has  since  heard,  and  finally 
was  sold  to  Mr.  Livingston  for  $70,000.  One 
morning,  some  little  time  after  the  Livingston 
purchase,  Mr.  Beer  said,  he  lunched  with  the 
latter  in  New  York,  and  in  the  course  of  the 
conversation,  Mr.  Livingston  asked  him  how 
much  he  had  sold  the  books  for.  Mr.  Beer 
says  he  told  him,  and  Mr.  Livingston  was 
greatly  angered.  That  was  a  year  and  a  half 
ago.  He  still  regarded  the  latter  as  a  friend, 
and  had  not  suspected  that  Mr.  Livingston 
would  hold  him  responsible  in  any  way. 


THE  seventeenth  annual  meeting  of  the 
New  Jersey  Library  Association  and  the  Penn- 
sylvania Library  Club  will  be  held  at  At- 
lantic City,  Feb.  28-March  i,  1913.  There 
will  be  three  business  sessions  at  the  Hotel 
Chelsea,  as  follows :  Friday,  February  28,  8.30 
p.m.,  under  the  direction  of  the  New  Jersey 
Library  Association.  Saturday,  March  i,  IT 
a.m.,  under  the  direction  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Library  Club.  Saturday,  March  i,  8.30  p.m., 
a  general  session. 

For  railroad  tickets  and  schedules,  apply  to 
any  ticket  agent  of  the  Pennsylvania  or  Read- 
ing railroads  or  the  Central  Railroad  of  New 

The  headquarters  will  be  at  the  Hotel  Chel- 
sea, at  the  ocean  end  of  South  Morris  avenue, 
Chelsea,  Atlantic  City.  The  following  rates 
have  been  offered  by  this  hotel:  One  person 
in  a  room  (without  bath),  $3.50  per  day;  two 
persons  in  a  room  (without  bath),  each,  $3 
per  day;  one  person  in  a  room  (with  bath), 
$4.50  per  day;  two  persons  in  a  room  (with 
bath),  each,  $4  per  day. 

Members  and  their  friends  who  wish  rooms 
reserved  are  requested  to  write  direct  to  the 
hotel.  Persons  desiring  to  obtain  special  rates 
for  a  week  or  longer  are  requested  to  corre- 
spond with  the  proprietor. 

Members  of  other  library  clubs  and  friends 
in  adjacent  states  are  cordially  invited  to  be 
present  and  to  take  part  in  the  meeting. 

First  Session 

Friday  afternoon,  February  28,  2.30. — Busi- 
ness meeting.  Address  by  Royal  Meeker,  of 
Princeton  University,  on  "Community  life  and 
its  needs."  Discussion  on  the  value  and  ad- 
ministration of  township  and  county  libraries, 
led  by  Miss  Elizabeth  White,  Passaic,  N.  J. 

Friday  evening,  February  28,  8.30.— "Survey 
of  educational  conditions  in  New  Jersey" 
(illustrated  by  lantern  slides),  Miss  Sarah  B. 
Askew,  New  Jersey  Public  Library  Commis- 
sion. "Perils  of  the  modern  intellect,"  Dr. 
Charles  S.  Chapin,  Montclair  Normal  School. 

Second  Session 

Chairman,  Mr.  Ernest  Spofford,  assistant 
librarian,  the  Historical  Society  of  Pennsyl- 

February,  1913] 


vania;  librarian,  the  Gilpin  Library  of  the 
Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania. 

Address,  Miss  Corinne  Bacon,  librarian, 
Drexel  Institute;  director,  Library  School. 

"Collecting  books,"  C.  G.  Child,  Ph.D., 
L.H.D.,  department  of  English  language  and 
literature,  University  of  Pennsylvania. 

Third  Session. 

Chairman,  John  Thomson,  M.A.,  librarian, 
the  Free  Library  of  Philadelphia. 

Address,  Francis  Harvey  Green,  A.M., 
Litt.D.,  department  of  English,  West  Chester 
Normal  School. 

The  third  speaker  will  be  announced 

A  reception  will  be  held  in  the  Atlantic  City 
Public  Library  on  Saturday  afternoon,  to 
which  all  attending  the  conference  are  cor- 
dially invited. 



ON  Jan.  i,  1913,  a  joint  meeting  was  held 
at  the  Boston  Public  Library  between  the 
Boston  Cooperative  Information  Bureau  and 
the  Eastern  District  of  the  Special  Libraries 
Association,  the  first  session,  at  4  p.m.,  being 
devoted  to  the  interests  of  the  former,  and 
the  second  session,  at  7.30  p.m.,  to  those  of 
the  latter.  Between  the  two  sessions  many 
took  part  in  a  special  luncheon  arranged  at 
the  new  Copley  Plaza  Hotel.  Previous  to  the 
first  session,  some  15  or  20  persons  made  a 
tour  of  several  of  the  most  important  spe- 
cial libraries  of  the  city,  including  the  fol- 
lowing: Stone  &  Webster,  the  Insurance  Li- 
brary Association,  Arthur  D.  Little,  Inc. ;  the 
Town  Room,  the  Social  Service  Library,  the 
Boston  Society  of  Civil  Engineers,  and  the 
statistical  department  of  the  Boston  Public 

The  Special  Libraries  Association  elected 
the  following  officers  for  the  ensuing  year : 
Prof .  A.  C.  Lane,  of  Tufts  College,  president; 
F.  I.  Cooper,  of  Cooper  &  Bailey,  architects, 
vice-president;  G.  W.  Lee,  of  Stone  &  Web- 
ster, secretary-treasurer;  John  Ritchie,  Jr., 
editor  of  publications;  and  eight  directors. 
The  principal  paper  of  the  session  was  by 
Mr.  Ritchie,  upon  "The  bureau  at  work,"  in 
which  he  explained  the  services  rendered,  the 
future  developments  possible  and  resources 
easily  available,  as  well  as  the  modus  operandi 
of  the  office  of  "chief  of  service."  Mr. 
Thomas  J.  Homer  made  a  delightful  presen- 
tation of  the  work  he  is  now  engaged  upon 
in  a  paper  explaining  the  "Union  list  of  seri- 
als currently  received  in  the  libraries  of  Bos- 
ton and  vicinity,"  to  be  published  subsequently 
by  the  Boston  Public  Library.  Miss  Ketcham, 
of  the  Social  Service  Library,  then  described 
her  collection  and  the  aims  of  her  work.  Mr. 
Lee  then  offered  several  suggestions  as  possi- 
bilities for  future  functions  of  the  bureau — 
a  lost  and  found  center,  a  reference  book 
commission,  a  museum  of  new  books,  books 

borrowable,  etc.  Rather  free  discussion  fol- 
lowed, and  the  meeting  adjourned  at  6.15  p.m. 
The  evening  session  was  devoted  to  the  in- 
terests of  the  Eastern  District  of  the  Special 
Libraries  Association.  Mr.  D.  N.  Handy,  of 
Boston,  who  is  president  of  the  national  body, 
opened  the  meeting  with  an  explanation  of 
the  district  idea,  giving  the  purposes  sought 
in  thus  dividing  the  country  into  sections,  pre- 
sided over  by  individuals  who  are  members 
of  the  national  advisory  board.  He  also  gave 
statistics  showing  how  the  entire  membership 
was  divided,  and  indicated  the  plans  now  un- 
der consideration  for  other  district  meetings. 
Miss  Dobbins,  of  New  York  City,  read  a  very 
valuable  criticism  of  the  books  on  accounting, 
business,  finance,  etc.,  under  the  title  of 
"Every-day  tools."  Miss  Spencer,  also  of 
New  York  City,  read  an  interesting  sketch  of 
the  "Library  of  the  National  City  Bank,  New 
York."  Mr.  Marion,  secretary  of  the  national 
body,  spoke  in  general  of  the  phenomenal 
growth  of  the  association,  the  needs  of  those 
entering  this  field  of  work,  some  of  the  re- 
cent advances  in  library  work,  and  made  a 
plea  for  the  relative  importance  of  the  "spe- 
cial librarian,"  as  compared  with  the  public 
librarian.  Mr.  F.  I.  Cooper  explained  his 
method  of  handling  trade  catalogs  in  an 
architect's  office.  Mr.  Handy  moved,  in  the 
discussion  which  followed,  that  the  executive 
board  of  the  S.  L.  A.  appoint  a  very  small 
committee  to  study  and  report  upon  the 
handling  of  clippings  at  the  next  annual 
meeting.  Mr.  Kilbourn  advocated  the  value 
of  getting  people  and  business  houses  into  the 
habit  of  looking  to  the  "information  bureau" 
as  the  point  of  contact  for  wider  information 
than  was  immediately  available.  Mr.  Brigham 
urged  the  necessity  of  better  outside  clipping 
service,  apart  from  the  handling  of  them 
after  their  receipt,  and  felt  there  was  a  real 
need  of  something  better  than  now  exists. 
He  also  urged  greater  individual  efficiency 
upon  the  part  of  special  librarians  to  enable 
them  to  overcome  the  delays  so  well  known 
in  the  average  public  library. 


A  recent  election  was  held  by  correspond- 
ence to  fill  the  vacancies  in  the  membership  of 
the  American  Library  Institute,  caused  by  the 
expiration  of  the  terms  of  seven  members. 
The  following  were  elected  for  a  period  of  ten 
years  from  Jan.  I,  1913:  Caroline  M.  Hewins, 
R.  R.  Bowker,  Theresa  Hitchler,  Gratia  Coun- 
tryman, W.  P.  Cutter,  Electra  C.  Doren,  W.  D. 

Three  vacancies  in  the  membership  having 
occurred  in  the  year  1912,  these  were  also 
filled  by  the  election  of  the  following  for  a 
term  of  nine  years  each :  Katherine  L.  Sharp, 
George  B.  Utley,  C.  D.  F.  Belden. 

Mrs.  Theresa  West  Elmendorf,  vice-librarian 
of  the  Buffalo  Public  Library,  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  Institute  board  for  a  term  of 
five  years. 

MARY  EILEEN  AHERN,  Secretary. 



[February,  1913 


The  fourth  annual  meeting  of  the  College 
and  University  Librarians  of  the  Middle  West 
opened  in  the  assembly  room  of  the  Harper 
Memorial  Library,  University  of  Chicago,  on 
Friday  afternoon,  January  3.  There  was  an 
attendance  at  the  first  session  of  nearly  one 
hundred  persons.  The  large  attendance  was 
accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  besides  the 
university  librarians,  a  considerable  number 
of  library  assistants  from  local  libraries,  as 
well  as  other  visiting  librarians,  were  present. 
The  libraries  of  McGill  and  Princeton  uni- 
versities were  represented  by  Professor  Gould 
and  Dr.  Richardson,  respectively,  both  of 
whom  contributed  to  the  discussions  and  did 
much  to  make  the  session  a  success. 

The  formal  report  on  modifications  of  the 
decimal  classification  in  the  department  of 
literature  was  to  have  been  presented  by  Mr. 
Goulding,  of  the  University  of  Illinois.  As 
he  was  unable  to  be  present,  a  brief  report 
was  made  by  Miss  Hutchins  for  the  classical 
department,  and  by  Miss  Wyeth  for  the  mod- 
ern language  department  of  that  university. 
Mr.  Gerould  explained  the  modifications  re- 
sorted to  at  the  University  of  Minnesota,  and 
Mr.  Severance  and  Miss  Butlin  outlined  some 
of  the  changes  which  had  been  found  desir- 
able at  the  University  of  Missouri  and  the 
Beloit  College  Library.  The  discussion  which 
followed  was  participated  in  by  Mr.  Smith, 
of  the  University  of  Wisconsin ;  Dr.  Richard- 
son, of  Princeton,  the  chairman,  and  others. 
Mr;  Drury  outlined  in  an  informal  way  the 
features  which  he  considered  essential  in  a 
librarian's  report,  emphasizing  the  various 
items  to  be  included  and  the  desirability  of 
some  uniformity  of  rule  and  practice  in  the 
compilation.  Dr.  Richardson  introduced  the 
topic,  "The  standing  of  the  library  in  the  uni- 
versity," giving  a  number  of  illustrations  from 
his  own  experience.  Professor  Root,  who  had 
in  the  meantime  taken  the  chair,  contributed 
to  the  discussion,  as  did  also  Mr.  Smith,  of 
the  University  of  Wisconsin;  Dr.  Burton,  of 
the  University  of  Chicago;  Mr.  Gerould,  of 
Minnesota,  and  others. 

The  last  topic  of  the  afternoon  session  was 
introduced  by  Mr.  Smith,  of  the  University 
of  Wisconsin,  "Specialization  in  university 
and  college  libraries."  Time  did  not  permit 
any  extensive  discussion  of  Mr.  Smith's  ex- 
cellent report,  and  it  is  hoped  that  the  ques- 
tion may  be  taken  up  again  at  a  future  time. 

After  a  tour  of  inspection  of  the  new  Har- 
per Memorial  Library,  the  visitors  adjourned 
to  Hutchinson  Commons,  where  a  dinner  was 
served  by  the  university.  At  7.30  they  con- 
vened again  for  a  joint  meeting  fo  the  Bib- 
liographical Society  of  America  and  the  Col- 
lege and  University  Librarians,  Professor 
Gould,  president  of  the  Bibliographical  So- 
ciety, being  in  the  chair.  Mr.  Josephson,  of 
the  John  Crerar  Library,  read  a  paper  on 

various  aids  to  research,  such  as  Die  Briicke, 
of  Munich.  His  paper  was  discussed  by  Dr. 
von  Noe,  secretary  of  the  Bibliographical 
Society.  Dr.  Koch,  of  the  University  of  Mich- 
igan, then  gave  an  illustrated  lecture  on  uni- 
versity library  buildings  and  plans,  the  new 
stereopticon  just  installed  in  the  Harper  Li- 
brary being  tested  for  the  first  time  and 
found  to  be  very  satisfactory.  The  lecture, 
as  well  as  the  views,  was  much  enjoyed  by 
all  present,  and  a  delightful  informality  pre- 
vailed which  permitted  interruption  for  ques- 
tions and  discussion  of  special  features.  A 
report  on  the  new  building  of  the  University 
of  California  Library  had  been  received  from 
Mr.  Leupp  and  was  read  by  Dr.  Koch.  The 
various  defects  in  the  building  at  Berkeley, 
as  pointed  out  by  Mr.  Leupp,  seemed  to  cor- 
respond very  closely  to  those  which  have  be- 
come apparent  also  in  the  Harper  Library 
building  since  its  occupancy  in  June,  1912. 
Dr.  Koch  was  followed  by  Mr.  Lichtenstein, 
librarian  of  Northwestern  University,  who 
reported  on  the  plans  of  the  new  Harvard 
Library,  illustrating  his  remarks  by  views. 

At  the  session  on  Saturday  morning,  Pro- 
fessor Root  was  again  in  the  chair.  Mr. 
Lichtenstein  reported  on  his  experiences  dur- 
ing 1912  as  cooperative  purchasing  agent  for 
several  American  libraries.  His  report  was 
supplemented  by  a  statement  from  Mr.  An- 
drews on  behalf  of  the  John  Crerar  Library, 
and  by  Miss  Perrine  for  the  University  of  Chi- 
cago Library.  Both  libraries  expressed  general 
satisfaction  with  the  results  of  the  venture. 
Possible  extension  of  the  printing  of  analyt- 
ical cards  by  the  Library  of  Congress  was 
urged  by  Mr.  Jewett,  of  Nebraska.  The  limit 
which  university  libraries  might  set  in  the 
acquisition  of  certain  lines  of  publications 
and  material  was  reported  on  by  Mr.  Sever- 
ance, of  Missouri;  Mr.  Smith,  of  Wisconsin; 
Mr.  Jewett,  of  Nebraska;  Mr.  Gerould,  of 
Minnesota;  and  others,  reporting  on  the  prac- 
tices of  their  respective  libraries.  A  report 
by  Mr.  Windsor,  of  Illinois,  on  interlibrary 
loans  of  1912  was,  in  his  absence,  read  by 
Mr.  Drufy. 

The  committee  on   arrangements   for   next 
year's   meeting  consists   of    Professor   A.    S. 
Root,  of  Oberlin;  Mr.  J.  T.  Gerould,  of  Min- 
nesota ;  and  Mr.  H.  O.  Severance,  of  Missouri. 
J.  C.  M.  HANSON,  Chairman. 

,      THE    NEW   YORK  LIBRARY 

The  Municipal  Art  Commission  has  passed 
favorably  on  groups  of  statuary  for  the  Fifth 
Avenue  facade  of  the  Public  Library.  The 
pediment  at  the  southern  end  wiW  form  a 
setting  for  a  group  entitled  "The  Arts,"  while 
the  pediment  at  the  northern  end  will  hold 
a  group  entitled  "History."  The  figures  were 
executed  by  George  Grey  Barnard,  the  sculp- 
tor, and  the  estimated  cost  of  each  group  is 
placed  at  $12,500. 

February,  1913] 





A.   L.    A.    CONFERENCE,    1913 

THE  Executive  Board,  at  its  meeting,  the 
first  week  in  January,  voted  to  hold  the  next 
conference  of  the  A.  L.  A.  at  the  Hotel 
Kaaterskill,  in  the  Catskill  Mountains,  June 
23  to  28,  1913.  Several  other  meeting  places 
were  discussed  and  given  careful  considera- 
tion, but  the  place  chosen  offered  a  number 
of  very  important  and  desirable  advantages 
which  none  of  the  others  gave. 

The  Hotel  Kaaterskill  stands  in  a  very 
beautiful  location  on  the  top  of  Kaaterskill 
Mountain,  at  an  elevation  of  3000  feet  above 
the  sea.  From  the  piazza,  the  visitor  has  an 
unobstructed  panorama,  with  a  sweep  of  over 
ninety  miles  across  the  Hudson  River  valley 
to  the  hills  of  New  England.  The  hotel  is 
advertised  as  the  largest  mountain  hotel  in 
the  world,  having  space  for  between  one 
thousand  and  twelve  hundred  people,  the  ex- 
act number  accommodated  depending,  of 
course,  on  how  many  desire  to  room  alone. 
The  A.  L.  A.  will  have  the  absolutely  exclu- 
sive use  of  the  entire  hotel  during  the  whole 
time  of  the  conference;  this  feature  in  itself 
is  very  important,  and  always  brings  about 
easier  and  more  frequent  personal  confer- 
ences and  a  general  unity  which  is  difficult 
to  obtain  when  delegates  are  housed  under  a 
number  of  separate  roofs.  Any  possible  over- 
flow will  be  accommodated  at  a  smaller  hotel, 
a  mile  from  the  Kaaterskill,  conveyance  back 
and  forth  being  provided.  It  is  not  likely, 
however,  that  there  will  be  more  applications 
than  the  headquarters  hotel  can  comfortably 
handle.  There  are  700  rooms  in  the  Kaater- 
skill and  annex,  100  of  which  have  private 
baths.  The  dining-room  has  seating  capacity 
for  1200  people.  In  the  way  of  amusements, 
the  management  calls  attention  to  excellent 
golf  links,  boating  and  fishing  in  a  small 
.  mountain  lake  nearby,  tennis,  bowling,  driving 
and  motoring,  mountain  climbing,  etc.  A  new 
ballroom  floor  was  laid  in  1912.  Meeting  halls 
are  adequate  to  accommodate  the  general  ses- 
sions, section  meetings  and  those  of  the  four 
affiliated  organizations. 

The  following  rates  are  offered  for  the  con- 
ference week: 
Two  persons  in  double  room  without  private 

bath,  $3  per  day  each. 
Two    persons   in    double    room    with    private 

bath,  $4.50  per  day  each. 
One   person   in   single   room   without   private 

bath,  $4  per  day. 
One  person  in  room  with  private  bath,  $6  per 


All  rates  will  be  on  American  plan. 

The  Hotel  Kaaterskill  is  reached  by  the 
Ulster  &  Delaware  Railroad  from  Kingston, 
N.  Y.,  trains  running  direct  to  the  hotel 
grounds.  Through  cars  are  run  direct  from 
New  York  (Jersey  City)  to  Kaaterskill  via 

the  West  Shore  Railroad.  The  hotel  can  also 
be  reached  by  the  Hudson  River  Day  Line 
boats  to  Kingston  and  thence  by  rail.  It  is 
hoped  that  parties  will  be  large  enough  to 
warrant  special  trains  from  New  York,  Bos- 
ton and  Chicago. 

The  large  library  centers  in  comparatively 
close  proximity  to  the  Catskills  makes  it 
likely  that  the  1913  conference  will  be  a 
record-breaker  in  attendance.  The  March 
A.  L.  A.  Bulletin  will  contain  further  particu- 
lars from  the  Travel  Committee,  but  it  is 
hoped  that  library  people  will  begin  at  once 
to  plan  to  go  to  the  Kaaterskill  conference. 


The  A.  L.  A.  Council  held  two  meetings 
in  Chicago,  Thursday  morning,  January  2, 
and  Friday  morning,  January  3. 


At  the  first  meeting,  the  first  topic  under 
consideration  was  a  further  discussion  of  the 
report  of  the  Committee  on  the  Relation  of 
the  Public  Library  to  the  Municipality  (for 
original  report,  see  Proceedings  of  the  Ottawa 
conference,  pp.  197-199). 

Dr.  Bostwick,  chairman  of  the  committee, 
read  the  following  supplementary  report, 
drafted  jointly  by  his  committee  and  the 
Committee  on  Library  Legislation  of  the 
League  of  Library  Commissions: 


Education  is  a  matter  of  state,  rather  than 
of  municipal  concern.  Consequently,  it  is  a 
function  of  the  state,  rather  than  of  the  city, 
to  provide  an  educational  code.  Hence,  when- 
ever the  constitution  permits,  a  general  state 
law  as  to  libraries  is  preferable  to  local  char- 
ter provisions. 

If  a  satisfactory  state  law  governing  all 
libraries  in  the  state  exists  and  is  constitu- 
tional, there  should  be  enacted  provisions 
which  shall  make  it  certain  that  the  state  law 
shall  control  in  every  city  in  the  state,  whether 
the  city  be  under  special  charter,  general 
charter,  or  under  a  commission  form  of  gov- 

Where  there  is  now  no  existing  satisfactory 
state  law,  but  it  is  constitutionally  competent 
that  a  state  law  should  control  libraries,  then 
this  committee  recommends  that  a  satisfactory 
code  (to  be  hereafter  drafted  along  lines  here- 
tofore reported)  be  enacted  by  the  state  legis- 

Where,  under  the  constitution,  the  city  must, 
by  home-rule  measure  in  charter  or  elsewhere, 
control  libraries,  then  the  substance  of  the 
heretofore-mentioned  state  code  can  be  varied 
to  become  a  part  of  the  local  charter. 

Dr.  Bostwick  stated  that  various  members 
of  the  committee  had  been  in  correspondence 
with  Dr.  Clinton  Rogers  Woodruff,  secretary 
of  the  National  Municipal  League,  and  that 
they  had  emphasized  the  fact  that  librarians 



[February,  1913 

were  not  opposed  to  the  merit  system,  as  Dr. 
Woodruff  seemed  to  think  was  the  case. 

Mr.  Hadley  stated  that  even  in  a  commis- 
sion-governed city  it  need  not  necessarily  fol- 
low that  the  library  need  dispense  with  the 
library  board.  While  it  was  true  that  city 
affairs,  including  those  of  the  library,  were 
directly  under  the  commissioners,  it  has  been 
found  possible  to  provide  in  charters  for  a 
library  board  appointed  by  and  responsible  to 
the  commissioner  of  education. 

Dr.  Andrews  suggested  that  the  attitude  of 
librarians  toward  civil  service  would  be  better 
understood  if  the  word  "its"  be  substituted 
for  "a"  at  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  line  on 
page  199,  column  2,  of  the  Ottawa  Proceed- 
ings, making  the  sentence  to  read,  "It  should 
provide  that  all  employment  should  be  given 
on  the  basis  of  merit  alone,  but  that  its  civil 
service  system,"  etc. 

The  president  read  a  letter  from  Miss  Helen 
E.  Haines,  in  which  she  discussed  the  library 
features  of  the  charter  recently  voted  on  and 
rejected  in  Los  Angeles.  She  considered  that 
this  charter,  as  regards  its  library  features, 
was  by  no  means  a  model,  but  seriously 
threatened  the  successful  maintenance  and 
administration  of  the  library.  Had  the  pro- 
posed charter  carried,  the  Los  Angeles  library 
would  have  been  entirely  deprived  of  any 
fixed  income  from  the  city  assessment  roll, 
and  would  have  been  made  dependent  for 
support  upon  what  appropriation  could  be 
secured  from  the  commission  by  annual  ap- 
peals. It  would  have  placed  the  library  in 
the  hands  of  a  single  commissioner,  charged 
with  other  important  responsibilities,  and  its 
work  and  interests  would  have  been  linked 
with  the  city  playgrounds  and  the  func- 
tions of  the  present  music  commission.  She 
considered  that  it  was  time  for  the  American 
Library  Association  to  devise  more  effective 
measures  than  now  exist  for  shaping  methods 
of  library  organization  in  communities  where 
the  structure  of  civic  government  is  being  re- 
built under  the  commission  plan,  and  that  the 
Los  Angeles  charter  incident  had  plainly 
shown  that  the  public  library  had  not  yet 
found  its  assured  place  in  modern  life. 

Dr.  Hill  said  that  he  wished  to  emphasize 
the  point  even  more  strongly  that  the  civil 
service  system  should  be  within  the  library 
itself.  He  also  felt  that  the  recommendation 
that  the  museum  and  the  library  be  adminis- 
tered by  the  same  board  was  not  wise,  unless 
the  two  institutions  were  in  the  same  building 
and  their  work  so  closely  connected  that  there 
was  no  difference  between  the  two  institu- 
tions. He  believed  that  it  was  better  for 
library  boards  to  be  appointed  by  some  indi- 
vidual or  commission,  rather  than  elected  by 
the  citizens  at  large.  Speaking  of  the  ques- 
tion whether  the  city  treasurer  should  be  ex- 
officio  treasurer  of  the  library  board,  he  said 
he  had  had  experience  both  ways,  and  that 
more  satisfactory  results  were  obtained  by 
the  library  having  its  own  treasurer. 

Mr.  Brett  felt  that  when  funds  for  the 
library  were  once  appropriated  they  should  be 
entirely  independent  and  not  subject  to  the 
control  of  the  Council,  and  that  when  once 
received  should  be  absolutely  at  the  disposal 
of  the  library  board.  He  thought  it  was  well 
for  the  auditor  of  the  city  to  be  the  auditor 
of  the  library  board,  and  that  the  city  treas- 
urer act  as  treasurer  of  the  board.  If  a 
library  board  has  its  accounts  audited  by  the 
city  auditor,  the  municipal  authorities  know 
absolutely  what  the  library  is  doing,  and  are 
thus  satisfied. 

Mrs.  Elmendorf  said  that  the  city  treasurer 
acting  as  treasurer  of  the  library  funds  does 
not  necessarily  protect  the  library,  as  she  was 
formerly  connected  with  a  city  library  where 
the  city  treasurer  was  treasurer  of  the  library, 
but  that  this  did  not  prevent  the  embezzle- 
ment of  several  thousand  dollars  of  the  library 

Dr.  Andrews  thought  the  committee  was 
rather  unwise  in  including  the  election  of  the 
library  board  by  the  citizens  as  a  question  to 
be  discussed.  Speaking  not  as  a  librarian,  but 
as  a  citizen  of  a  large  city,  he  felt  strongly 
the  need  of  having  a  shorter  ballot,  rather 
than  a  still  longer  one,  as  under  the  present 
conditions  it  was  absolutely  impossible  for 
the  average  citizen  to  know  personally  the 
various  candidates  for  office. 

Mr.  Ranck  said  that  since  the  Ottawa  meet- 
ing the  members  of  the  committee  had  not 
exactly  changed  their  views,  but  there  had 
come  to  them  a  growing  conviction  of  the 
importance  of  this  subject,  due  in  part  to 
correspondence  and  conferences  with  mem- 
bers of  the  library  profession  and  persons 
who  were  outside  but  interested  in  the  library 
movement.  He  felt  that  the  American  Li- 
brary Association  could  not  emphasize  too 
strongly  that  the  library  should  be  regarded 
as  an  educational  institution,  and  that  educa- 
tion is  a  matter  of  state  concern,  rather  than 
of  municipal  or  local  concern.  He  stated  that 
in  many  of  the  states  where  they  have  the 
commission  form  of  government,  the  public 
school  system  is  not  included  under  the  work- 
ings of  the  commission,  on  the  ground  that 
"the  educational  functions  were  different  from 
local  government  functions,  and  that  the  com- 
mission form  of  government  belongs  only  to 
the  local  government  functions. 

Mr.  Strohm  said  that  the  Supreme  Court 
of  Michigan  had  recently  rendered  a  decision 
deciding  that,  while  municipalities  were  rec- 
ognized under  the  local  government  article, 
the  public  schools,  libraries,  etc.,  were  under 
the  education  article.  The  Supreme  Court  of 
Michigan,  having  under  consideration  the 
right  of  the  city  of  Detroit  to  issue  bonds  for 
library  purposes  to  an  amount  over  and 
above  the  limit  applying  to  bond  issue  for 
general  municipal  purposes,  held  that  no  such 
restriction  applies  in  case  of  the  library  bond 
issues,  as  they  properly  fall  in  the  same  class 
as  school  bonds.  Thus,  in  the  opinion  of  the 

February,  1913] 



court,  the  library  is  an  integral  part  of  the 
public  educational  system. 

The  president  inquired  of  Miss  Ahern 
whether  she  knew  of  any  city  where  a  cam- 
paign for  change  of  charter  and  method  of 
government  was  now  in  progress,  particularly 
one  where  library  interests  were  in  danger. 

Miss  Ahern  replied  that  she  could  mention 
no  definite  place  where  any  definite  question 
of  the  place  of  the  library  in  the  municipality 
was  under  consideration,  but  there  was  every- 
where a  lack  of  decision  as  to  where  the  pub- 
lic library  really  belongs  under  the  commis- 
sion form  of  government.  Neither  the  civil 
service  people  nor  the  municipal  authorities 
are  willing  that  the  public  library  should,  as 
a  rule,  be  classed  with  the  educational  agen- 
cies, and  yet  there  is  no  question  that  the 
libraries  really  belong  with  other  educational 
agencies,  and  that  the  municipal  civil  service 
rules  should  apply  to  them  no  more  than  to 
the  school  management. 

Dr.  Bostwick  stated  that  the  committee  was 
not  so  anxious  that  any  action  should  be 
taken  on  the  supplementary  report  as  that  it 
should  have  some  kind  of  assurance  of  the 
Council  that  it  should  proceed  on  the  lines 
indicated  in  that  report,  or  on  some  kind  of 
definite  orders  regarding  the  directions  of  this 

On  motion  of  Dr.  Hill,  it  was 

Voted,  That  the  committee  be  continued, 
and  that  the  whole  question  be  referred  back 
to  them,  with  the  request  that  they  report  to 
the  next  Council  meeting. 

Mr.  Ranck  stated  the  committee  would  be 
glad  to  have  some  expression  of  opinion  at 
least  on  the  first  paragraph  of  the  supplemen- 
tary report  pertaining  to  the  state  code. 

Dr.  Bostwick  stated  that  the  committee 
would  like  to  have  the  substance  of  the 
Ottawa  report  definitely  approved  or  disap- 
proved by  the  Council. 

On  motion  of  Dr.  Andrews,  it  was 

Voted,  That  the  first  paragraph  of  the  sup- 
plementary report  be  incorporated  in  the  final 
report  to  be  presented  at  next  summer's  con- 

The  next  subject  considered  by  the  Council 
was  a  further  discussion  of  Mr.  Strohm's 
paper  at  the  Ottawa  conference  on  "The  effi- 
ciency of  the  library  staff  and  scientific  man- 

Dr.  Richardson  spoke  on  the  value  of  change 
of  occupation.  He  called  attention  to  the 
modern  biological  study  of  mental  hygiene 
and  its  practical  bearings  on  the  question  of 
length  and  distribution  of  vacation,  granting 
of  leave  for .  attending  library  association 
meetings,  as  well  as  on  change  of  occupation 
within  the  library.  He  referred  to  the  scien- 
tific study  of  fatigue  and  its  practical  bearing 
on  the  percentage  of  errors.  He  considered 
that  for  correction  and  verification  work,  two 
hours  a  day  is  the  maximum  of  highest  effi- 

Miss  Ahern  called  attention  to  the  last  re- 

port of  Dr.  W.  D.  Johnston,  the  librarian  of 
Columbia  University,  where  he  speaks  on  the 
subject  of  the  organization  of  the  staff,  and 
makes  a  strong  argument  that  the  standards 
of  appointment  to  the  several  grades  in  the 
staff  of  the  library  should  be  the  same  as 
those  in  the  corresponding  grades  of  the  staff 
of  instruction.  He  also  argues  for  employ- 
ing skilled  bibliographers  as  librarians  of  the 
several  schools  of  the  university  instead  of 
student  assistants,  and  announces  that,  while 
the  students  may  be  employed  hereafter  in 
clerical  work  of  a  mechanical  character,  they 
will  no  longer  be  employed  in  any  of  the 
higher  grades  of  the  library  service.  He  also 
recommends  that  junior  assistants  be  allowed 
each  year  to  pursue  at  least  one  course  of 
study  in  the  university. 

Mr.  Anderson  said  that  the  New  York  Pub- 
lic Library  had  installed  gymnastic  apparatus 
for  the  library  staff.  The  hours  in  the  circu- 
lating department  had  been  reduced  from  42 
hours  a  week  to  40. 

Miss  Rathbone  said  that  at  Pratt  Institute 
Library  they  had  recently  established  the 
practice  of  serving  afternoon  tea  in  the  staff- 
room.  Someone  was  regularly  employed  to 
prepare  and  serve  it,  and  the  members  of  the 
staff  were  invited  to  come  down  from  4  to  5 
and  take  a  cup  of  tea  if  they  felt  like  it. 
Five  to  ten  minutes  was  sufficient  for  this, 
and  the  practice  had  been  so  beneficial  that 
the  library  expects  to  establish  it  permanently. 

Dr.  Bostwick  stated  that  in  the  new  build- 
ing in  St.  Louis  they  had  a  very  complete  set 
of  rooms  for  the  comfort  of  the  staff — locker 
rooms  for  both  sexes,  a  lunchroom  with 
kitchen  and  pantry,  a  staff  recreation  room 
with  piano  and  Victrola,  a  staff  restroom  in 
a  quiet  place,  a  handball  court  for  the  boys, 
and  an  indoor  room  for  them  with  gymnastic 
apparatus.  He  knew  of  no  other  place  where 
the  equipment  of  this  kind  is  so  complete. 

Speaking  of  vacations,  Dr.  Bostwick  said 
he  had  always  considered  them  as  assign- 
ments to  special  work.  What  an  assistant 
does  during  the  rest  period  in  August  is  just 
as  important  to  the  library  as  what  she  does 
in  cataloging  during  July.  He  was  not  in 
favor,  therefore,  of  granting  cumulative  vaca- 

Mr.  Ranck  called  attention  to  Josephine 
Goldmark's  "Study  of  fatigue  and  efficiency," 
one  of  the  publications  of  the  Russell  Sage 
Foundation,  which  is  a  scientific  study  of  the 
whole  subject. 

Dr.  Hill  said,  respecting  the  graded  service 
and  the  opinion  sometimes  expressed  that 
promotion  goes  with  length  of  service,  that 
he  thought  it  should  be  added  that  one  who 
is  both  efficient  and  has  served  a  long  time 
should  receive  more  recognition  than  one  who 
has  merely  served  a  long  time  with  ordinary 

Dr.  Richardson  said  that  in  many  occupa- 
tions efficiency  is  on  the  rising  curve  for  a 
certain  length  of  time.  There  is  an  actual  in- 



[February,  1913 

crease  in  efficiency  in  some  constructive  work 
for  an  hour  or  two  before  the  mind  reaches 
its  best  efficiency,  and  this  may  continue  at 
its  level  for  another  hour  or  two  before  it 
begins  to  fall.  The  number  of  errors  in- 
creases with  the  amount  of  fatigue,  and  in 
repetitious  occupations  fatigue  begins  sooner, 
even  if  its  distinctive  growth  is  not  rapid  or 
wholly  continuous. 

Mr.  Carlton,  speaking  of  recent  experiences 
at  the  Newberry  Library,  stated  there  had 
been  at  least  two  instances  of  improved  work 
due  in  large  measure  to  variation  of  occupa- 
tion within  the  library.  Four  persons,  who, 
until  a  year  ago,  had  been  engaged  in  recata- 
loging  continuously  from  9  a.m.  to  5  p.m., 
except  for  an  hour  for  lunch  were  given  sub- 
stitute service  in  the  reference  department  for 
the  hour  following  the  luncheon  period.  The 
result  had  been  a  marked  increase  in  the 
amount  of  cataloging  done.  Until  about  three 
years  ago,  evening  service  at  the  Newberry 
Library  was  performed  as  overtime  work  by 
members  of  the  day  staff.  He  said  he  was 
opposed  on  principle  to  people  working  both 
during  the  day  and  evening;  that  it  was  not 
good,  in  the  end,  either  for  them  or  for  the 
institution.  Gradually  they  had  reorganized 
a  separate  evening  force,  composed  of  uni- 
versity students.  They  are  trained  in  their 
duties  by  a  member  of  the  regular  staff. 
This  change,  he  believed,  had  been  a  benefit 
both  to  the  public  and  to  the  day  staff. 

Dr.  Bostwick  stated  that  in  his  experience 
a  separate  force  for  evening  or  holiday  work 
had  always  proved  objectionable,  and  that  he 
had  always  endeavored  to  work  away  from 
it  rather  than  toward  it.  Dr.  Hill  said  he  was 
of  the  same  opinion. 

Dr.  Andrews  stated  that  they  used  student 
assistants  at  the  John  Crerar  Library,  and  a 
number  of  students  had  served  seven  years, 
all  through  their  college  course  and  through 
three  years  of  post-graduate  work  as  well. 

Dr.  Andrews,  chairman  of  the  committee 
on  affiliation  with  the  A.  L.  A.  of  other  than 
local,  state  and  provincial  associations,  re- 
ported that  the  committee  had  taken  up  con- 
sideration of  the  questions  assigned  them, 
had  agreed  upon  a  plan  of  procedure  and 
expected  to  be  able  to  make  a  final  report  at 
the  annual  meeting. 


At  the  second  meeting,  the  first  topic 
considered  was  a  further  discussion  of  Mr. 
Hadley's  paper  at  the  Ottawa  conference  on 
"What  library  schools  can  do  for  the  pro- 

At  the  request  of  the  president,  Mr.  Had- 
ley  suggested  two  points  for  discussion  in  his 
paper,  as  follows:  First,  elimination  of  many 
non-essentials  in  library  school  curricula,  to 
provide  for  the  introduction  into  library 
school  courses  of  more  definite  and  extensive 
consideration  of  courses  relating  to  library 
administration ;  second,  the  division  of  the  in- 

structional field  between  library  schools  to 
provide  for  special  instruction  by  special 
schools,  instead  of  general  instruction  by  all 
the  schools.  He  said  that,  while  there  was 
doubtless  use  for  all  the  instruction  given  at 
present  in  library  schools,  there  was  also  a 
broad  need  for  instruction  in  certain  library 
courses  which  were  not  being  considered  at 
all  in  library  schools.  Mr.  Hadley  believed 
that  it  was  not  necessary  for  every  student 
to  receive  the  same  full  instruction  in  library 
technique,  but  that  a  working  knowledge  of 
technique  should  be  given  to  all,  with  special 
instruction  for  those  who  were  under  appoint- 
ment to  definite  library  positions.  He  stated 
that  it  was  more  important  for  a  prospective 
librarian  of  a  municipal  reference  library  or 
of  a  law  library  to  be  thoroughly  grounded 
in  the  knowledge  of  municipal  and  legal 
affairs  than  to  be  ignorant  ia  these  subjects 
and  have  an  expert's  knowledge  of  library 
technique.  He  maintained  that  the  library 
questions  involved  in  municipal  reference 
work,  or  law  library  work,  and  special  library 
work,  were  of  sufficient  importance  to  be  rec- 
ognized by  library  schools. 

Mr.  Walter  stated  that  the  schools  have 
thus  far  not  found  sufficient  demand  for  spe- 
cial courses  to  feel  justified  in  the  extra  ex- 
pense necessary  to  provide  such  extra  courses. 
At  present,  it  seems  to  be  the  opinion  among 
those  who  deal  with  placing  students  that  the 
demand  is  rather  for  students  with  general 
library  training,  who  already  have  preliminary 
education  in  special  lines,  and  who  are  wanted 
in  a  hurry.  This  precludes,  in  most  cases, 
any  sufficient  period  of  training  even  in  the 
technique  of  special  lines  of  library  work. 
Until  libraries  are  willing  to  wait  long  enough 
for  special  technical  library  training  to  be 
obtained,  or  until  the  demand  for  definite 
special  lines  of  library  training  seems  fairly 
steady,  most  library  schools  do  not  feel  that 
they  may  properly  induce  students  to  train 
for  special  positions  unless  such  positions  are 
likely  to  be  forthcoming. 

Miss  Plummer  said  it  seemed  wise  to  give 
everybody  a  general  foundation,  as  the  schools 
could  not  control  the  students  and  prevent 
them  from  taking  positions  for  which  they 
had  not  been  trained.  The  schools  had  found, 
by  sending  questionnaires  to  graduates,  that 
they  would  not  have  been  willing  to  have  had 
anything  omitted,  and  that  they  would  have 
been  sorry  to  have  lost  any  part  of  their 

Miss  Rathbone  said  the  only  specialization 
that  library  schools  can  do  in  one  year,  at 
least,  is  utilizing  the  specialties  that  students 
acquire  before  they  come  to  the  school.  She 
felt  that  the  schools  could  best  serve  the  pro- 
fession by  placing  students  wisely,  ^  so  that 
their  previous  experience  could  be.  utilized. 

Mr.  Dudgeon  and  Miss  Curtis  both  empha- 
sized the  point  that  what  the  schools  could 
give  the  students  depends  largely  on  what  the 
students  brought. 

February,  1913] 



Mr.  Brett  felt  that  the  training  of  one  year 
was  a  very  desirable  foundation  for  library 
work  in  any  line,  that  in  most  cases  students 
enter  school  without  any  knowledge  of  what 
sort  of  positions  they  will  get,  and  that  the 
general  one-year  course  is  a  valuable  founda- 
tion and  exceedingly  desirable.  Special  train- 
ing was  out  of  reach  of  many  of  the  schools, 
by  reason  of  the  expense  involved. 

Dr.  Bostwick  called  attention  to  the  enor- 
mous expansion  of  the  conditions  of  library 
work,  especially  in  large  libraries  in  the  past 
fifteen  years.  The  question  to  be  answered 
by  the  library  school  is,  Has  the  general  train- 
ing of  the  schools  broadened  out  correspond- 
ingly? Does  it  give  us  good  foundation  for 
the  expanded  library  work  of  to-day,  as  it 
did  to  the  somewhat  contracted  library  work 
of  several  years  ago?  He  said  he  was  not 
suggesting  that  these  questions  would  not  be 
answered  satisfactorily. 

Dr.  Putnam  remarked  that  he  approached 
the  discussion  with  some  hesitation,  because 
he  could  speak  merely  as  an  administrator, 
while  Mr.  Hadley's  suggestions  were  based 
not  merely  upon  his  observations  as  an  ad- 
ministrator, but  upon  his  experience  as  a 
student  in  a  library  school.  The  suggestions 
seem  to  have  two  directions:  first,  that  the 
present  curriculum  of  the  schools  includes 
subjects  which  might  well  be  omitted,  because 
useless  in  any  possible  given  position;  and, 
second,  that  it  omits  studies  which  ought  to 
be  included,  because  necessary  for  certain 
specialized  work.  He  did  not  think  that  the 
discussion  was  convincing,  as  regards  the  first 
point,  that  perhaps  there  is  a  distinction  be- 
tween the  one  and  the  two-year  courses.  As 
to  the  lack  of  further  specialization,  he  thought 
that  our  entire  system  of  education,  from 
kindergarten  through  the  university,  is  just 
now  suffering  from  a  curse  of  specialization. 
There  was  a  danger  lest  so  many  specialized 
courses  would  be  introduced  as  to  crowd  out 
those  which  are  general  and  fundamental.  He 
did  not  see  how  many  of  the  studies  could 
be  omitted  in  favor  of  others  tending  to  spe- 
cialization. As  to  the  ability  of  the  schools 
to  provide  specialization  in  addition,  he  felt 
this  could  not,  in  the  nature  of  things,  be 
efficiently  provided  in  any  ordinary  library 
school.  The  preparation  of  such  work  must 
be  either  in  some  institution  previous  to  the 
library  school  or  secured  after  the  school  by 
direct  contacts.  In  seeking  specialties,  it  was 
his  practice,  and  he  thought  that  of  other 
librarians,  to  inquire  of  the  schools  whether, 
among  their  students,  there  were  any  who  had 
had  a  preliminary  education  in  law,  medicine 
or  applied  science,  as  the  case  might  be. 

Miss  Plummer  stated  that,  in  the  light  of 
present  experience,  something  will  have  to 
be  done  in  the  way  of  grading  students  in 
the  schools.  With  large  classes  of  students 
at  the  age  of  twenty  and  upward,  there  will 
be  some  students  for  whom  it  seems  unneces- 
sary to  give  as  much  of  certain  detail  as  to 

the  younger  students,  owing  to  their  previous 

Dr.  Hill  presented  the  report  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Deterioration  of  Newspaper  Paper. 
(Report  in  full  will  be  printed  in  the  A.  L.  A. 
Bulletin.')  He  said  that  on  November  26  a 
conference  was  held  in  Brooklyn  attended  by 
one  member  of  the  committee  and  by  repre- 
sentatives of  several  New  York  papers.  A 
report  on  the  preservation  of  paper  was  sub- 
mitted by  John  Norris,  chairman  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Paper  of  the  American  Newspaper 
Publishers'  Association.  Mr.  Norris  stated 
that  the  American  Chemical  Society  had  spec- 
ified a  grade  of  paper,  consisting  of  75  per 
cent,  rag  and  25  per  cent,  bleached  chemical 
pulp,  for  the  records  of  the  society,  and  had 
secured  the  desired  quality  for  approximately 
6l/2  cents  per  pound.  In  1904,  the  Bureau  of 
Chemistry  investigated  the  subject  of  suitable 
papers  for  government  purposes,  investigating 
about  5000  samples  of  paper.  Its  report  had 
been  adopted,  and  now  controls  all  govern- 
ment supplies  of  paper  and  printing  and  bind- 
ing materials.  The  Brooklyn  Eagle  has  un- 
dertaken the  publication  of  an  edition  of  its 
paper,  beginning  with  the  first  of  the  year, 
on  this  high-grade  paper,  which  edition  can 
be  subscribed  for  by  libraries.  Mr.  Norris 
agreed  to  ascertain  from  publishers  how  many 
would  feel  justified  in  printing  an  extra  edi- 
tion, and  the  A.  L.  A.  committee  was  to  find 
out  how  many  libraries  would  subscribe  to 
such  an  edition  and  what  particular  papers 
would  be  taken.  A  large  majority  of  publish- 
ers were  inclined  to  think  the  cost  prohibitive, 
but  ten  publishers,  besides  the  Brooklyn 
Eagle,  found  the  project  sufficiently  attractive 
to  justify  the  labor  and  cost  which  a  suitable 
edition  would  entail.  Editorials  have  ap- 
peared in  many  newspapers,  most  of  them 
favorable  to  the  scheme  proposed  by  the  com- 
mittee. A  few,  however,  have  taken  the  op- 
posite side  and  ridiculed  the  idea,  referring 
facetiously  to  "preserved,"  or  "pickled,"  news- 
papers, belittling  the  importance  of  newspaper 
files  to  the  future  historian.  Mr.  Norris 
stated  in  his  report  that  the  methods  of 
handling  newspapers  when  bound  were  con- 
ducive to  deterioration.  In  many  cases  the 
files  are  subjected  to  treatment  which  deprives 
the  paper  of  its  required  moisture.  The  libra- 
ries dry  out  the  newspapers  by  keeping  them 
in  rooms  with  an  average  temperature  of  70 
degrees,  which  is  bound  to  cause  deteriora- 

Improvement  in  the  preservation  of  these 
historical  records  may  be  made,  (i)  by  using 
a  printing  paper  that  will  endure  indefinitely, 
(2)  by  binding  with  materials  that  do  not 
attract  minute  organisms,  (3)  by  storing  un- 
der conditions  that  do  not  deprive  the  paper 
of  all  its  moisture,  or  subject  it  to  excessive 
dampness,  or  subject  it  to  chemical  action 
produced  by  sunshine  or  gas  or  artificial  heat, 
or  propagate  insects  or  other  growth.  The 
committee  makes  the  following  suggestions 
and  recommendations: 



[February,  1913 

a.  That  bound  volumes  of  newspapers  print- 
ed since  1880  should  be  painted  on  the  edges 
with  "cellit,"  an  American  product,  prepared 
by  the  Chemical   Products  Company,  Boston, 
or  a  similar  preparation. 

b.  That  they  be   stored   in  a   sealed   room, 
where  possible,  of  an  even  temperature  of  50 
degrees,  free  from  dampness. 

c.  That  the  volumes  be  kept  flat,  with  air 
space  about  them,  and  not  be  exposed  to  sun- 

d.  That  current  numbers  be  kept  flat,  and 
bound   with   a   good,   serviceable   material   as 
soon  as  the  volume  is  completed. 

e.  That  librarians  endeavor  to  induce  local 
publishers  to  print  a  special  library  edition  on 
a  75-per-cent.  rag  paper. 

f.  That   librarians   subscribe   only  to   those 
newspapers  which  are  printed  on  paper  better 
than  the  regular  edition. 

g.  That  librarians  consider  the  desirability 
of  securing  legislation  by  which  the  subscrip- 
tions  of   state  libraries  would  be   limited  to 
papers  which  are  printed  on  a  75-per-cent.  rag 

Dr.  Thwaites  recommended  that  the  com- 
mittee be  continued,  and  requested  to  report 
progress  from  time  to  time. 

The  following  resolution  in  regard  to  the 
exclusion  of  books  from  the  parcel  post  was 
unanimously  adopted : 


Whereas,  The  parcel  post,  just  initiated, 
while  providing  for  the  various  commodities 
entering  into  ordinary  commerce,  except 
books,  even  where  transmitted  for  a  purpose 
purely  scientific  or  educational ;  and, 

Whereas,  The  considerations  which  induced 
the  establishment  of  parcel  post  for  other 
articles  would  apply  equally  to  books,  while 
such  objections  as  were  raised  against  it  as 
affecting  trade  could  not  apply  to  books  cir- 
culated by  public  libraries  to  readers,  or  be- 
tween libraries  for  the  benefit  of  readers,  such 
circulation  being  a  public  service  in  the  in- 
terest of  science  and  education;  and, 

Whereas,  The  extension  of  this  service  is 
now  blocked  by  the  high  rates  charged  upon 
books  as  third-class  mail  matter;  and, 

Whereas,  A  modification  of  those  rates  has 
for  years  been  sought  by  the  library  interests 
of  the  United  States  and  Canada,  and  the 
failure  to  provide  it  in  the  parcel  post  has 
been  a  cause  of  perplexity  and  chagrin;  be  it 

Resolved,  That  the  Executive  Board  and 
Council  of  the  American  Library  Association, 
representing  the  library  interests  of  the 
United  States  and  Canada,  respectfully  urge 
upon  Congress  the  enactment  of  such  legisla- 
tion as  will  remedy  the  omission  and  place 
books  upon  the  same  basis  as  other  articles 
entitled  to  the  parcel  post. 

A  resolution  of  thanks  was  voted  to  the 
Chicago  Library  Club  and  to  Miss  Jane 
Addams  and  the  other  residents  of  Hull 

House  for  the  pleasant  evening  spent  on  Jan- 
uary 2.  when  Galsworthy's  "The  pigeon"  was 
presented  by  the  Hull  House  players,  and  op- 
portunity was  given  for  visitors  to  be  shown 
over  Hull  House. 

Upon  the  motion  of  Dr.  Bostwick,  it  was 
Voted,   That   the   Executive    Board   be    re- 
quested to  consider  the  advisability  of  send- 
ing a   delegate  to   the   next    meeting   of  the 
National  Municipal  League. 

For  the  Committee  on  Ventilation  and 
Lighting,  the  chairman,  Mr.  Ranck,  submitted 
a  somewhat  detailed  report,  indicating  the 
whole  ground  that  had  been  covered  by  the 
committee.  In  this  connection,  he  read  a  list 
of  questions  which  should  be  answered,  or 
subjects  which  should  be  considered  in  con- 
nection with  ventilation  and  lighting.  So  far 
as  the  committee  could  obtain  satisfactory 
answers  from  the  study  of  literature  and  their 
own  investigations,  reports  were  made  on  this, 
but  it  was  stated  that  before  any  final  report 
could  be  made  it  would  be  necessary  for  the 
committee  to  have  the  benefit  of  the  results 
of  definite  scientific  experiments  on  certain 
questions.  (These  questions  will  be  printed 
in  the  A.  L.  A.  Bulletin.} 

GEORGE  B.  UTLEY,  Secretary. 


A  MEETING  of  the  Executive  Board  of  the 
A.  L.  A.  was  held  at  the  Hotel  Sherman, 
Chicago,  Wednesday  evening,  January  i. 
Present:  Henry  E.  Legler,  presiding;  E.  H. 
Anderson,  Mary  F.  Isom,  Herbert  Putnam, 
Purd  B.  Wright,  C.  W.  Andrews,  Linda  A. 
Eastman  and  T.  W.  Koch. 

The  treasurer's  report  for  the  year  1912 
showed  a  total  income  of  $16,741.36.  This 
includes  a  balance  from  1911  of  $2005.66,  and 
$5099-33  interest  from  the  Carnegie  fund, 
which  was  turned  over  to  the  use  of  the 
Publishing  Board.  Collections  from  member- 
ship fees  amounted  to  $6236.18,  as  against 
$5325.46  in  1911.  The  expenditures  were 
$8246.74  in  actual  expenses  and  $5099.33  turned 
over  to  the  Publishing  Board.  Including  $250 
permanent  deposit,  there  is  a  total  balance  of 

The  report  of  the  finance  committee  esti- 
mated the  income  for  the  year  1913  for  both 
A.  L.  A.  proper  and  Publishing  Board  at 
$21,915.  The  accounts  of  the  secretary  and 
treasurer  had  been  audited  and  found  cor- 
rect. Mr.  E.  H.  Anderson  had  been  desig- 
nated to  audit  the  accounts  of  the  trustees 
of  the  endowment  fund. 

The  budget  for  1913,  as  adopted,  estimates 
the  income  of  the  A.  L.  A.  proper  at  $9415, 
and  provides  for  appropriations  for  that  sum. 
The  Publishing  Board  increased  its  appropri- 
ation to  the  A.  L.  A.  for  headquarters  ex- 
penses from  $2000  to  $2500.  The  salary  of 
the  secretary  was  increased  to  $3000  for  the 
year  1913. 

February,  1913] 



It  was  voted  that  the  $200  appropriated  for 
the  use  of  the  committee  on  library  training 
in  1912,  but  not  expended  by  them,  be  avail- 
able for  their  use  during  1913,  instead  of  re- 
verting to  the  general  fund. 

The  secretary  informed  the  board  that  a 
small  bequest  had  been  made  to  the  associa- 
tion by  the  late  James  Lyman  Whitney,  with 
the  conditions  that  it  should  be  known  as  the 
James  Lyman  Whitney  Fund,  and  that  only 
the  interest  should  be  expended.  Two  remit- 
tances, aggregating  $80.11,  have  been  received. 
Pending  further  definite  information  as  to 
the  exact  conditions  of  the  fund  and  the 
amount  the  bequest  would  ultimately  yield, 
it  was  voted  that  the  Treasurer  be  instructed 
to  carry  on  his  books  as  a  separate  fund  the 
remittances  received  from  time  to  time. 

The  first  and  second  vice-presidents  were 
appointed  a  committee  to  draft  a  resolution 
relative  to  the  exclusion  of  books  from  the 
parcel  post,  with  the  recommendation  that 
this  resolution  be  also  presented  to  the  Coun- 
cil. [Note. — For  text  of  this  resolution,  see 
Council  minutes.] 

Voted,  That  the  secretary  be  instructed  to 
extend  to  the  Library  Association  of  Great 
Britain  a  cordial  invitation  for  their  members 
to  attend  the  1913  conference  of  the  A.  L.  A., 
and  also  to  express  the  hope  that  they  may 
find  it  possible  to  send  an  official  delegate  to 
this  meeting. 

The  question  of  a  meeting  place  for  the 
1913  conference  was  next  considered.  After 
several  places  had  been  duly  discussed,  the 
board  took  an  informal  vote,  which  resulted 
unanimously  in  favor  of  Hotel  Kaaterskill, 
in  the  Catskill  Mountains.  Voted  that  formal 
vote  be  postponed  until  a  meeting  of  the 
board,  Friday,  January  3. 

A  meeting  of  the  Executive  Board  was  held 
at  A.  L.  A.  headquarters,  Friday,  January  3. 
Present :  Henry  E.  Legler,  presiding,  E.  H. 
Anderson,  Mary  F.  Isom,  Purd  B.  Wright, 
C.  W.  Andrews  and  Linda  A.  Eastman. 

The  board  ratified  its  informal  vote,  voting 
to  hold  the  next  annual  conference  of  the 
A.  L.  A.  at  Hotel  Kaaterskill,  in  the  Catskills, 
June  23  to  28,  1913. 

The  committee  on  nominations  was  ap- 
pointed as  follows :  Judson  T.  Jennings,  chair- 
man ;  W.  N.  C.  Carlton,  Caroline  Burnite, 
Frank  K.  Walter. 

The  board,  by  unanimous  vote  of  members 
present,  concurred  with  the  A.  L.  A.  Council 
in  the  adoption  of  a  resolution  relative  to 
exclusion  of  books  from  the  parcel  post. 


A  MEETING  of  the  A.  L.  A.  Publishing  Board 
was  held  at  A.  L.  A.  headquarters,  Wednes- 
day afternoon,  January  i.  Present:  Henry 
E.  Legler,  chairman;  Mrs.  H.  L.  Elmendorf, 
C.  W.  Andrews,  A.  E.  Bostwick;  also  Elva 
L.  Bascom,  editor  of  the  A.  L.  A.  Booklist, 
and  Secretary  Utley. 

The  treasurer's   report  showed   a   total  in- 

come of  $21,517.31,  and  total  expenditure  of 
$I9>347-96,  leaving  a  balance  of  $2169.35,  plus 
$250  permanent  deposit,  making  a  total  bal- 
ance of  $2419.35.  Collections  from  sales  of 
publications  amounted  to  $15,849.29,  as  against 
$8502.88  for  the  year  1911. 

The  budget,  which  was  adopted,  showed  an 
estimated  income  for  1913  of  $18,683.33. 

The  A.  L.  A.  Booklist  being  under  discus- 
sion, it  was  moved  by  Dr.  Andrews  that  the 
secretary  ask  the  League  of  Library  Commis- 
sions to  inform  the  Publishing  Board,  for 
their  guidance  in  the  preparation  of  the  Book- 
list, as  to  the  number  of  titles  a  year  which 
should  be  indicated  as  recommended  for  pur- 
chase by  the  small  libraries.  Voted. 

A  manuscript  on  "Periodicals  for  the  small 
library,"  by  Frank  K.  Walter,  substantially  a 
revision  of  Mrs.  MacDonald-Jones'  "Maga- 
zines for  the  small  library,"  now  out  of  print, 
had  been  received  from  the  authorities  of  the 
New  York  State  Library,  with  the  suggestion 
that  it  be  reprinted  by  the  Publishing  Board. 
The  manuscript  was  referred  to  Dr.  Andrews 
as  a  committee  of  one. 

The  secretary  reported  that  Miss  Moody 
had  very  nearly  completed  her  "Index  to 
library  reports,"  and  that  it  would  soon  be 
ready  for  printing.  The  manuscript  was  re- 
ferred to  Dr.  Bostwick,  as  a  committee  of 
one,  for  final  approval,  upon  which  the  secre- 
tary was  authorized  to  have  it  printed. 

At  the  recommendation  of  the  secretary,  it 
was  voted  that  100  sets  of  cards  for  Warner's 
"Library  of  the  world's  best  literature"  be 

A  report  was  made  by  Dr.  Andrews,  as 
committee  of  one  on  periodical  cards,  in  which 
a  plan  was  outlined  for  reorganizing  the  pres- 
ent method  of  accepting  subscriptions  and  the 
list  of  periodicals  for  which  cards  are  printed. 
The  report  was  adopted. 

A  letter  was  read  from  Dr.  E.  C.  Richard- 
son advocating  the  preparation  and  printing 
of  a  union  list  of  periodicals  in  the  principal 
libraries  of  the  United  States  and  Canada, 
and  inquiring  whether  the  American  Library 
Association  could  help  in  such  a  project.  The 
matter  was  referred  to  Dr.  Andrews  and  Dr. 
Bostwick  as  a  committee  to  investigate  and 

The  question  of  evaluating  subscription 
books  for  the  information  of  librarians  was 
discussed  at  some  length,  and  Miss  Bascom 
was  requested  to  ascertain,  if  possible,  the 
approximate  number  of  titles  of  subscription 
books  issued  annually,  and  whether  it  would 
be  feasible  to  secure  critical  opinions  regard- 
ing their  respective  merits. 

Voted,  That  a  discount  of  10  per  cent,  on 
all  orders  for  A.  L.  A.  publications,  amounting 
to  $i  or  over,  be  granted  to  all  institutional 
members  of  the  A.  L.  A. 

Henry  E.  Legler  was  re-elected  chairman 
for  the  coming  year. 

GEORGE  B.  UTLEY,  Secretary. 



[February,  1913 




The  mid-winter  meeting  of  the  Middle 
Western  Section  of  the  League  of  Library 
Commissions  was  held  at  Hotel  Sherman, 
Chicago,  January  1-3. 

There  were  present  representatives  of  li- 
brary commissions  from  Indiana,  Iowa,  Illi- 
nois, Kentucky,  Minnesota,  Missouri,  North 
Dakota,  New  Jersey,  New  York,  Oregon  and 
Wisconsin,  with  an  average  attendance  at  each 
session  of  about  40. 

In  the  absence  of  Mr.  Milam,  president  of 
the  League,  and  Miss  Zaidee  Brown,  its  secre- 
tary, Miss  Elizabeth  B.  Wales,  Missouri,  first 
vice-president,  presided,  and  Miss  Clara  F. 
Baldwin,  Minnesota,  was  appointed  secretary 
pro  tern. 

The  future  of  the  traveling  library  was  the 
subject  for  discussion  on  Wednesday  after- 
noon. Duplication  of  work  by  other  agencies, 
such  as  the  university,  agricultural  college, 
state  library  and  reading  circle,  was  first  con- 

Miss  Helen  J.  Stearns,  of  Minnesota,  told 
of  a  traveling  library  exhibit  on  the  Agricul- 
tural School  Special  sent  out  on  the  Soo  Line 
through  northern  Minnesota.  Miss  Stearns 
accompanied  the  exhibit,  and  gave  talks  about 
the  books  and  how  they  might  be  obtained, 
and,  as  a  result,  thirty-five  applications  were 
received.  Mrs.  Budlong  told  of  the  Better 
Farming  Special  in  North  Dakota,  on  which 
traveling  libraries  were  exhibited,  and  Miss 
Tyler  reported  that  traveling  libraries  had 
been  sent  out  on  a  similar  train  in  Iowa.  As 
to  ways  of  tracing  direct  results  from  such 
advertising,  Miss  Stearns,  of  Wisconsin,  de- 
scribed a  special  form  of  application  blank 
used  only  at  county  fairs  and  state  fairs. 
Miss  Davis,  of  Indiana,  told  of  cooperating 
with  Purdue  University  in  furnishing  books 
on  domestic  science  for  study  courses  outlined 
by  the  university,  and  also  lending  books  to 
correspondence  schools.  It  was  agreed  that 
lines  of  work  of  various  state  departments 
should  be  more  clearly  defined,  and  Miss 
Tyler  emphasized  the  importance  of  frequent 
conferences  between  departments  to  this  end, 
saying  there  was  often  confusion  in  the  minds 
of  people  as  to  the  proper  source  to  apply 
for  material. 

Mr.  Watson,  formerly  of  California,  spoke 
of  interlibrary  loans,  explaining  how  the  state 
library  supplemented  the  county  library  sys- 
tems in  this  way. 

The  discussion  on  open-shelf  versus  fixed 
collection  showed  a  tendency  toward  more 
flexibility,  and  supplementing  the  fixed  group 
by  books  on  special  subjects  as  requested. 
Miss  Askew,  of  New  Jersey,  advocated  the 
open-shelf  plan  exclusively,  as  giving  better 
satisfaction  and  taking  less  time. 

Mr.  Dudgeon,  chairman  of  the  committee 

on  parcel  post,  reported  that  the  original  bill 
introduced  by  Senator  Bourne  had  ample  pro- 
vision for  books ;  but  this  was  cut  out  by  the 
mail-order  houses,  who  found  that  parcel  post 
would  increase  the  rate  on  their  catalogs  for 
long  distances.  Representative  Towner,  of 
Iowa,  was  about  to  introduce  a  measure  con- 
solidating third  and  fourth-class  matter,  and 
possibly  another  bill  specifically  including 
books  in  the  parcel  post  rate.  Miss  Tyler 
read  a  letter  from  Representative  Towner  on 
the  subject,  requesting  the  support  of  the 
League  and  the  A.  L.  A.,  and  it  was  voted 
that  the  committee  prepare  a  resolution  rec- 
ommending such  measures. 

On  the  subject  of  subtending  through  local 
libraries,  Miss  Stearns,  of  Wisconsin,  told  of 
sending  100  books  to  a  local  public  library 
from  which  they  were  exchanged  in  neigh- 
boring communities,  taking  advantage  of  the 
knowledge  of  the  local  librarian.  Miss  Raw- 
son,  of  Kentucky,  reported  that  collections  of 
fifty  volumes  had  been  loaned  to  county  su- 
perintendents, who  subloaned  them  to  schools. 
Miss  Davis,  of  Indiana,  said  that  the  same 
plan  had  been  followed  through  libraries 
having  rural  extension. 

The  final  topic  of  the  afternoon  was,  How 
much  shall  we  do  for  schools? 

Miss  Davis,  of  Indiana,  stated  that  they 
had  many  requests  from  schools  for  books  to 
help  teachers,  and  that  they  had  been  obliged 
to  draw  the  line  at  furnishing  text-books, 
sending  only  collections  for  supplementary 
reading.  Miss  Wilson,  supervisor  of  school 
libraries  in  Minnesota,  stated  that  from  her 
observation  the  traveling  library  was  a  good 
solution  of  the  rural  school  problem,  and  that 
Minnesota  was  hoping  for  legislation  this 
winter  which  would  make  consolidation  of 
school  libraries  with  county  libraries  possible. 
There  was  considerable  discussion  as  to  the 
advisability  of  locating  traveling  libraries  in 
schoolhouses,  Miss  Stearns,  of  Wisconsin, 
raising  the  objection  that  schools  were  closed 
so  much  of  the  time,  and  that  adults  would 
not  go  for  books.  On  the  other  hand,  it  was 
reported  by  Indiana  and  Illinois  that  better 
service  was  obtained  through  teachers  than 
through  storekeepers,  and  that  many  commu- 
nities had  become  greatly  interested  through 
schools.  Miss  Marx,  of  the  Iowa  Commis- 
sion, told  of  their  special  collection  for 
schools,  consisting  of  the  books  recommended 
by  the  Department  of  Public  Instruction, 
which  are  kept  on  the  open  shelf,  and  from 
which  teachers  borrow  groups  of  fifty  books. 
Miss  Isom,  of  Portland,  Ore.,  said  that  their 
school  libraries  were  provided  by  a  10  per 
cent,  capita  tax,  and  the  books  selected  from 
lists  compiled  by  the  commission  were  pur- 
chased by  the  commission.  From  the  Port- 
land library,  which  was  a  strictly  county  li- 
brary, traveling  libraries  were  sent  to  rural 
schools,  these  schools  being  supplied  in  the 
same  way  as  those  in  the  city. 

Miss  Ahern  summed  up  the  discussion  by 

February,  1913] 



saying  that  it  was  evident  no  hard-and-fast 
rule  could  be  applied.  In  her  opinion,  the 
schools  should  be  helped,  and  the  people  in 
the  community  would  be  reached  through  the 
children.  Library  workers  were  urged  through 
this  means  to  help  in  developing  the  use  of 
schools  as  social  centers. 

Miss  Tyler  drew  a  parallel  between  the  city 
library  and  its  community  and  the  traveling 
library  and  its  community — the  entire  state. 
She  maintained  that  books  should  be  sent 
from  the  traveling  library  to  rural  schools 
when  needed,  just  as  the  city  library  provides 
books  for  city  schools. 

"Problems  of  rural  library  extension"  was 
the  topic  for  discussion  on  Thursday  after- 
noon. This  round-table  was  conducted  by 
Miss  Baldwin,  of  Minnesota,  with  Miss  Helen 
Davis,  of  Indiana,  acting  as  secretary. 

Miss  Tyler,  of  Iowa,  led  the  discussion  on 
"Tax  levy,  how  made  and  rate,"  and  ex- 
plained the  operation  of  the  Iowa  law.  Miss 
Ellen  True,  librarian  of  the  Onawa  Library, 
contributed  much  to  the  discussion  from  her 
practical  experience  in  township  extension, 
and  Miss  Williams  and  Miss  Reba  Davis  told 
of  the  Indiana  law.  A  tax  levy  of  one  mill 
is  allowed  in  both  states,  which  has  proved  a 
sufficient  and  just  amount.  In  Iowa  the  li- 
brary board  of  the  central  library  remains 
unchanged,  while  in  Indiana  the  township  in 
which  the  library  is  located  has  two  repre- 
sentatives on  the  library  board,  the  township 
trustee,  being  ex-officio  a  member  and  having 
the  power  to  appoint  a  member.  Adjoining- 
townships  are  not  represented  on  the  library 
board,  but  the  library  board  is  required  to 
make  an  annual  report  to  each  advisory 
board  not  later  than  the  I5th  of  January. 

Miss  van  Buren,  of  the  Wisconsin  Com- 
mission, led  the  discussion  on  organization 
problems,  telling  of  her  experience  in  estab- 
lishing a  county  library  in  Steele  County, 
Minnesota.  She  was  followed  by  Miss  True, 
Miss  Reba  Davis,  Miss  Wales  and  Mr.  Dud- 
geon, all  of  whom  agreed  that  much 'personal 
work  on  the  part  of  the  librarian  was  essen- 

Administrative  problems,  including  estab- 
lishment and  management  of  deposit  stations 
and  branches,  were  discussed  by  Miss  True, 
Miss  Wales  and  Miss  Tyler. 

The  reference  use  of  the  main  library  by 
rural  patrons  was  touched  upon  by  Miss  van 
Buren,  who  found  that  county  extension  had 
brought  people  to  the  central  library.  The 
use  of  assembly  and  clubrooms  and  mainten- 
ance of  restrpoms  in  libraries  was  another 
topic  of  vital  interest.  As  to  whether  a  pub- 
lic library  should  extend  service  to  rural  in- 
habitants, even  if  township  or  county  did  not 
contribute  to  its  support,  there  was  a  differ- 
ence of  opinion,  Miss  Stearns,  of  Wisconsin, 
maintaining  that  this  plan  often  led  to  county 
support,  while  others  reported  that  people 
were  not  likely  to  pay  voluntarily  for  a  privilege 
already  granted.  A  good  solution  proposed 

was  that  the  extension  privileges  might  be 
given  for  one  year  without  support,  in  order 
to  show  people  what  the  library  could  do,  but 
withdrawn  at  the  end  of  that  time  unless 
suitable  compensation  was  made. 

Miss  Ahern,  as  a  member  of  the  A.  L.  A. 
committee  on  cooperation  with  the  N.  E.  A., 
announced  the  meeting  in  Salt  Lake  City  next 
July,  and  read  a  letter  from  the  president  in- 
viting the  League  representatives  to  be  pres- 
ent at  the  meetings  of  the  library  section; 
also  asking  the  League  to  prepare  exhibits 
showing  the  work  of  commissions.  The  mat- 
ter was  referred  to  the  executive  board  of 
the  League.  Mr.  Kerr,  of  Emporia,  Kan., 
urged  the  importance  of  such  exhibits,  ex- 
plaining the  necessity  of  employing  expert 
service  in  the  matter,  in  order  to  show  people 
what  commission  work  means. 

The  further  report  of  the  committee  on 
parcel  post  was  read  by  Mr.  Dudgeon,  its 
chairman : 

Whereas,  The  parcel  post  measure  recently  enacted 
excluded  from  its  privileges  all  library  books,  much 
to  the  disappointment  of  the  state  library  commissions 
which  operate  traveling  library  systems  and  which  had 
strongly  urged  its  enactment  when  books  were  in- 
cluded in  its  provisions,  and 

Whereas,  There  seems  to  be  no  sound  reason  why 
all  articles  of  merely  commercial  importance  should 
be  transported  at  the  lowest  rate,  while  much  needed 
material,  educational  in  its  nature,  can  be  transported 
only  at  rates  so  high  as  to  be  absolutely  prohibitive 
for  general  use;  therefore,  be  it 

Resolved,  That  the  League  of  Library  Commissions 
urges  the  passage  by  Congress  of  some  measure  which 
will  include  library  books  and  material  at  the  lower 
rate  of  transportation  provided  by  the  parcel  post,  and 
that  we  favor  either  a  consolidation  of  third  and 
fourth  class  mail  matter  to  secure  a  rate  for  books 
and  printed  matter  equal  to  that  of  merchandise,  or 
some  other  provision  giving  to  books  belonging  to 
public  libraries  the  parcel  post  rates,  to  the  end  that 
those  living  in  rural  communities  be  given  access  to 
library  privileges. 

On  motion  of  Miss  Tyler,  it  was  voted  that 
the  resolution  be  adopted  and  sent  to  the 
Eastern  Section  for  approval,  to  be  sent  on 
to  Congressman  Towner  as  the  action  of  the 

Mr.  Hill  asked  that  a  copy  of  the  resolu- 
tion be  presented  to  the  A.  L.  A.  council  and 
executive  board.  Mr.  Dudgeon  added,  further, 
that  commissions  would  be  notified  by  the 
committee  when  the  time  for  action  arrived, 
and  that  the  matter  would  also  be  presented 
to  the  various  state  library  associations. 

The  final  session,  on  Friday  afternoon,  was 
devoted  to  committee  reports  and  miscellane- 
ous discussion. 

The  report  of  the  publications  committee 
was  presented  by  Miss  Rawson,  in  the  absence 
of  Mr.  Dudgeon,  the  chairman,  as  follows: 
A  handbook  to  aid  in  library  campaigns  is  in 
progress,  and  an  outline  will  be  presented  at 
the  June  meeting.  The  list  of  periodicals  for 
a  small  library  has  been  revised  by  Mr.  Wal- 
ter, of  New  York,  and  the  A.  L.  A.  Publish- 
ing Board  has  been  asked  to  print  it. 

Miss  Carey  reported  on  a  list  of  books  for 
the  insane,  which  has  been  compiled  by  Miss 



[February,  1913 

Jones,  of  McLean  Hospital,  from  the  shelf- 
list  of  that  library,  with  assistance  from  Miss 
Robinson,  Iowa;  Miss  Waugh,,  Nebraska; 
and  Miss  Carey,  Minnesota.  The  fiction  has 
been  annotated  from  the  standpoint  of  the 
hospital  attendant,  and  the  non-fiction  is  of 
a  popular  character  in  good  editions.  It  was 
suggested'  that  the  list  might  easily  be  made 
a  list  for  hospitals,  starring  books  especially 
recommended  for  insane  patients,  and  thus 
be  made  more  generally  useful.  The  need  of 
such  a  list  was  heartily  endorsed  by  Miss 
Tyler  and  Miss  Stearns,  and  on  motion  of 
Miss  Tyler,  it  was  recommended  that  the  pub- 
lications committee  of  the  League  give  favor- 
able consideration  to  the  publication  of  this 

Miss  Wales  reported  for  the  committee  on 
charter  provisions  for  public  libraries  that, 
after  conference  with  the  A.  L.  A.  committee, 
it  was  decided  that  it  was  advisable  to  formu- 
late general  provisions  for  such  charters, 
rather  than  outline  a  definite  charter,  owing 
to  the  variation  in  laws  in  different  states. 

A  preliminary  report  of  the  committee  on 
federal  prison  libraries  was  read  by  Mr.  Wat- 
son, as  follows: 

As  a  result  of  the  correspondence  of  your 
committee  with  the  Department  of  Justice 
since  the  Ottawa  meeting,  the  Attorney-Gen- 
eral will  include  in  his  recommendations  for 
appropriations  for  the  Department  of  Justice 
for  the  year  1913,  $2500  for  the  library  of 
the  Atlanta  prison,  $2500  for  the  library  of 
the  Leavenworth  prison,  and  $500  for  the  li- 
brary in  the  McNeil  Island  prison. 

These  recommendations  will  be  laid  before 
the  Appropriations  Committee  as  part  of  the 
Sundry  Civil  Bill  during  the  first  week  in 

The  Attorney-General  having  asked  the 
aid  of  the  committee  in  bringing  the  matter 
to  the  favorable  attention  of  the  chairman  of 
the  Appropriation  Committee,  Mr.  Fitzgerald, 
of  Brooklyn,  we  have  directed  our  effort 
towards  securing  the  support  in  the  matter 
of  one  or  two  influential  friends  to  whom  we 
thought  Mr.  Fitzgerald  might  be  inclined  to 
listen.  The  chairman  has  also  personally 
written  Mr.  Fitzgerald. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

DELIA  F.  SNEED,  Chairman. 

On  behalf  of  Miss  Margaret  Brown,  chair- 
man of  the  committee  on  study  outlines,  Miss 
Tyler  reported  that  prompt  responses  had 
been  received  to  a  recent  questionnaire  as  to 
subjects  most  in  demand,  and  it  was  hoped 
that  outlines  on  several  of  these  subjects 
might  be  ready  for  publication  by  the  next 
meeting  of  the  League. 

The  need  of  cooperation  between  libraries 
and  booksellers  was  discussed,  Miss  Clat- 
worthy,  of  Dayton,  telling  of  recent  success- 
ful experiment  in  getting  a  department  store 
to  hold  the  exhibit  of  children's  books  for 

Evaluating  subscription  books  and  the  pro- 

tection of  the  small  library  from  agents  was 
found  to  be  a  difficult  problem,  for  which  the 
ouly  solution  offered  both  by  Mr.  Watson  and 
Mr.  Utley  was  total  abstinence  on  the  part 
of  librarians  and  book  committees. 

Mr.  Kerr,  of  Emporia,  Kan.,  Normal 
School,  brought  greetings  from  the  Normal 
School  librarians  in  session  and  asked  the  co- 
operation of  the  League  in  securing  the  pub- 
lication, through  the  United  States  Depart- 
ment of  Education,  of  a  school  library  list, 
which  could  be  used  in  all  states,  and  other 
special  lists,  and  also  in  outlining  a  course  in 
library  work  to  be  given  in  normal  schools. 

It  was  voted  that  the  plans  outlined  by  Mr. 
Kerr  be  referred  to  the  executive  board  of 
the  League,  with  the  recommendation  that 
the  League  cooperate  with  the  normal  school 
section,  and,  further,  that  the  League  send 
greetings  to  the  normal  school  librarians  and 
congratulations  on  the  success  of  their  first 

In  answer  to  the  question,  "Can  the  small 
reading-room  compete  with  local  amusements 
of  questionable  character?"  Miss  Allin  told 
of  the  establishment  of  an  institutional  church 
in  a  country  community  where  the  reading- 
room  was  an  important  feature;  Miss  Ellis 
of  the  organization  of  a  flourishing  boys' 
club,  which  began  with  a  small  reading-room, 
and  Miss  Askew  of  the  establishment  of  com- 
munity houses  in  connection  with  public  libra- 
ries. Miss  Tyler  pointed  out  the  great  need 
of  civic  pleasure  centers,  the  library  being 
only  one  side  of  the  work,  and  asked  if  any 
state  had  made  provision  for  such  work. 
Miss  L.  E.  Stearns  told  of  a  Wisconsin  law 
that  authorizes  a  tax  levy  for  recreation 

Resolutions  of  regret  were  passed  for  the 
absence  of  the  president,  and  expressions  of 
sympathy  over  the  serious  illness  of  his 
mother,  with  the  hope  of  her  speedy  recovery. 

After  a  cordial  vote  of  thanks  to  the  Chi- 
cago Library  Club  and  to  Miss  Jane  Addams, 
her  assistants  at  Hull  House,  and  especially 
the  Hull  House  Players  for  the  very  delight- 
ful entertainment  of  the  previous  evening,  the 
meeting  adjourned. 


Secretary  pro  tern. 

State  %tfcrar2  associations 


The  Massachusetts  Library  Club  held  its 
eightieth  meeting,  Thursday,  January  23,  at 
Medford.  The  meeting  was  well  attended, 
about  300  being  present,  including  many  libra- 
rians from  the  adjoining  states.  There  were 
also  present  a  noticeably  large  number  of 
library  trustees. 

At  the  noon  intermission,  after  the  boun- 
teous luncheon,  many  visited  the  Royall 
House,  a  fine  specimen  of  early  colonial  archi- 

February,  1913] 



tecture  and  of  historic  interest  because  of  its 
early  occupants  and  its  associations  with  the 
Revolution.  The  Medford  Library  has  many 
interesting  features,  including  a  separate 
building  for  the  children  and  school  depart- 
ments, and  many  found  inspiration  and  profit 
from  their  visit  there.  It  is  regretted  that 
there  is  usually  not  time  enough  for  an  ex- 
tended visit  to  the  local  library  when  attend- 
ing library  meetings.  The  library  is  the  con- 
crete expression  of  the  librarian's  personal- 
ity, which  counts  for  far  more  than  books  or 
building  in  the  work  that  is  done.  The  libra- 
rians left  Medford  with  an  enthusiastic  ap- 
preciation of  the  courtesies  and  fine  welcome 
given  them  by  the  Medford  Library,  with  in- 
spiration derived  from  the  papers  read  and 
from  their  visit  to  the  library,  and  with  a 
grateful  understanding  of  the  hard  work  done 
by  Miss  Sargent  and  the  committee  to  make 
the  meeting  so  marked  a  success. 

The  meeting  opened  with  an  address  of 
welcome  by  the  Rev.  Henry  C.  DeLong, 
chairman  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  the 
Medford  Library,  in  which  he  paid  fine  tribute 
to  the  memory  of  the  former  librarian,  Miss 
Mary  E.  Sargent,  whose  work,  particularly 
with  children,  was  of  inestimable  value  to  the 
town  and  had  won  national  recognition.  Miss 
Sargent  was  among  the  first  to  do  systematic 
and  sympathetic  work  with  children. 

Mr.  Belden,  as  presiding  officer,  made  a 
graceful  response.  He  then  called  the  atten- 
tion of  the  club  to  the  handbook,  "Guide  to 
immigrants/'  by  John  F.  Carr,  published  at 
15  cents  a  copy  in  paper,  by  Doubleday,  Page, 
and  prepared  under  the  auspices  of  the  D.  A. 
R.  of  Connecticut.  The  book  is  of  great 
value  to  the  immigrant,  explaining  to  him  the 
history  and  ideals  of  the  American  people, 
and  giving  plain  and  simple  directions  for 
becoming  a  good  citizen.  It  will  be  particu- 
larly helpful  in  libraries  in  small  communities, 
where  the  possibilities  for  personal  work  are 
so  great.  There  are  also  editions  in  English 
Yiddish,  Italian  and  Polish.  Other  foreign 
translations  are  in  prospect.  The  "Guide  to 
immigrants"  may  be  ordered  of  John  F.  Carr, 
241  Fifth  avenue,  New  York  City. 

Mr.  Belden  then  presented  the  resolutions 
recently  adopted  at  the  Chicago  mid-winter 
library  meeting,  recommending  that  library 
books  be  admitted  to  parcels  post.  These  res- 
olutions were  adopted  by  the  club,  and  an 
effort  will  be  made  towards  the  enactment  of 
a  law  to  that  effect. 

The  topic  for  the  morning  session  was 
"Government  documents."  Mr.  James  I.  Wyer, 
Jr.,  of  the  State  Library,  Albany,  gave  the 
principal  paper.  He  called  attention  to  the 
necessity  of  at  least  one  library  in  a  city  or 
town  caring  for  the  city  documents,  preserv- 
ing a  file  of  the  local  papers,  collecting  books 
by  local  people,  etc.  This  collection  might 
be  the  nucleus  for  an  historical  society  li- 
brary. He  then  outlined,  in  an  entertaining 
manner,  the  methods  of  printing,  distributing 

and  acquiring  government  documents.  He 
explained  the  methods  of  the  Government 
Printer  and  of  the  Superintendent  of  Docu- 
ments, and  told  why  so  many  libraries  were 
burdened  with  documents  they  did  not  want, 
and  why  so  many  others  could  not  get  the 
documents  they  needed.  The  best  way  to  get 
documents  is  to  apply  directly  to  the  bureau 
that  issues  them.  Failing  there,  apply  to 
your  Representative,  then  your  Senator,  and 
then  to  the  Superintendent  of  Documents. 
Congress  is  trying  to  stop  the  wasteful  dis- 
tribution, which  partly  accounts  for  the  fact 
that  a  price  is  placed  on  so  many  documents 
by  the  Superintendent  of  Documents.  Mr. 
Wyer  recommended  that  the  average  library 
should  treat  government  documents  as  ordi- 
nary books,  and  classify  them  with  the  rest 
of  the  library. 

The  use  of  government  documents  in  the 
libraries  at  Haverhill,  Milton  and  Worcester 
was  explained  by  Mr.  Moulton,  Miss  Luard 
and  Mr.  Shaw.  Mr.  Moulton  spoke  of  a 
simple  way  of  arranging  documents  without 
spending  much  time  in  cataloging  them,  using 
the  third  edition  of  the  "Checklist  of  United 
States  documents,  1789-1909,  Vol.  I,  1911, 
as  a  basis  for  the  arrangement,  and  checking 
recent  acquisitions  on  a  simple  serial  check- 
list, treating  the  collection,  in  fact,  like  a 
magazine  collection.  He  recommended,  when 
the  library  was  cramped  for  room,  that  the 
documents  be  segregated,  in  the  main,  keep- 
ing only  the  last  issue  of  purely  statistical 
documents  and  shelving  these  with  the  gen- 
eral reference  collection.  He  depended  chiefly 
for  knowledge  of  the  contents  of  the  docu- 
ments on  the  indexes  issued  by  the  depart- 
ments or  bureaus,  and  on  the  indexing  clone 
in  the  "Readers'  guide."  He  recommended 
the  A.  L.  A.  handbook,  "United  States  gov- 
ernment documents  in  small  libraries,"  by 
James  I.  Wyer,  Jr.,  as  the  best  guide  on  the 
subject  for  small  libraries.  Miss  Luard  out- 
lined the  plan  used  in  the  Milton  Library, 
treating  many  of  the  documents  as  pamphlets, 
following  the  plan  outlined  by  Miss  Brown 
described  in  the  LIBRARY  JOURNAL,  August, 
1907.  Cards  are  put  in  the  catalog  for  all 
subjects  of  importance,  and  are  then  re- 
moved when  the  document  is  superseded  by  a 
later  issue.  The  older  documents,  when  super- 
seded, are  discarded,  and  with  them  the  cata- 
log cards.  In  this  way  the  collection  does  not 
become  burdensome  through  its  size.  Docu- 
ments are  classed  with  their  subject,  either 
as  books  and  permanently  cataloged,  or  as 
ephemeral  pamphlets.  A  few  long  sets  are 

Mr.  Shaw's  paper  was  from  the  standpoint 
of  the  large  library  with  a  large  collection 
of  documents  permanently  shelved  and  well 
cataloged.  He  did  not  segregate  the  docu- 
ment sets,  and  he  found  them  largely  used. 
He  mentioned  some  of  the  important  books 
and  sets  which  an  average  library  might  well 

In    the     afternoon,     Mrs.     Belle    Holcomb 



{February,  1913 

Johnson,  visitor  and  inspector  of  libraries  for 
the  Connecticut  Public  Library  Commission, 
read  a  helpful  paper  on  the  selection  of  fic- 

At  this  point,  the  club,  on  the  motion  of 
Mr.  Bolton,  voted  hearty  thanks  to  the  Med- 
ford  Library  and  to  Miss  Sargent  for  the 
hospitality  enjoyed. 

Mr.  Lane  then  gave  an  account  of  the  new 
Harvard  College  library,  illustrated  by  stere- 
opticon.  As  Mr.  Lane's  account  appears  else- 
where in  the  LIBRARY  JOURNAL,  further  men- 
tion here  is  not  necessary. 

The  annual  dinner  of  the  club  was  held 
that  evening  at  the  Exchange  Club,  in  Boston. 
An  informal  reception  before  the  dinner  gave 
opportunity  to  meet  Mrs.  Lionel  Marks  (Jose- 
phine Preston  Peabody).  About  135  were 
present,  including  as  guests  members  of  the 
New  England  Club  of  Library  Commission 
Workers.  The  after-dinner  address  was  by 
Mrs.  Marks,  whose  delightful  readings  from 
her  poems,  particularly  her  children's  poems 
in  "The  book  of  the  little  past,"  were  greatly 
enjoyed  and  were  a  fitting  climax  to  a  happy 
and  profitable  day. 

JOHN  G.  MOULTON,  Secretary. 


Hotel  Sagamore,  Lake  George,  N.  Y.,  has 
been  selected  by  the  Executive  Board  as  the 
place  of  meeting  for  1913.  Later  announce- 
ments will  give  further  details. 


The  Montana  State  Library  Association  held 
its  annual  meeting  at  Missoula,  Dec.  26,  27  and 
28  at  the  same  time  as  the  State  Teachers' 
Association  meeting. 

The  opening  session  was  held  in  the  Library 
of  the  University  of  Montana,  Miss  Grace  M. 
Stoddard  presiding. 

After  President  Craighead,  of  the  university, 
gave  an  address  of  welcome  the  roll  was 
called,  and  each  member  responded  by  a  brief 
report  of  some  special  work  carried  on  in  her 
library  for  the  year.  This  proved  a  good  inno- 
vation, as  it  drew  the  strangers  together.  A 
tea  at  the  library  closed  this  meeting. 

Friday,  Dec.  27.  The  leading  feature  of  the 
morning  session  was  an  address  by  Mrs.  K. 
M.  Jacobson,  of  Spokane,  Washington,  before 
a  joint  meeting  of  the  Library  and  Teachers' 
Associations  at  University  Hall.  Mrs.  Jacob- 
son  talked  on  the  new  movement  of  library 
extension  for  Montana.  She  also  spoke  in- 
formally with  the  librarians  at  the  afternoon 
session.  The  members  of  the  Library  Asso- 
ciation took  advantage  of  this  opportunity  to 
ask  and  discuss  many  questions.  Miss  Stod- 
dard, the  president,  gave  a  report  of  her  study 
of  California  County  library  system,  and  Mr. 
Lever  dwelt  on  the  attitude  of  pupils  toward 
county  libraries. 

Friday  afternoon  Prof.  G.  F.  Reynolds,  of 
the  University  of  Montana,  gave  an  unusual 
and  charming  address  on  the  "New  attitude 

toward  English,"  after  which  the  meeting  ad- 
j  ourned. 

At  six  o'clock  a  banquet  was  tendered  to 
the  members  of  the  Library  Association  by 
the  Board  of  Library  Trustees  at  the  Palace 

Saturday,  Dec.  28.  At  the  closing  session, 
the  business  meeting,  the  minutes  and  treasur- 
er's reports  were  read.  At  the  annual  election 
of  officers  the  following  officers  were  chosen 
for  1913:  president,  Miss  Gertrude  Buckhous, 
of  University  Library,  Missoula;  vice-presi- 
dent, Mrs.  R.  F.  Hammond,  Havre ;  secretary- 
treasurer,  Miss  Louise  Fernald,  Great  Falls. 
The  program  appointment  was :  Josephine  M. 
Haley,  Elizabeth  L.  Thomson,  Anaconda,  and 
Mabel  Collins,  Billings. 

The  rest  of  this  session  was  given  to  the 
proposed  library  bill,  which  provides  for  the 
extension  of  library  privileges  to  country  resi- 
dents and  the  betterment  of  library  extension 
work  in  general.  Miss  Gertrude  Buckhous,  of 
the  University  of  Montana  Library,  read  the 
bill,  which,  section  by  section,  was  approved, 
with  certain  necessary  changes. 

Miss  Buckhous,  the  chairman  of  this  'com- 
mittee, has  spared  no  pains  to  make  this  bill 
a  success,  and  it  is  the  hope  of  all  library 
people  in  Montana  that  the  Legislative  Assem- 
bly in  January  will  act  upon  it  favorably.  The 
center  of  the  entire  meeting  of  the  Library 
Association  was  this  contemplated  bill,  which 
deserves  the  support  of  both  country  and 
city  residents  of  Montana. 

JOSEPHINE  M.  HALEY,  Secretary-Treasurer. 

The  Tennessee  Library  Association  met  in 
Nashville,  January  14.  While  it  was  not  a 
largely  attended  meeting,  it  was  a  representa- 
tive one,  and  prominent  librarians  from  vari- 
ous sections  of  the  state  were  present.  The 
officers  elected  were:  Miss  Manilla  Freeman, 
Goodwyn  Institute,  Memphis,  president;  Miss 
Lizzie  Lee  Bloomstein,  Peabody  College  Li- 
brary, Nashville,  first  vice-president ;  Miss 
Alice  Drake-Jackson,  second  vice-president; 
Miss  Margaret  Kercheval,  Nashville,  librarian 
Carnegie  Library,  secretary;  Mrs.  P.  P.  Clax- 
ton,  Washington,  first  honorary  president; 
and  G.  H.  Baskette,  Nashville,  second  honor- 
ary president. 

In  his  address,  Mr.  Baskette  spoke  particu- 
larly of  the  wonderful  field  for  the  library 
work  and  of  the  growth  the  library  interests 
made  in  the  past  few  years,  and  discussed  in 
general  the  profession  of  librarian.  Mr.  Bas- 
kette, who  has  served  as  president  for  many 
years,  asked  not  to  be  re-elected,  but  was 
unanimously  elected  second  honorary  presi- 

Following  the  address  and  election  of  offi- 
cers, various  subjects  relating  to  the  work 
of  the  libraries  and  the  many  problems  that 
confront  the  librarians  of  smaller  libraries 
were  discussed.  Among  the  topics  considered 
were:  "Small  town  libraries,"  "The  library  as 

February,  1913] 



a  social  center,"  "Relation  of  the  library  to 
local  history,"  "How  to  attract  the  children," 
and  "To  what  ends  and  how  shall  the  public 
library  and  the  public  schools  cooperate?" 
The  majority  of  those  present  took  part  in 
these  discussions,  which  were  animated  and 

In  the  evening  a  joint  session  was  held  with 
the  public  school  officers. 


The  Wisconsin  State  Library  Association 
will  hold  its  annual  meeting  at  Wausau,  March 
5-7,  1913-  The  program  for  the  meeting  is 
now  being  prepared,  and  promises  to  be  both 
interesting  and  profitable.  President  Evans, 
of  Ripon  College,  will  deliver  the  evening  ad- 
dress. One  of  the  features  of  the  program  will 
be  a  dramatic  reading  of  Sheridan's  "The 
rivals,"  which  is  to  be  followed  by  a  brief 
epilogue  on  the  aim  and  pleasure  of  dramatic 
readings  by  Professor  Pyre,  of  the  University 
of  Wisconsin. 


IN  the  report  of  the  Nebraska  Library  As- 
sociation's annual  meeting,  LIBRARY  JOURNAL, 
December,  1912,  is  the  statement  that  Ne- 
braska is  the  only  state  having  an  appropria- 
tion for  the  up-keep  of  institutional  libraries. 

The  secretary  of  the  Vermont  State  Library 
Commission  states,  in  correction,  that  Ver- 
mont appropriated  a  yearly  sum  for  the  main- 
tenance of  libraries  in  its  penal  and  charitable 
institutions  late  in  1910,  which  was  before 
Nebraska  made  its  appropriation,  and  that 
such  work  has  been  regularly  carried  on  with 
four  institutions  from  the  office  of  the  Ver- 
mont Library  Commissioners. 



The  third  meeting  of  the  New  York  Li- 
brary Club  for  the  year  1912-1913  was  held 
on  Thursday,  Jan.  9,  1913,  as  a  joint  meeting 
of  the  New  York  Library  Club  and  the  Long 
Island  Library  Club,  at  the  Ethical  Culture 
Building.  After  a  brief  business  meeting  of 
the  New  York  Library  Club  for  the  transac- 
tion of  routine  business  and  the  election  of 
32  new  members,  31  individuals  and  one  in- 
stitution, President  Hicks  declared  the  joint 
meeting  open  for  the  consideration  of  the 
special  topic,  "The  relation  of  libraries  to 
contemporary  movements  in  education,"  the 
third  in  the  series  of  meetings  which  the  club 
is  devoting  to  the  general  subject  of  the  "Re- 
lation of  libraries  to  the  great  movements  of 
the  world  to-day."  President  Hicks  intro- 
duced as  the  first  speaker  of  the  afternoon 
Professor  Ernst  M.  Henderson,  of  Adelphi 
College,  Brooklyn,  who  spoke  on  "Problems 
and  movements  in  modern  education." 


Dr.  Henderson  said  that,  as  the  progress  of 
modern  education  has  pursued  a  devious  way, 
the  fundamental  problem  at  the  present  time 
is  how  to  make  education  scientific.  The 
difficulties  in  the  way  of  this  have  been  that 
there  has  been  no  agreement  as  to  what  the 
product  of  education  should  be,  and  no  way 
of  telling  whether  education  has  really  ac- 
complished what  it  was  intended  to  accom- 
plish. Experimental  pedagogy,  that  is,  teach- 
ing carried  on  under  observed  and  described 
conditions,  aims  to  define  conditions  and  to 
ascertain  what  causes  produce  what  results, 
to  form  a  clearing  house  of  results  and  thus 
avoid  useless  repetitions. 

Another  important  modern  problem  is  that 
of  vocational  education.  In  this  form  of  ed- 
ucation, which  is  naturally  thought  to  be  the 
most  useful  in  a  democratic  community, 
democratic  America  has  lagged  behind  the 
European  countries.  The  reason  for  such 
backwardness  is  that  America,  recognizing  no 
class  distinctions,  has  tried  to  apply  one  best 
system  of  education  to  all  children,  whereas 
Europe  has  tried  to  adapt  education  to  the 
child's  walk  of  life  and  future  occupation. 
The  important  problems  of  vocational  educa- 
tion are:  (i)  what  to  teach — the  first  voca- 
tional curricula  were  patchworks ;  (2)  how  to 
combine  the  theoretical  and  the  practical — 
one  interesting  solution  of  this  problem  being 
the  so-called  Cincinnati  plan,  by  which  the 
student  spends  half  time  in  school  and  half 
time  in  workshops;  (3)  the  question  of 
whether  the  school  shall  follow  or  lead  the 
vocation;  (4)  the  problem  of  teachers, 
whether  they  shall  be  taken  from  the  schools 
or  from  the  vocation;  and  (5)  the  attempt 
to  fit  the  individual  to  the  kind  of  education 
which  he  ought  to  have,  not  which  he  wants. 
To  solve  this  latter  question,  psychological 
laboratory  tests  and  observation  of  the  stu- 
dent's progress  in  his  different  school  subjects 
have  been  suggested. 

The  question  of  vocational  education  is  one 
phase  of  the  large  problem  of  the  adaption 
of  education  to  the  individual.  Other  ques- 
tions of  the  problem  of  adaption  are:  (i) 
the  problem  of  breaking  the  "lock-step"  which 
the  schools  have  developed,  so  that  the  supe- 
rior child  and  the  defective  child  need  no 
longer  be  forced  to  attempt  the  same  rate  of 
progress;  and  (2)  the  problem  of  electives. 

Another  problem  is  that  of  moral  and  re- 
ligious education.  When  religious  education 
was  abandoned,  moral  education  went  with 
it,  and  the  problem  is  how  to  bring  it  back. 
Three  different  opinions  are  held:  (i)  that 
the  teachers  should  be  models,  and  that  all 
education  must  be  utilized  to  bring  out  moral 
ideas;  (2)  that  morality  can  only  be  taught 
in  connection  with  religion;  and  (3)  that 
definite  courses  in  morality  should  be  given. 

The  lecturer  mentioned  briefly  the  problem 
of  efficiency  and  economy  —  how  to  make 



[February,  1913 

things  tell.  There  are  leakages  everywhere, 
but  these  cannot  be  stopped  until  there  is 
more  information  available.  Therefore,  con- 
stant investigations  are  necessary.  Proposed 
reforms  in  methods  of  teaching,  which  are 
important,  are  teaching  of  the  art  of  study 
and  the  Montessori  method. 

At  the  conclusion  of  Dr.  Henderson's  pa- 
per, Mr.  Hicks  announced  that  the  rest  of 
the  program  would  consist  of  a  detailed  de- 
velopment of  two  of  the  problems  mentioned 
by  the  first  speaker — vocational  education  and 
the  problem  of  the  defective  child — and  in- 
troduced the  second  speaker,  Miss  Kate  Tur- 
ner, assistant  principal  of  Erasmus  Hall  High 
School,  who  read  a  paper  on  "Vocational 
guidance  in  high  school." 


The  choice  of  vocations,  Miss  Turner  said, 
is  a  modern  question.  In  early  times  there 
was  no  choice  of  vocation,  but  a  gradual 
change  has  been  going  on  which  has  cul- 
minated in  the  present-day  complexity  of 
choice.  Traditional  and  family  occupations 
are  no  longer  kept  up,  and  in  choosing  occu- 
pations, certain  questions  which  should  be 
considered  are :  What  do  the  interests  of  the 
individual  demand ;  what  do  the  interests  of 
society  demand,  and  how  may  these  interests 
be  combined?  Young  people  entering  an  oc- 
cupation may  be  divided  into  four  classes: 
the  14-year  old,  the  i6-year  old,  the  high 
school  graduate  and  the  college  graduate.  The 
boy  or  girl  who  must  go  to  work  at  fourteen 
does  so  untrained ;  but  the  community  de- 
mands that  the  i6-year  old  shall  come  to  it 
trained,  and  the  task  of  furnishing  such 
training  is  laid  on  the  state  school  system. 

The  speaker  protested  vigorously  against  a 
too-early  choice  of  occupation.  "It  is  axio- 
matic that  only  omniscient  power  has  the 
right  to  determine  in  what  way  the  individual 
can  best  serve  the  community."  A  firm  stand 
should  be  made  against  too  early  specializa- 
tion, and  tests  should  never  be  applied  to 
immaturity.  Evening  schools  should  be  abol- 
ished, and,  in  the  case  of  a  child  who  must 
earn  something,  half  work  and  half  school 
should  be  substituted.  One  good  result  to 
be  expected  from  such  a  change  would  be  to 
save  the  child  from  going  prematurely  into 
an  occupation  to  which  he  may  not  be  suited. 
Even  with  high  school  students  haste  should 
be  avoided. 

To  make  an  intelligent  choice,  students 
should  know  about  vocations,  about  the  large 
or  small  demand  for  certain  vocations,  and 
should  be  able  to  recognize  the  call  when  it 
comes  to  them.  Girls  are  a  special  problem, 
as  they  do  not  choose  from  among  enough 
occupations.  Nearly  all  elect  to  be  either 
teachers  or  stenographers,  and  the  girl  who 
chooses  library  work  is  regarded  as  most 
original.  This  problem  is  further  compli- 
cated by  the  fact  that  it  is  not  yet  known 

what  the  twentieth  century  will  demand  of 

High  schools  are  only  beginning  to  try  out 
this  question  of  choice  of  vocation.  Among 
various  expedients,  the  lecturer  mentioned 
attempts  by  students  to  make  a  subjective 
study  of  themselves,  work  of  "placements 
committee"  in  guiding  students,  and  talks 
from  experts  who  speak  to  students  on  dif- 
ferent lines  of  work,  enlarging  their  informa- 
tion and  giving  them  some  idea  of  the  re- 
quirements, opportunity  and  emoluments  of 
different  lines  of  work. 

In  conclusion,  Miss  Turner  said  that  much 
of  the  general  information  about  occupations 
should  be  given  by  libraries.  The  librarian 
could  help  here  by  supplying  books  for  teach- 
ers, by  devoting  bulletins  to  news  from  the 
field,  and  by  becoming  a  bureau  of  vocational 

The  president  then  introduced  the  third 
speaker,  Miss  Elizabeth  Farrell,  inspector  of 
ungraded  classes  in  the  New  York  public 
schools,  who  delivered  a  most  inspiring  ad- 
dress on  "The  problem  of  backward  and 
defective  children  in  elementary  school." 

Miss  Farrell  said  that  she  would  not  resist 
the  opportunity  to  enlist  sympathy  for  the 
defective  child,  and  to  that  end  would  assume 
ignorance  of  the  problem  on  the  part  of  her 
hearers,  and  by  telling  them  elementary  facts 
of  the  case  would  try  to  bring  them  over  to 
her  side. 

The  question  of  the  defective  child  is  a 
large  question.  No  field  of  literature  is  grow- 
ing just  now  as  the  literature  of  eugenics  is 

In  New  York  there  are  7000  mentally  sub- 
normal children,  made  so  either  by  disease 
from  which  they  have  only  partly  recovered, 
or  by  the  inheritance  of  a  defective  physical 
or  nervous  system.  These  children  are  the 
dregs,  they  are  at  the  bottom,  and  most  of 
them  must  remain  there;  but  they  can  be 
helped  to  become  a  useful,  or,  at  least,  a 
harmless  element  of  the  community,  rather 
than  the  dangerous  element  which  they  have 
been  in  the  past.  The  schools  have  only  re- 
cently become  democratic  enough  to  consider 
defective  children.  Defectives,  as  a  class, 
have  been  heard  of  only  in  the  last  six 
years.  Before  then  such  children  were  re- 
cruiting the  prisons.  Of  the  inmates  of  the 
Elmira  Reformatory,  40  per  cent,  are  defec- 

Miss  Farrell  described  the  criminal  record 
of  a  typical  defective,  and  asked  the  question, 
"What  are  you  going  to  do  about  it?"  The 
answer,  she  said,  must  be,  "Prevent  it!"  As 
a  means  to  this  end,  there  is  the  ungraded 
class  in  the  schools.  The  school  offers  a 
chance  for  a  continuous  observation  of  a 
child's  life.  It  gives  the  defective  child  train- 
ing, care,  doctors,  fresh  air,  etc.  The  school 
must  teach  the  defective  child  how  to  use 
what  ability  he  has,  and  must  not  lose  hold 

February,  1913] 



of  him  when  he  leaves  the  school.  Perhaps 
the  solution  of  this  latter  problem  will  be 
farm  colonies,  to  which  the  defective  child 
must  be  graduated,  to  live  usefully  under 

At  the  conclusion  of  Miss  Farrell's  address, 
Mr.  Hicks  called  upon  Dr.  Bardwell,  District 
Superintendent  of  Public  Schools,  for  discus- 
sion. Dr.  Bardwell  said  that  he  spoke  to  the 
club  as  a  representative  of  the  people's  uni- 
versity. Libraries,  he  thought,  should  see  that 
knowledge  percolates  into  the  home.  We 
cannot  yet  be  sure  how  the  problem  of  voca- 
tional guidance  is  to  be  solved,  but  libraries 
can  help  to  make  attractive  and  available  cer- 
tain fundamental  information  about  (i)  de- 
mands of  different  occupations,  particularly 
those  in  the  community  in  which  the  library 
or  the  school  is  located;  (2)  emoluments; 
(3)  attractiveness  and  desirability  of  differ- 
ent occupations;  and  (4)  information  which 
parents  ought  to  have  about  the  effects  of 
children's  diseases. 

After  the  passing  of  a  vote  of  thanks  to 
the  speakers  and  to  the  authorities  of  the 
Ethical  Culture  School,  the  meeting  ad- 
journed. A  very  interesting  exhibit  of  books 
for  school  libraries,  which  had  been  prepared 
by  the  Library  School  of  the  New  York  Pub- 
lic Library,  was  displayed  during  the  meeting, 
and  tea  was  served  at  an  informal  reception 
after  the  adjournment  of  the  formal  meeting. 


The  January  meeting  of  the  club  was  held 
at  the  library  of  the  Rochester  Theological 
Seminary  on  January  10.  Twenty-two  were 
present.  The  minutes  of  the  previous  meet- 
ing were  read  and  approved.  The  report  of 
the  treasurer  was  read  and  approved. 

The  question  of  the  place  and  date  of  the 
next  meeting  was  left  open,  to  be  decided 
later  by  the  executive  committee. 

A  report  was  presented  by  the  committee 
on  a  union  list  of  periodicals,  which  stated 
some  of  the  details  which  the  committee  are 
planning  to  cover  in  that  list.  Newspapers  and 
proceedings  and  transactions  of  societies  are 
to  be  considered  as  periodicals.  Each  library 
is  requested  to  list  every  periodical  which  it 
has  upon  its  shelves,  whether  or  not  it  is  on 
the  present  subscription  list.  The  entries  are 
to  be  made  on  cards,  in  conformity  with  a 
sample  card  which  will  be  furnished  by  the 

The  Theological  Seminary  is  the  third  of 
the  libraries  of  the  city  about  which  the  club 
has  had  the  .opportunity  of  hearing,  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  plan  for  the  members,  so 
far  as  possible,  to  become  familiar  with  the 
history  and  work  of  the  libraries  in  the  dis- 
trict. Prof.  W.  R.  Betteridge,  the  librarian, 
gave  an  account  of  the  history  of  the  li- 
brary, which  was  founded  in  1850,  the  same 
year  in  which  the  seminary  was  opened.  It 

had,  for  the  nucleus  of  its  collection,  the 
library  of  Neander,  the  church  historian, 
which  was  bought  at  auction  and  presented 
to  the  library.  Since  then  it  has  increased, 
until  it  numbers  about  39,500  volumes.  Owing 
to  the  system  of  classification  which  was  be- 
gun in  1907,  under  the  direction  of  Miss  Julia 
Pettee,  the  collection  is  rendered  much  more 
available  and  convenient  for  consultation  than 
is  the  case  with  theological  seminaries  in 

After  adjournment,  the  members  had  the 
opportunity  of  inspecting  the  library,  the 
reading-room  and  the  exhibits. 

ETHEL  F.  SAYRE,  Secy. 


A  stated  meeting  of  the  Pennsylvania  Li- 
brary Club  was  held  at  the  H.  Josephine 
Widener  branch  of  the  Free  Library  of  Phil- 
adelphia on  Monday  evening,  Jan.  13,  1913. 
After  the  usual  business  of  the  evening  was 
disposed  of,  the  president,  Mr.  Ernest  Spof- 
ford,  was  compelled  to  announce  that  the 
speaker  of  the  evening,  Mr.  John  Thomson, 
who  was  to  have  given  an  illustrated  address 
on  "London,"  was  unavoidably  detained  by 
sudden  illness.  Mr.  Frank  D.  Baugher,  libra- 
rian-in-charge  of  the  Widener  branch,  very 
kindly  offered  to  deliver  his  illustrated  ad- 
dress on  "Panama,"  and  while  all  regretted 
not  being  able  to  hear  Mr.  Thomson,  the  lec- 
ture on  Panama  was  enjoyed  by  everyone. 
Mr.  Baugher  proved  he  knew  the  Canal  sub- 
ject thoroughly;  the  slides  were  made  from 
photographs  which  Mr.  Baugher  had  taken  on 
a  recent  visit  to  Panama.  An  enthusiastic 
vote  of  thanks  was  extended  to  Mr.  Baugher 
at  the  close  of  his  lecture. 

The  meeting  was  followed  by  the  usual  re- 
ception, a  happy  ending  to  a  very  successful 
meeting,  with  an  attendance  of  one  hundred 
and  sixty-five  persons. 

The  next  meeting  of  the  Pennsylvania  Li- 
brary Club  will  be  held  on  Feb.  10,  1913,  at 
which  time  Mr.  Edward  W.  Mumford,  of  the 
Penn  Publishing  Company,  will  deliver  an 
address  on  "The  librarian  and  the  bookseller." 
JEAN  E.  GRAFFEN,  Secy. 


The  Chicago  Library  Club  entertained  the 
librarians  attending  the  mid-winter  meeting  at 
Hull  House  on  Thursday  evening,  Jan.  2. 
Special  cars  took  the  guests  from  the  Sherman 
House  to  Hull  House,  where  an  informal  re- 
ception was  held,  and  the  visitors  were  given 
an  opportunity  to  see  Hull  House  and  to  hear 
at  first  hand  of  its  many  activities.  After  the 
reception  the  guests  were  entertained  by  the 
Hull  House  players,  who  presented  "The 
pigeon,"  by  Galsworthy.  Mrs.  Laura  Dainty 
Pelham  gave  a  short  account  of  the  players, 
and  Miss  Addams  spoke  of  the  work  Hull 
House  has  done  in  developing  the  talents  of 
the  people  in  the  neighborhood. 




[February,  1913 

Xibrarg  Scbools  anD  draining 


The  school  resumed  work  Jan.  2,  all  but  one 
or  two  students  being  present  at  the  opening. 

During  the  first  ten  days  of  the  term  Miss 
Murray,  of  the  library  staff,  gave  a  demonstra- 
tion lecture  on  rebinding  and  repairing  books, 
Mr.  Arthur  Bailey,  of  the  Wilmington  (Del.) 
Institute  Library,  spoke  to  the  school  twice  on 
''Binding  materials"  and  "Binding  processes," 
and  Miss  Mary  E.  Hall,  of  the  Girls'  High 
School,  spoke  on  "The  possibilities  of  the  high 
school  library."  The  students  met  both  lec- 
turers at  a  social  meeting  after  the  afternoon 

On  Jan.  13  and  20  Mr.  Weitenkampf,  of  the 
staff,  spoke  to  the  juniors  on  "Prints"  and 
"Book  illustration,"  both  lectures  being  ac- 
companied by  slides. 

The  seniors  in  administration  are  having  a 
series  of  lectures  on  civic  questions  by  Mr. 
Frederick  W.  Jenkins,  librarian  of  the  School 
of  Philanthropy.  Each  lecture  is  followed  by 
an  hour's  seminar,  and  the  school  is  gradually 
acquiring  civic  material  in  the  shape  of  pam- 
phlets and  reports  to  accompany  this  course. 
Early  in  the  month  the  class  was  divided  into 
four  groups  and  each  assigned  to  visit  a  well 
known  settlement. 

A  course  in  Italian  (partly  bibliographical 
and  technical)  is  being  given  to  the  seniors  in 
the  other  two  courses  by  Mr.  T.  E.  Comba, 
formerly  instructor  in  Italian  at  the  Pratt  In- 
stitute Library  School.  The  little  new  manual 
of  Sig.  Fabietti,  editor  of  La  Coltura  Popolare, 
is  being  used  as  one  of  the  textbooks. 

The  bibliography  of  Joan  of  Arc,  prepared 
by  a  senior  student,  was  printed  in  the  sou- 
venir volume  of  the  Joan  of  Arc  loan  ex- 
hibit, shown  at  the  rooms  of  the  Numismatic 
Society.  It  is  the  first  example  of  students' 
printed  work  and  the  beginning  of  a  collection 
of  such  work  which  the  school  expects  to 

The  "School  and  library  exhibit"  owned  by 
the  school  was  shown  at  the  meeting  of  the 
New  York  Library  Club  on  Jan.  9.  Several 
requests  have  been  received  for  it  from  educa- 
tional bodies,  to  be  complied  with  in  due 

Two  students,  one  a  senior  doing  unpaid 
practice,  and  the  other  a  junior,  who  has  been 
a  teacher,  are  having  practice  in  one  of  the 
city's  high  school  libraries,  in  addition  to  the 
regular  practice  in  the  New  York  Public 

The  following  periodicals  are  subscribed 
for  by  the  school  at  present:  Cultural  and 
literary  —  Atlantic  Monthly,  Dial,  Literary 
Digest,  New  York  Times  Sunday  Book 
Review,  Poet-lore,  Revue  critique  des  livres 
nouveaux.  Current  Affairs — American  Re- 

view of  Reviews,  Independent,  Nation,  Out- 
look, Survey.  Educational — La  Coltura  Popo- 
lare, Educational  Review,  Zentralblatt  fur 
Volksbilduhgswesen.  Professional — A.  L.  A. 
Booklist,  Bindery  Talk,  Blatter  fur  Volksbib- 
liotheken,  Bulletin  of  Bibliography,  Bulletin  of 
Bibliographical  Society  of  America,  Library, 
Library  Assistant,  Library  Association  Record, 
LIBRARY  JOURNAL,  Library  World,  Public  Li- 
braries, Publishers'  Weekly,  Revue  des  Bib- 
liotheques,  Rivista  delle  bibliothechc  e  degli 
archivi,  Special  Libraries,  Zentralblatt  fur 
Bibliothekswesen,  and  bulletins  issued  by  state 
libraries  and  state  commissions.  Numerous 
booksellers'  and  publishers'  periodicals  are  re- 
ceived as  well. 

MARY  W.  PLUMMER,  Principal. 


The  Christmas  holiday  vacation  began  on 
Dec.  20.  On  the  9th  of  the  month  the  stu- 
dents had  the  very  great  advantage  and  pleas- 
ure of  being  present  at  the  celebration  of 
Uncle  Remus's  birthday  in  the  lecture  room 
of  the  library.  The  school  had  secured  Miss 
Clara  Wimberly  for  the  occasion,  and  sixty 
children  were  there  to  hear  her  tell  Uncle 
Remus  stories.  These  favorite  stories  produce 
quite  an  amazing  effect  on  an  audience  of 
small  listeners,  and  furnish  a  most  interesting 
example  of  the  eagerness  with  which  a  group 
of  children  will  welcome  folk-lore  stories 
which  are  part  of  their  birthright. 

On  Dec.  14  the  class  entertained  at  a  Christ- 
mas party,  the  guests  being  the  members  of 
the  library  staff.  The  little  Christmas  trees, 
garlands,  and  other  Christmas  decorations  were 
afterwards  lent  by  the  class  to  the  Anne  Wal- 
lace Branch,  and  were  used  at  a  Christmas 
story  hour  which  Miss  Harriet  Webster,  '09, 
the  librarian,  had  arranged  for  some  300 

The  second  term  began  on  the  morning  of 
Jan.  2,  and  will  close  for  the  Easter  vacation 
on  March  21.  Directly  after  the  school  assem- 
bles on  March  26  Mrs.  Lee  Scott  (Edna  Ly- 
man)  will  begin  her  course  in  instruction  in 
Children's  work  and  the  art  of  story  telling. 
This  course  has  been  somewhat  altered  for 
the  present  year  and  will  cover  more  ground. 
Mrs.  Scott  will  be  in  residence  for  two  weeks, 
and  during  that  time  the  students  will  be  en- 
tirely under  her  instruction. 


Eunice  Coston,  '12,  who  had  been  since  grad- 
uation librarian  of  the  West  End  Branch  of 
the  Birmingham  Public  Library,  has  accepted 
a  position  in  the  Library  of  the  University  of 
Georgia  as  assistant  cataloger. 

Minnie  Murrill,  '10,  has  been  appointed  li- 
brarian of  the  Alabama  Girls'  Technical  Insti- 
tute at  Montevallo,  Alabama,  beginning  her 
duties  in  January,  1913. 

Marion  Bucher,  '06,  librarian  of  Agnes  Scott 

February,  1913] 



College,  Decatur,  Georgia,  completed  during 
the  summer  months  an  interesting  piece  of 
extra  work.  This  was  the  cataloging  of  a 
very  valuable  and  varied  collection  of  works 
on  Freemasonry,  which  had  been  willed  to  the 
Free  Masons  of  Atlanta  by  the  late  Julius 

Jane  Brown,  '12,  librarian  of  the  Public 
Library,  Cordele,  Georgia,  was  sent  to  the 
meeting  of  the  Georgia  Federation  of  Women's 
Clubs  in  Atlanta,  Oct.  22-25,  as  the  alternate 
delegate  from  the  Woman's  Club  of  Cordele. 

Jessie  Hutchinson,  '09,  has  resigned  her 
position  in  the  Carnegie  Library  of  Atlanta, 
and  has  gone  to  Brooklyn  to  be  an  assistant 
in  Pratt  Institute  Free  Library. 

Amelia  Whitaker,  '12,  who  acted  as  chil- 
dren's librarian  in  Savannah,  Georgia,  June- 
November,  1912,  has  been  appointed  acting 
head  of  the  children's  room  in  the  Carnegie 
Library  of  Atlanta. 


On  January  7  the  school  resumed  its  work, 
after  the  holiday  vacation  of  two  weeks.  The 
mrd-year  examinations  will  be  held  January 
13-22,  inclusive. 

Since  the  last  report,  the  following  lectures 
have  been  given  by  workers  from  the  field: 
December  n,  Miss  Mary  Downey,  president 
of  the  Ohio  State  Library  Association,  on 
"Value  in  library  work" ;  and  December  18, 
Miss  Elizabeth  Clarke,  librarian  of  the  Sey- 
mour Library,  of  Auburn,  N.  Y.,  on  "Indus- 
trial books  and  library  extension  among  the 
factory  population." 

The  senior  class  in  bookbinding  spent  the 
afternoon  of  Dec.  13  in  observation  at  the 
bookbindery  of  A.  J.  Wallon  &  Son. 

On  December  14,  the  class  in  printing  vis- 
ited a  modern  newspaper  plant,  where  the 
linotype  composition  and  the  making  of  stere- 
otyped plates  were  points  of  special  interest. 
Later,  the  printshop  of  Lyman  Bros,  was 
visited  for  monotype  composition  and  color 


Miss  Ethel  Ball,  B.L.E.,  '11,  has  accepted 
a  leave  of  absence  from  the  New  York  Public 
Library,  in  order  to  take  a  substitute  position 
in  Wells  College,  Aurora,  N.  Y. 

Miss  Dorothy  Lyon,  ex  '05,  until  recently 
assistant  librarian  of  the  Little  Rock  Public 
Library,  Little  Rock,  Ark.,  has  been  chosen 
its  librarian. 

Miss  Vesta  Thompson,  '10,  has  resigned  her 
position  in  the  Attleboro  Public  Library, 
Attleboro,  Mass.  She  gives  up  active  work 
for  the  present. 

MARY  J.  SIBLEY,  Director. 


On  the  evening  of  December  19,  a  farewell 
reception  was  tendered  Mr.  William  R.  East- 
man in  the  quarters  of  the  State  Library 

School.  The  faculty  and  students  of  the 
school,  the  section  heads  of  the  State  Library, 
the  staff  of  the  Educational  Extension  Divi- 
sion, a  number  of  Mr.  Eastman's  colleagues  in 
the  State  Education  Department,  including 
Assistant  Commissioners  Wheelock  and  Fine- 
gan,  and  a  few  other  friends  and  former  col- 
leagues, were  present.  The  students  and  his 
friends  on  the  library  staff  also  presented  ap- 
propriate gifts,  which  Mr.  Eastman  accepted 
in  a  pleasantly  reminiscent  talk. 

Since  January  i,  Miss  Martha  T.  Wheeler 
has  resumed  charge  of  the  course  in  "Selec- 
tion of  books."  Miss  Mary  E.  Eastwood,  who 
conducted  it  in  Miss  Wheeler's  absence,  is 
devoting  her  entire  time  to  the  "Best  books" 
list.  Mrs.  Julia  S.  Harron,  who  temporarily 
assisted  Miss  Eastwood,  has  gone  to  her  new 
position  as  library  editor  of  the  Cleveland 
Public  Library. 

The  course  in  "Loan  work"  was  again 
given  by  Mr.  Carl  P.  P.  Vitz,  second  vice- 
librarian  of  the  Develand  Public  Library  and 
formerly  director's  assistant  of  the  New  York 
State  Library. 

Dr.  Sherman  Williams,  chief  of  the  school 
libraries  division  of  the  State  Education  De- 
partment, gave  a  talk  on  "The  library  and  the 
school,"  as  a  part  of  the  seminar  work  in  that 
subject,  on  January  13. 

Several  of  the  students  are  attending  the 
lectures  on  "Russian  novelists,"  given  by  Prof. 
William  Lyon  Phelps  at  the  Albany  Historical 
and  Art  Society,  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Woman's  Club  of  Albany. 


Lilian  J.  Callahan,  '10,  has  resigned  her 
position  as  assistant  in  the  New  York  State 
Educational  Extension  Division,  to  become 
librarian  of  the  Levi  Heywood  Memorial  Li- 
brary, at  Gardner,  Mass. 

Ruth  Rosholt,  '12,  has  been  appointed  cata- 
loger  in  the  Minneapolis  Public  Library. 

F.  K.  WALTER,  Vice-Director. 


Twenty-four  members  of  the  class  have 
elected  to  do  practical  work  in  the  Brooklyn 
Public  Library  during  the  coming  term.  They 
are  assigned,  alternate  Friday  afternoons  and 
evenings,  to  twelve  of  the  branches,  two  of 
them  being  scheduled  to  a  branch.  This  ar- 
rangement proved  so  valuable  last  year  in 
giving  the  students  a  first-hand  knowledge  of 
branch  library  work  that  the  school  is  more 
than  glad  to  include  this  privilege  among  the 
opportunities  offered  by  the  course. 

Miss  Hitchler,  of  the  Brooklyn  Public  Li- 
brary, gave  the  school  two  lectures  in  Janu- 
ary on  "The  administration  of  a  cataloging 
department" ;  and  Miss  Clara  W.  Hunt,  super- 
intendent of  the  children's  department  of  the 
Brooklyn  Public  Library,  gave  three  lectures 
— "The  personal  relations  of  the  staff  with 
the  children,"  "Planning  and  furnishing  the 



[February,  1913 

children's  room,"  and  "The  administration  of 
the  children's  room." 


Miss  Jessie  Kneeland,  '07,  resigned  from 
the  Pratt  Institute  Library,  on  January  n, 
for  an  extended  period  of  travel  with  her 

Miss  Rebecca  Adams,  '10,  has  been  made 
assistant  in  charge  of  the  children's  room  at 
the  Hamilton  Fish  Park  branch  of  the  New 
York  Public  Library. 

Miss  Sally  M.  Akin,  '10,  has  gone  to  the 
public  library  of  Homestead,  Pa.,  as  catalpger. 

Miss  Lily  Dodgen,  '12,  has  been  appointed 
to  the  position  of  assistant  librarian  in  the 
public  library  of  Savannah,  Ga.,  and  is  to  have 
charge  of  the  children's  department  in  the 

Miss  Elizabeth  Forgeus,  '12,  has  been  made 
an  assistant  in  the  Cleveland  Public  Library. 


The  Training  School  opened  for  the  winter 
term  on  Thursday,  Jan.  2.  The  junior  courses 
taken  up  this  term  are: 

"Cataloging,"  Miss  Randall;  "Lending  sys- 
tems," Miss  Welles;  "Book  numbers,"  Miss 
Mann;  "Shelf  listing,"  Miss  Mann;  "Story 
telling,"  Miss  Whiteman;  "Book  selection," 
Miss  Smith,  Miss  Willard,  Miss  Ellis,  Miss 
Knight,  Miss  Bullock;  "Seminar  for  periodical 
review,"  Miss  McCurdy. 

The  senior  courses  now  being  given  are: 
"Book  selection,"  Miss  Bogle,  Miss  Smith; 
"Cataloging,"  Miss  Smith;  "Reading  lists," 
Miss  Smith ;  "Social  conditions,"  Miss  Strange. 

The  junior  students  are  scheduled  each  Mon- 
day morning  during  the  winter  term  for  prac- 
tice in  adult  routine  work  in  the  Central  Lend- 
ing Division  and  in  the  branch  libraries. 

Miss  Frances  Gray,  Miss  Estella  Slaven  and 
Miss  Marion  Redenbaugh  have  completed  the 
course  in  the  Training  School,  and  have  been 
appointed  to  positions  on  the  staff  of  the  Chil- 
dren's Department  of  the  Carnegie  Library. 

Miss  Effie  L.  Power,  supervisor  of  children's 
work,  St.  Louis  Public  Library,  and  a  member 
of  the  staff  of  lecturers  of  the  Training  School, 
gave  a  series  of  ten  lectures  Feb.  3-8.  Seven 
of  the  lectures  were  on  Book  selection,  and 
one  each  on  Administration  of  children's 
rooms,  Organization  of  children's  departments 
and  Work  with  normal  schools. 

On  Jan.  22,  Miss  Annie  Carroll  Moore, 
supervisor  of  work  with  children,  of  the  New 
York  Public  Library,  lectured  before  the 
school  on  Work  with  children  in  the  New 
York  Public  Library. 


Miss  Bernice  Bell,  '13,  has  received  the  ap- 
pointment to  the  position  of  head  of  Chil- 

dren's department  of  the  Louisville  Public 
Library,  Louisville,  Ky. 

Miss  Nora  Giele,  '10,  has  been  appointed 
librarian  of  the  Free  Public  Library  at  New 
Castle,  Pa.,  where  she  has  been  children's 

Miss  Bertha  Livezey.  '12,  has  resigned  her 
position  as  children's  librarian  of  the  West 
End  Branch,  Carnegie  Library,  to  become  a 
member  of  the  staff  of  the  St.  Louis  Public 
Library.  Miss  Grace  Starkey,  'n,  has  been 
appointed  to  succeed  Miss  Livezey  at  the  West 
End  Branch. 

Miss  Alma  McGlenn,  '10,  has  accepted  the 
position  of  librarian  of  the  Carnegie  Library 
of  Tulsa,  Oklahoma. 


During  the  last  few  weeks  the  students  have 
begun  their  visits  to  the  various  libraries  in 
the  city  in  connection  with  the  course  in  library 
administration.  These  have  included  two 
visits  of  new  and  unusual  interest,  one  to  the 
law  library,  which  is  now  located  in  the  fine 
new  building  of  the  county  courthouse,  a  re- 
cent addition  to  Geveland's  group  plan  of 
public  buildings,  and  the  other  to  a  blouse  fac- 
tory, where  a  station  of  the  Cleveland  Public 
Library  is  located.  Here  was  seen  not  only 
the  operation  of  a  large  factory,  but  a  glimpse 
of  social  welfare  work  as  conducted  for  the 

The  members  of  the  class  were  invited  to 
attend  two  of  the  lectures  on  "Children's  liter- 
ature," given  by  Mrs.  Gudrun  Thorne-Thom- 
sen  before  the  training  class  of  children's  libra- 
rians of  the  Cleveland  Public  Library.  The 
school  had  the  pleasure  of  ?i  call  from  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  Hjelmquist,  of  Sweden,  on  the  occasion 
of  their  recent  visit  to  American  libraries. 
Dr.  Hjelmquist  spoke  informally  to  the  stu- 
dents. On  Jan.  6  Professor  Arbuthnot,  of 
Adelbert  College,  lectured  to  the  class  in  Book 
selection  on  the  "Literature  of  economics." 


We  wish  to  correct  the  statement  made  by 
us  in  a  previous  issue  to  the  effect  that  ^ Miss 
Agnes  Burns,  '07,  had  been  appointed  assistant 
in  the  Santa  Barbara  (Cal.)  Public  Library. 
She  is  assistant  librarian  in  the  Ogdensburg 
(N.  Y.)  Public  Library. 

Miss  Ethel  B.  Copland,  '12,  has  been  ap- 
pointed cataloger  in  the  Fresno  (Cal.)  Public 

Miss  Harriett  E.  Neufer,  '10,  has  resigned 
her  position  in  the  Miles  Park  Branch  of  the 
Cleveland  Public  Library,  and  was  married  on 
Dec.  24  to  Mr.  George  Grover  Spitser,  of 
Grafton,  Ohio. 

Miss  Mary  R.  Norton.  '10,  who  has  been  ill 
nearly   all   of  the  time   since   her   graduation 
died  at  her  home  in  Geveland  on  Dec.  23. 
JULIA  M.  WHITTLESEY,  Director. 

February,  1913] 




LADEWIG,  Paul.     Politik  der  Biicherei.     Leip- 
zig, E.  Wiegandt,  1913.    VII.,  427  p. 

This  work  must  prove  of  interest  to  Amer- 
ican librarians  not  only  because  of  frequent 
reference  to  American  library  practice,  but 
also  because  it  reflects  in  a  very  large  meas- 
ure the  best  German  thought  relative  to  li- 
brary economy. 

Dr.  Ladewig  distinguishes  three  types  of 
libraries:  for  the  learned,  the  archive  deposi- 
tory and  scientific  library;  for  the  general 
public,  the  general  municipal  library;  for 
the  uneducated  masses,  the  popular  library 
(Volksbucherei},  which  has  to  create  the  de- 
sire for  reading  before  satisfying  it. 

This  classification  may  be  open  to  objection, 
but  the  author's  development  of  his  theme 
along  these  lines  is  always  suggestive.  He 
says,  for  instance,  with  regard  to  national 
depository  libraries,  that  completeness  is  a 
chimera,  and  that  they  must  be  supplemented 
by  smaller  regional  libraries. 

The  chapter  on  library  buildings  is  one  of 
the  most  interesting  in  the  book.  He  advo- 
cates for  the  future  library  the  skyscraper,  or 
tower  construction,  urging  that  it  furnishes 
us  with  ideal  conditions  of  light  and  quiet  for 
readers,  while  it  reduces  to  a  minimum  the 
expense  of  maintenance.  From  the  artistic 
point  of  view,  too,  a  tower  may  be  made  a 
subject  of  decorative  treatment  of  great 

Dr.  Ladewig  makes  the  distinction  between 
clerical  and  scientific  assistants,  and  suggests 
that  university  trained  assistants,  who  are 
largely  in  the  majority  in  German  libraries, 
be  relieved  as  much  as  possible  from  the 
drudgery  of  work  which  can  be  done  equally 
well,  if  not  better,  by  lower-paid  assistants. 
The  clerks  and  boys  who  enter  the  service 
as  pages  should  also  be  given  opportunities 
for  advancement.  There  should  be  a  chance 
for  them  to  receive  training  in  office  methods, 
in  bookkeeping,  typewriting  and  bookbinding. 
He  thinks,  too,  although  perhaps  with  less 
reason,  that  they  may  do  some  cataloging. 

Many  will  regret  that  the  author  gives  no 
bibliographical  references,  but,  in  spite  of  this, 
the  work  as  a  whole  must  prove  an  invaluable 
supplement  to  Grasel's  Manual. 

SzAB6,    H,     comp.      A     Fovarosi     Konyutar 
Osztalyozasa.    Atdogozott  Decimalis  Klasszi- 
fikacio.     (I.  Bevezetesek.     Roviditett  Oztal- 
yozas.      K6z6s    Alosztasok.      II.    Altalanos 
Munkak.       Bolcselet.       Vallas.       Egyhaz.) 
38+  [78]  p.  O.  (A  Fovarosi  Konyvtar  Kozle- 
menyei  9.  szam  [Publications  of  the  Muni- 
cipal Library  of  Budapest.    No.  9.]) 
These  two  fascicules,  issued  under  the  edi- 
torship of  Dr.   Szabo  form  the  first  parts  of 
the  first  complete  translation  of  the  Decimal 
Classification  into  Hungarian.     Dr.  Szabo  has 
always  been  an  ardent  supporter  of  the  work 

of  the  Institut  International  de  Bibliographic 
and,  unless  we  are  mistaken,  edited  the  first 
translations,  in  abridged  form,  of  the  D.  C. 
into  Hungarian.  These  complete  tables  are 
therefore  a  natural  outgrowth  of  his  earlier 
work.  In  his  preface  he  calls  attention  to  the 
fact  that  the  tables  are  primarily  a  classifica- 
tion made  for  his  own  library,  the  Municipal 
Library  of  Budapest ;  and«  that,  with  that  pur- 
pose in  mind,  the  original  D.  C.  tables — or 
rather  the  tables  of  the  Manuel  du  repertoire 
bibliographique  universel  of  the  Institut,  which 
were  his  more  immediate  source — have  under- 
gone considerable  modification.  He  calls  at- 
tention to  the  over-detail  of  certain  minor 
subdivisions  of  the  D.  C.  tables  and  the  serious 
lack  of  detail  in  other  and  much  more  impor- 
tant subjects,  and  acknowledges  his  indebted- 
ness also  to  the  "careful  and  ample  classifica- 
tions of  the  Library  of  Congress"  and  the 
catalog  of  the  German  Reichstag. 

Part  I.  covers  the  editor's  introduction, 
abridged  tables,  and  certain  tables  of  general 
subdivisions ;  Part  II.  the  D.  C.  classes :  Gen- 
eral ;  Philosophy ;  Religion.  Each  fascicule  is 
provided  with  a  separate  index.  F.  R. 

IperfoMcal  anfc  otber  !Htterature 

Mass.  Institute  of  Technology  Bulletin  con- 
tains a  list  of  the  Institute's  12  departmental 
libraries,  briefly  noting  contents. 

Public  Libraries,  January,  includes :  "A  plea 
for  the  classics,"  by  Rev.  J.  Cavanaugh ; 
"Rights  of  users  of  a  college  and  university 
library,  and  how  to  preserve  them,"  by  Wil- 
lard  Austin;  "Some  features  of  work  in  a 
college  library,"  by  E.  A.  Peppiette;  "From 
a  loan  desk,"  by  F.  Stimson;  and  "The  stu- 
dent in  the  foreign  library,"  by  W.  A.  Read. 

Special  Libraries.  December,  contains  an  an- 
nouncement of  the  first  meeting  of  the  Eastern 
District  Special  Libraries  Association,  held  in 
Boston  Jan.  i,  1913;  "Responsibility  districts"; 
"Select  lists  of  references  on  the  commerce 
court" ;  list  of  publications  of  legislative  refer- 
ence departments ;  list  of  current  references ; 
and  a  short  report  of  the  Boston  Co-operation 
Information  Bureau. 

Independent,  January  16,  has  an  article  by 
William  Aspinwall  Bradley  on  the  educational 
value  of  prints,  and  a  descriptive  account  of 
the  Boston  Museum  collection. 


Library  Association  Record,  December  16, 
has  four  lessons  in  a  Short  course  in  practical 
classification;  "The  cost  of  education  and  its 
effect  upon  the  library  movement";  Edward 
Edwards  centenary,  biographical  sketch. 

Library  Assistant,  January,  includes  "Resid- 
ual errors  in  great  English  authors,"  by  J. 
Rendel  Harris ;  "Increasing  facilities  for  bor- 
rowing books,"  by  W.  G.  Fry. 



[February,  1913 

Library  World,  December,  includes  "The 
centenary  of  Edward  Edwards,"  by  H.  T.  G; 
"A  novel  library  experiment,"  by  A.  Cecil 
Piper;  "A  British  library  itinerary,  m./'  by 
James  Duff  Brown. 

Librarian  and  Book  World,  January,  has  a 
series  of  notes  on  "Small  libraries  and  small 
incomes:  what  can  be  done  with  them,"  by 
Edward  Wood;  "The  best  books,"  annotated 
and  classified  by  Arthur  J.  Hawkes;  "Library 
architecture,"  by  T.  Edwin  Cooper;  "Edward 
Edwards:  a  centenary";  "Women's  work  in 
libraries,"  by  Margaret  Reed. 


Bulletin  de  I' Association  des*  Bibliothecaires 
Francais,  September-October,  includes  "New 
publications  concerning  the  French  libraries," 
by  A.  Vidier ;  and  "The  problem  of  indexing," 
by  Ch.  Lustrac. 

Revue  dcs  Bibliotheques,  December,  includes 
"The  inventory  of  the  theological  writings  of 
the  I2th  century  not  included  in  the  Latin 
pathology  of  Migne,"  by  A.  Noyon ;  "A  frag- 
ment of  history  of  the  library  of  the  'College 
d'Autun'  at  Paris,"  by  Charles  Beaulieux;  and 
"A  critical  study  upon  the  manuscripts  of 
Auzias  March,"  by  L.  Barran-Dihigo. 

Zentralblatt  fiif  Bibliothekswesen,  December, 
includes  "The  libraries  on  the  Bugra,"  by  C. 
Nonenberg;  "The  German  National  Library 
and  the  Royal  Library,"  by  P.  Schwenke; 
"Schleiermacher's  letters,"  by  Heinrich  Meis- 
ner ;  and  "International  watermarks,"  by  Ernst 


Bill  drafting.  J.  McKirdy.  Sp.  Lib.  N.,  '12, 
p.  177-182. 

Greater  care  and  skill  in  the  drafting  of  our 
laws  is  necessary.  A  permanent  body  of  men, 
skilled  in  drafting  legislative  bills  and  thor- 
oughly familiar  with  the  laws  —  specialists  in 
law  making  —  can  best  be  entrusted  with  this 
work.  The  ideal  draftsman  must  have  the 
faculty  of  expressing  clearly  and  succinctly  his 
ideas,  a  knowledge  of  the  law  of  his  state  and 
an  acquaintance  with  its  constitution.  He 
must  study  standard  works  on  the  construction 
of  statutes  and  then  practice  untiringly.  The 
draftsman  must  clearly  distinguish  between  the 
subject  and  purpose  of  his  bill.  He  should 
supplement  the  legislator's  suggestions  with 
knowledge  of  his  own.  He  should  understand 
the  latest  political  and  social  theories  as  well 
as  local  conditions,  and  should  study  the  de- 
cisions of  the  various  courts,  and  the  laws  of 
other  states  and  countries.  He  must  guard 
against  mere  copying.  In  bill  drafting  a  rough 
outline  should  first  be  made.  Sentences  should 
be  short,  title  should  be  as  brief  as  possible, 
and  should  not  be  drawn  until  the  end.  Other 
general  rules:  Certain  terms  which  lie  at  the 

heart  of  the  subject  of  the  bill  should  be  de- 
fined, nouns  should  be  used  in  preference  to 
pronouns.  The  question  of  whether  a  sentence 
should  be  in  the  affirmative  or  negative  form 
should  be  considered.  Provisos  should  be  kept 
out  of  the  bill.  Preambles  should  be  avoided 
if  possible.  Especial  care  should  be  taken  to 
make  the  intent  of  penal  and  criminal  statutes 
clear.  Distinction  between  mandatory  and  di- 
rectory statutes  and  provisions  should  be  un- 
derstood. The  draftsman  should  always  be 
prepared  to  explain  the  reasons  for  the  phrase- 
ology and  arrangement  of  his  bill,  and  to  ex- 
plain the  effect  of  it  if  it  become  a  law. 


The  public  library  and  the  cheap  book.  Nor- 
man Treliving.  Lib.  Assist.  D.,  '12,  p.  225-230. 

An  enormous  number  of  cheap  books  are 
yearly  bought  by  the  general  public.  This  may 
mean  (i)  that  the  number  of  books  issued 
from  public  libraries  has  seriously  declined ; 
(2)  that  a  now  reading  public  has  been 
created ;  (3)  that  there  has  been  a  combination 
of  partial  decline,  and  creation  of  more  readers. 
The  third  point  is  probably  nearest  the  truth. 
Since  the  public  can  now  procure  cheap  books 
the  library  may  be  able  to  concentrate  on  pure- 
ly educational  lines.  In  the  discussion  which 
followed  the  following  points  were  brought 
out :  Cheap  books  lead  to  an  improvement  of 
the  reading  habit,  not  necessarily  to  its  in- 
crease. The  librarian  may  serve  the  public  by 
familiarizing  himself  with  the  various  cheap 
series.  The  average  cheap  classic  is  unsuited 
to  library  circulation. 


Some  features  of  work  in  a  college  library. 
E.  A.  Peppiette.  Lib.  Asst.  D.,  '12,  p.  230-237. 

The  college  library  differs  from  the  public 
library  in  that  it  meets  the  needs  of  a  limited 
ckss  of  readers.  Its  frequenters  are  (i)  or- 
dinary students,  (2)  research  students  and 
members  of  teaching  staff.  But  besides  the 
books  dealing  with  various  courses  and  those 
used  by  research  workers,  masterpieces  of 
English  and  foreign  literature  are  necessary. 
In  this  direction  the  librarian  may  guide  his 
readers.  Temporary  runs  on  certain  books 
may  be  met  by  limiting  the  time  of  each  bor- 
rower. Scientific  books,  soon  out  of  date, 
should  not  be  duplicated,  but  new  editions 
should  be  purchased  as  soon  as  issued.  A 
card  or  sheaf  catalog  in  classified  rather  than 
dictionary  form  usually  meets  all  requirements. 
The  departmental  or  seminar  libraries  are  best 
managed  from  the  main  library.  The  number 
of  books  a  person  may  borrow  is  regulated 
according  to  his  standing  in  the  college.  There 
is  need  of  some  system  of  cooperation  between 
public  and  college  libraries  whereby  users  of 
the  former  may  be  admitted  to  the  latter. 
While  some  college  libraries  are  flourishing, 
others  are  hardly  capable  of  existence.  The 
librarian  should  create  enthusiasm  among  mem- 

1'ebruary,  1913] 


bers  of  his  committee  and  governors  o-f  his 
college.  Fortunately  the  day  of  the  untrained 
librarian  is  over.  A  knowledge  of  municipal 
and  non-municipal  library  work  should  be  re- 
quired for  a  full  diploma. 


Rights  of  the  users  of  a  college  and  univer- 
sity library  and  how  to  preserve  them.  Willard 
Austin.  Pub.  Lib.  J.,  '13,  p.  6-10. 

The  users  of  a  college  library  are  roughly 
divided  into  two  classes,  the  mature  teacher 
and  the  immature  student;  they  often  need 
different  sorts  of  books  and  oftener  books 
needed  for  research  are  needed  for  general 
reading.  Flexibility  in  the  use  of  a  library  is 
the  key  to  the  greatest  usefulness — the  ideal 
being  the  ability  to  shift  anything  from  the 
place  where  it  is  little  needed  to  a  place  where 
it  is  mtich  needed  at  a  moment's  notice,  re- 
gardless of  the  character  of  material  or  the 
position  of  the  person  needing  it.  The  positive 
knowledge  that  a  particular  book  will  be 
found  in  the.  library,  in  the  same  place  at  all 
times,  is  an  ideal  much  overestimated.  Classes 
of  readers  are  defined  and  characterized,  and 
the  following  recommendations  are  given  for 
a  middle  course  between  keeping  the  library 
entirely  in  the  building  and  complete  freedom 
of  use;  an  adequate  code  of  rules,  particularly 
in  order  to  get  books  returned ;  penalties  other 
than  money  fines  for  irresponsible  students, 
and  a  system  of  notation  indicating  for  each 
work  its  character  and  relation  to  other  mate- 
rial in  the  library. 


Concerning  the  Central  Catalogue.  Dr.  v. 
Mzik.  Zeitschr.  f.  Os.  Ver.  f.  Bibliotheksw. 

S.,    '12,   p.    I48-I5I. 

Dr.  v.  Mzik  makes  certain  objections  to  the 
central  catalogue  of  Germany.  It  is  too  ex- 
pensive; it  takes  no  account  of  Swiss  and  Aus- 
trian libraries;  it  excludes  certain  books.  A 
change  is  necessary.  It  seems  imperative  that 
the  Austrian  and  Swiss  libraries  should  be 


Centenary  of  Edward  Edwards,  1812-1912. 
H.  T.  C  Lib.  World.  D.,  '12,  p.  162-164. 

Life  of  the  man  who  laid  the  foundations  of 
the  public  libraries  movement  in  England.  He 
was  behind  Ewart  and  Brotherton,  the  men 
who  took  the  largest  part  in  passing  the  first 
Public  Libraries  Bill. 

Edward  Edwards.  C  W.  Sutton.  Lib.  Ass. 
R.  D..i6,  '12,  p.  615-624. 

Biographical  account  in  some  detail  by  the 
librarian  of  the  Manchester  Public  Library, 
office  held  by  Edwards. 


The  cost  of  education  and  its  effect  upon  the 
library  movement.  Ernest  A.  Savage.  Lib. 
Ass.  R.  D.  16,  '12.  p.  603-613. 

The  question  of  public  education  in  England 

has  a  direct  bearing  upon  the  public  libraries 
through  the  pocket  book  of  the  ratepayer.  The 
increase  in  the  tax  for  education  beyond  the 
limit  originally  set  makes  the  ratepayer  sus- 
picious of  any  increase  for  libraries.  The  au- 
thor finds  that  English  ratepayers  dislike  the 
extension  of  library  work.  He  is  willing  to 
reply  that  library  work,  strictly  so-called,  is 
all  the  library  wishes  to  do.  It  needs  more 
money,  however,  to  have  that  work  better 
done.  Suggestions  and  criticisms  of  system 
of  education,  and  methods  of  cooperation  on 
the  part  of  libraries. 


Engineering  library  efficiency.  W.  D.  John- 
ston. Sch.  of  Mines  Quar.,  N.,  '12,  pp.  26-31. 

Notes  gathered  by  examination  of  college 
catalogs,  reports,  etc.  Building  conditions  are 
inadequate  in  many  schools  and  colleges.  In 
some  cases  a  part  of  the  general  library  is 
considered  sufficient.  Often  the  smaller  en- 
gineering schools  have  the  better  libraries. 
Wisconsin  and  Minnesota  are  making  im- 
provements in  their  engineering  departments. 
In  the  large  universities,  about  5.3  per  cent, 
of  book  expenditure  is  for  engineering  liter- 
ature; 24  per  cent,  of  this  is  for  periodicals. 
Few  people  have  endowed  engineering  libra- 
ries. Notable  exceptions  are  Dr.  Corthell  and 
Prof.  Thomas  Egleston.  Journals  of  interest 
in  various  courses  are  usually  shelved  in  the 
general  reading-room,  or  duplicated  in  the 
department  reading-room.  Seating  capacity 
varies  from  one  seat  for  every  3.66  students 
at  Pennsylvania,  to  one  for  every  32.1  stu- 
dents at  Missouri.  Average,  i  to  every  13. 
It  is  generally  held  that  engineering  libraries 
should  be  subject  to  supervision  of  university 
librarian,  and  cared  for  by  a  trained  and  ex- 
perienced assistant. 

The  student  in  the  foreign  library.  W.  A. 
Read.  Pub.  Lib.,  Ja.,  '13,  pp.  14-15- 

Description  of  German  libraries ;  slow  in 
their  methods.  The  author  admires  the  sem- 
inar library.  The  library  of  the  British  Mu- 
seum is  described,  especially  the  reading-room. 
There  follows  an  account  of  a  visit  to  the 
Bodleian  Library  at  Oxford,  with  a  descrip- 
tion of  some  of  its  most  famous  manuscripts, 
and  an  account  of  the  "Scriptorium"  of  Sir 
James  Murray  at  Oxford,  where  the  new- 
English  Dictionary  is  being  made. 


German  national  library  and  royal  library. 
P.  Schwenke.  Zentralbl.  f.  Bibliothek.  D.  '12. 
P-  536-542. 

Mr.  Schwenke  tries  to  prove  that  Germany 
should  have  a  central  library  at  the  Royal  Li- 
brary in  Berlin,  which  seems  best  fitted  for 
that  purpose.  It  has  more  books  than  any 
other  library  in  Germany;  it  always  has  been 
willing  to  send  these  books  to  any  part  of  the 
em,pire.  There  is  only  one  drawback  —  lack 



{February,  1913 

of  money.  Itl  is  impossible  to  buy  all  of  the 
new  books  which  are  published  throughout 
the  course  of  the  year.  Publishers  should 
cooperate  by  sending  free  copies  of  all  books 
published  in  Germany.  They  now  send  these 
copies  to  the  Archivs  des  deutschen  Schrift- 
ums  und  des  deutschen  Buchhandels  at  Leip- 
zig. By  doing  so  they  make  the  task  of  the 
Royal  Library  a  more  difficult  one  and  defeat 
their  own  ends.  Mr.  Schwenke  frequently 
quotes  a  pamphlet  by  Adolf  Harnack  dealing 
with  the  same  matter.  The  paper  is  an  argu- 
ment against  the  Deutsche  Biicherei  to  be 
established  in  Leipzig. 


Education  of  the  modern  librarian.  Dr.  F. 
Eichler.  Zeitschr.  des  Os.  vcr.  /.  Biblio- 
theksw.  N.,  '12,  p.  130-158. 

The  modern  librarian  should  be  well  edu- 
cated. He  should  not  know  only  about 
books;  he  should  also  know  the  value  of  their 
contents.  Too  little  has  been  done  to  prepare 
librarians  for  their  work.  France  and  Amer- 
ica lead  the  way  in  this  respect.  Germany 
must  follow.  The  librarian  should  have  a 
doctor's  degree,  he  also  should  have  a  prac- 
tical experience  of  at  least  two  years  in  one 
of  the  large  university  libraries.  Lectures 
should  be  given  at  the  universities  dealing 
with  library  matters. 


As  to  public  libraries.  (Editorial  in  the 
Springfield  (Mass.)  Republican  for  Jan.  21, 

Referring  in  complimentary  fashion  to  the 
good  work  done  and  valuable  ideas  gained 
at  such  library  conventions  as  that  at  Ottawa, 
the  Republican  yet  asks  why  "the  report  of 
a  meeting  so  obviously  profitable  and  stimu- 
lating need  run  to  such  inordinate  length? 
Here  are  370  large,  closely  printed  pages, 
turning  which  one  occasionally  comes  upon 
an  expression  of  regret  that  librarians  have 
no  time  to  read.  How  could  they  expect  to 
have  time  for  books  if  they  undertake  to  read 
such  things  as  these?  The  matter  would 
hardly  concern  the  public  but  for  the  general 
tendency  in  the  same  direction — governmental 
as  well  as  professional  bodies  suffer  from  the 
modern  facility  in  stenography  and  printing; 
the  blue  pencil  has  not  kept  pace  with  modern 
inventions.  Why  should  the  entirely  perfunc- 
tory words  of  introduction  to  each  lecturer 
or  participant  in  a  discussion  be  recorded? 
And  for  that  matter,  most  papers  presented 
at  such  gatherings  would  profit  greatly  if  the 
first  few  hundred  words  of  deprecation  and 
apology  were  cut  out;  at  a  convention  such 
modesty  is  all  very  well,  but  in  the  permanent 
report  what  is  of  consequence  is  the  ideas 


From  a  loan  desk.  F.  Stimson.  Pub.  Lib., 
Ja.,  '13,  p.  13. 

Records  must  be  accessible.  There  should 
be  one  place  for  search,  and  the  method  easily 
traced  by  others  than  the  charging  clerk.  A 
dummy  should  indicate  the  location  of  books 
permanently  withdrawn.  Records  should  be 
brought  up  to  date  daily.  At  the  University 
of  Cincinnati  all  charging  is  done  on  small 
slips,  filed  either  temporarily  in  a  small  tray 
or  permanently  in  a  larger  one,  and  upon 
cards  filed  by  the  reader's  name  (students 
and  professors  in  one  list).  There  is  another 
record,  under  date,  of  books  withdrawn  for 
a  limited  time — more  than  three  days  or  so. 
This  is  a  very  simple  method,  and,  for  the 
purpose,  on  the  whole,  satisfactory. 


Improving  the  sheaf  catalog;  a  note.  F. 
Haigh.  Lib.  World,  N.,  '12,  p.  152-154. 

While  the  sheaf  catalog  can  be  easily  kept 
up  to  date,  and  is  in  book  form,  it  possesses 
this  slight  disadvantage — it  is  difficult  to  pro- 
vide a  suitable  title  in  the  small  space  allowed 
on  the  back.  This  solution  is  offered:  Re- 
move the  2-inch  by  i-loch  xylonite  label  and 
substitute  a  strip  of  leather  5  inches  by  3^2 
inches,  which  will  overlap  at  the  sides  and 
thus  be  less  likely  to  peel  off. 


A  novel  library  experiment.  A.  Cecil  Piper. 
Lib.  World.  D.,  '12,  p.  165-166. 

The  Vicar  of  Midhurst,  Sussex,  has  placed 
in  the  two  railway  stations  of  that  town  book- 
cases holding  about  a  dozen  books  on  various 
subjects.  The  following  notice  is  placed  above 
them:  "These  books  belong  to  the  Vicar  of 
Midhurst,  and  are  entrusted  to  the  care  of 
those  who  use  them.  Travellers  are  welcome 
to  take  a  book  with  them  on  their  journey  if 
they  will  kindly  replace  it  on  return,  or  send  it 
by  post  to  the  stationmaster."  The  scheme  has 
met  with  much  favor  and  success. 

International  research  of  watermarks.  Ernst 
Grous.  Zentralbl.  f.  Bibliothekswesen.  .  D., 
'12,  p.  551-552. 

Emphasizes  the  value  of  watermarks  in  set- 
tling the  date  of  manuscripts,  and  seconds  the 
proposal  of  M.  E.  de  Witte,  of  Brussels,  to 
create  an  international  catalog  of  watermarks. 

IRotes  anfr  TRews 

Building  Committee  of  the  Brooklyn  Public 
Library  sent,  on  Jan.  n,  1913,  to  the  Hon. 
Wm.  A.  Prendergast,  comptroller,  for  the 
corporate  stock  budget  committee,  Finance 
Department  of  the  City  of  New  York,  and  to 
the  president  of  the  Borough  of  Brooklyn,  the 
following  resolutions : 

Resolved,  That  the  Committee  on  Central  Library 
Building,  after  further  and  full  consideration,  again 
record  the  opinion,  already  expressed  in  the  Board 
of  Trustees  of  the  Brooklyn  Public  Library,  Jan.  21, 
1909,  and  in  the  vote  of  this  committee  July  12,  1912. 
in  favor  of  completing  the  Flatbush  Avenue  wing  of 

February,  1913] 


the  Central  Library,  in  order  that  the  investment  of 
the  city  may  be  utilized  at  the  earliest  practical  date, 
that  the  valuable  collection  transferred  by  the  old 
Brooklyn  Library  to  the  Brooklyn  Public  Library  sys- 
tem and  now  housed  under  dangerous  fire  conditions 
in  the  Montague  street  building  may  be  safeguarded, 
that  the  administrative  work  of  the  library,  now  car- 
ried on  under  difficult  conditions  chiefly  in  the  rented 
building  on  Brevoort  Place,  may  be  efficiently  cen- 
tered, and  that  the  service  of  the  library  through  the 
central  building  may  be  given  to  the  Brooklyn  public 
as  soon  as  possible;  and 

Resolved,  That  the  municipal  authorities  be  respect- 
fully urged  to  provide  in  the  corporate  stock  budget 
for  the  completion  of  this  wing,  at  the  estimated  cost 
of  $1,165,000,  the  amount  to  be  available  in  the  years 
1913  and  1914,  as  the  progress  of  the  work  may 

COLORED  BRANCH  LIBRARIES. — Public  libraries 
for  negroes  have  already  been  established  in 
Nashville  and  Atlanta,  and  branches  are  soon 
t6  be  built  in  Louisville,  Ky.,  and  New  Or- 
leans, La.  Part  of  the  money  necessary  for 
the  purchase  of  the  Louisville  site  was  raised 
by  the  colored  people  of  that  city,  and  the 
building,  a  Carnegie  gift,  will  be  erected  at 
a  cost  of  about  $18,000.  The  New  Orleans 
project  has  also  been  made  possible  by  Mr. 
Carnegie;  the  land  has  been  purchased,  and 
work  is  to  begin  directly. 

the  terms  of  a  decision  handed  down  by 
Judge  Shackleford  Miller,  of  the  Kentucky 
Court  of  Appeals,  is  to  have  direct  control  of 
the  property  of  the  Polytechnic  Society  of 
Louisville.  This  organization,  which  once 
maintained  a  library  there,  before  the  time 
of  the  public  library,  and  has  handed  over  its 
income  to  the  Public  Library  for  some  time, 
has  had  as  its  only  other  power  the  right  to 
elect  certain  trustees.  The  society  will  now 
disband,  and  the  property,  worth  some  $400,- 
ooo,  will  revert  to  the  library. 

—Mr.  William  H.  Baldwin  (1415  Twenty- 
first  street,  N.  W.,  Washington,  D.  C),  an 
economist,  will  send  to  libraries  desiring  them 
reprints  of  a  number  of  articles  by  him  on 
the  subject  of  family  desertion  and  non-sup- 
port laws,  on  which  subject  he  has  become  an 
authority.  The  titles  of  the  pamphlets  are 
as  follows:  "The  present  status  of  family 
desertion  and  non-support  laws" ;  "Family 
desertion  and  non-support  laws  in  Pennsyl- 
vania";  "Non-support  laws  and  the  Chicago 
Court  of  Domestic  Relations" ;  "Extradition 
for  family  desertion" ;  "Must  a  man,  charged 
in  Pennsylvania  with  misdemeanor  on  account 
of  desertion  or  non-support  of  his  wife  or 
children,  be  tried  by  a  jury?" 

Equipped  with  a  printing  press,  a  reading- 
room  and  four  other  rooms  designed  for  the 
comfort  of  the  sightless,  the  National  Library 
for  the  Blind  is  settled  in  new  quarters  with- 
in a  few  blocks  of  the  White  House.  ,The 
printing  press  will  be  operated  by  blind  print- 
ers and  pressmen,  and  the  output  will  be 
books  and  pamphlets  designed  for  those  whose 
sight  is  gone.  One  of  the  main  objects  is  the 

education  of  the  sightless  in  the  art  of  setting 
Braille  type  and  in  printing  and  binding  their 
own  books,  which  are  read  by  the  "touch" 
system.  The  books  will  be  placed  in  circula- 
tion and  sent  throughout  the  United  States 
to  other  societies  for  the  blind.  The  national 
organization's  new  home  is  the  gift  of  Mrs. 
R.  McManes  Colfell,  of  Philadelphia.  The 
circulating  library  has  been  started  with  a 
collection  of  books  presented  by  the  Perkins 
Institute,  of  Boston,  and  by  the  School  for 
the  Blind,  at  Halifax,  N.  S.  In  addition, 
Baroness  von  Schenck,  in  Mexico,  has  prom- 
ised to  send  the  institution  one  book  each 


The  Oklahoma  legislature  is  to  consider, 
this  session,  a  bill  providing  for  a  state  library 
commission  on  the  plan  in  operation  in  other 
states — a  small  organization  to  aid  in  the  or- 
ganization of  new  libraries,  to  secure  a  trained 
librarian  to  act  as  secretary  and  organizer, 
to  provide  for  traveling  libraries,  to  conduct 
a  summer  training  school  for  librarians,  and 
to  secure  a  higher  degree  of  efficiency  in  the 
administration  of  libraries  throughout  the 

(Ky.)  Law  Library  was  installed,  January  10, 
in  its  new  quarters  in  the  Inter-Southern 
Building.  Through  the  courtesy  of  the  man- 
agement of  the  building,  half  of  one  floor 
has  been  leased  for  the  use  of  the  library,  at 
the  nominal  rate  of  $i  per  annum.  Judge 
C.  B.  Seymour,  president  of  the  Law  Library 
Association,  has  paid  the  rental  for  the  next 
twenty  years. 

HARVARD  LIBRARY.— Work  of  tearing  down 
Gore  Hall,  the  old  library  of  Harvard  Uni- 
versity, is  now  in  progress,  the  contract  hav- 
ing been  awarded  to  Elston  &  Swift,  of  Bos- 
ton. The  structure  must  be  entirely  removed 
within  forty-eight  days,  so  that  work  on  the 
erection  of  the  new  Widener  Memorial  Li- 
brary may  be  started  early  in  March. 

NEWSPAPER  COOPERATION.  —  An  interesting 
example  of  cooperation  between  a  public  li- 
brary and  a  newspaper  is  seen  in  the  relation 
of  the  Washington  Star  to  the  public  library 
of  the  District  of  Columbia.  The  lists  of  new 
books  bought  for  the  library  appears  first  of 
all  in  the  literary  columns  of  the  Star,  and 
the  type  is  saved  and  used  again  for  the 
bulletin  of  the  library. 

ST.  PAUL'S  NEW  LIBRARIES.  —  Two  public 
structures  costing  approximately  $1,500,000,  in- 
cluding the  land  they  are  to  cover,  are  to  be 
erected  in  St.  Paul,  Minn.  They  are  the  pub- 
lic library  and  the  reference  library  of  James 
J.  Hill,  the  latter  to  be  Mr.  Hill's  gift  to  the 
city.  According  to  the  designs  by  E.  D. 
Litchfield,  a  New  York  architect,  the  struc- 
tures will  be  patterned  after  the  library  build- 
ing of  J.  P.  Morgan.  Both  structures  will  be 



[February,  1913 

under  one  roof,  and  will  have  two  entrances, 
one  en  Fourth  street  and  one  on  Washington 
street.  Funds  for  the  library  were  raised  by 
popular  subscription.  It  is  estimated  to  cost 
$600,000,  while  $700,000  is  the  estimate  of  the 
cost  of  the  Hill  reference  library.  The  fagade 
of  the  structures  will  be  in  marble,  granite, 
and  white  stone  of  modern  architecture.  Con- 
struction will  be  commenced  this  spring. 

NEW  BRANCHES. — Two  new  branch  libraries 
were  opened,  Jan.  i,  1913,  in  Evansville,  Ind. 
Dr.  Edgar  Young  Mullens,  of  the  Southern 
Baptist  Theological  Seminary  and  trustee  of 
the  Louisville  (Ky.)  Carnegie  Library,  made 
an  address. 

wiler,  of  School  27,  in  Indianapolis,  Ind., 
saved  from  her  own  allowance  a  sum  to  buy 
books  for  the  school  library  in  memory  of  a 
little  nine-year-old  sister  who  died  last  year. 
The  library,  newly  dedicated,  will  be  known 
as  the  Belle  Caroline  Tutewiler  Library. 

gie Library  of  Montgomery,  Ala.,  sends  regu- 
larly assignments  of  books  to  the  exchange 
of  the  Southern  Bell  Telephone  and  Tele- 
graph Company,  for  the  use  of  operators 
whose  hours  on  duty  prevent  them  from  call- 
ing at  the  library,  and  for  others  who  wish 
to  draw  books. 

A  MUNICIPAL  LIBRARY. — In  Columbus,  O., 
there  is  a  movement  afoot  for  the  creation  of 
a  municipal  library  for  the  use  of  public 

A    SELF-SUPPORTING    LIBRARY.  —  The     George 

Smith  Public  Library,  of  Junction  City,  Kan., 
is  supported  entirely  by  the  rental  of  shops 
in  its  first  story.  The  original  gift  went  to 
build  the  building,  and  no  provision  was 
needed  for  endowment  or  support  by  the 
town.  The  plan  is  reported  as  working  well. 

LIBRARY  TRUSTEE  HONORED.  —  A  testimonial 
dinner  was  given  at  the  University  Club,  Mad- 
ison, Wis.,  Jan.  13,  1913,  to  Mr.  Frank  A. 
Hutchins,  trustee  of  the  Madison  Public  Li- 
brary. Addresses  were  given  showing  Mr. 
Hutchins'  wide  range  of  activities  in  connec- 
tion with  library  work:  "Mr.  Hutchins  and 
the  early  days  of  the  library  commission"; 
"Mr.  Hutchins  and  the  township  libraries"; 
"Mr,  Hutchins  and  the  state  park  movement" ; 
"Mr.  Hutchins  and  the  anti-tuberculosis  cru- 
sade" ;  "Mr.  Hutchins  and  the  University  Ex- 
tension Division":  "Mr.  Hutchins  and  the  leg- 
islative reference  work." 

A  LIBRARY  PAGE. — The  Louisville  Times  is 
printing  every  Saturday  a  page  of  interesting 
library  news,  anecdotes  and  readable  informa- 
tion of  the  library  world,  edited  by  Malcolm 
W.  Bayley. 

"THE  LAST  LEAF."  a  volume  of  reminiscences 
by  Dr.  James  Kendall  Hosmer,  who  was 

president  of  the  A.  L.  A.  in  1903,  will  be  of 
particular  interest  to  librarians.  It  contains 
recollections  of  Civil  War  commanders,  great 
scholars  of  Germany  and  England,  and  the 
famous  figures  in  American  literature.  The 
book  is  of  the  same  charm  as  Senator  Hoar's 
autobiography  and  Andrew  D.  White's  rem- 

A.     L.     A.     MID-WINTER     MEETINGS. — At     the 

mid-winter  meetings  of  the  A.  L.  A.  in  Chi- 
cago, there  were  present  134  representatives 
from  18  states,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and 
two  provinces  of  Canada.  Illinois  led  with 
34,  New  York  and  Ohio  sent  n  and  10  repre- 
sentatives, respectively. 

SUFFRAGE  traveling  libraries,  according  to 
present  plans,  are  to  be  sent  out  to  follow  up 
the  woman  suffrage  organizers'  visits  to  towns 
and  villages  in  New  York  state.  This  work  is 
under  the  direction  of  the  Equal  Franchise 
Society,  which  maintains  a  free  circulating  li- 
brary and  reading  room  in  New  York  City. 
The  collection  is  still  in  its  infancy,  containing 
at  present  250  volumes. 

MUNICIPAL  LIBRARY.  —  The  Public  Library 
at  Fort  Wayne,  Ind..  has  opened  a  Business 
and  Municipal  Department,  and  transferred  to 
this  department  its  large  collection  of  technical 
books,  magazines,  pamphlets  and  public  docu- 
ments. The  department  occupies  three  large 
rooms  on  the  second  floor  of  the  library  build- 
ing and  books  are  circulated  from  it.  The 
library  purposes  making  the  department  a  bu- 
reau of  information  and  an  educational  center 
for  the  industrial,  technical,  scientific,  business, 
and  professional  men  and  women  of  the  city. 
It  also  aims  to  collect  and  make  available  for 
the  use  of  the  city  officials  and  general  public 
literature  of  all  kinds  relative  to  questions 
concerning  the  government  and  general  wel- 
fare of  a  modern  city. 

WAYNESBORO,  VA.,  is  the  third  city  in  that 
state  to  take  advantage  of  the  state  public 
library  law.  The  public  library  has  grown 
out  of  the  training  library  furnished  by  the 
state.  Under  the  terms  of  a  bill  passed  by  the 
General  Assembly  of  1899-1900,  the  council 
of  any  incorporated  town  shall  have  the 
power  to  levy  a  tax,  not  exceeding  I  mill  on 
the  dollar  annually,  for  the  purpose  of  main- 
taining a  public  library.  Although  the  bill 
was  passed  fourteen  years  ago,  few  Virginia 
towns  have  shown  any  desire  to  take  advan- 
tage of  it.  However,  through  the  medium  of 
the  traveling  library,  Dr.  Henry  R.  Mcllwaine. 
the  state  librarian,  has  succeeded  in  creating 
sentiment  for  public  libraries  in  various  sec- 
tions of  the  state,  and  other  towns  are  ex- 
pected to  follow  the  example  of  Waynesboro. 

cate pay  collection  of  fiction  at  the  Pratt  In- 
stitute Free  Library  of  Brooklyn  is  reported 
as  follows : 

February,  1913] 



"In  our  last  report  we  announced  the  re- 
vival of  the  plan  of  purchasing  duplications 
of  the  best  new  fiction  to  issue  at  a  nominal 
price  to  those  who  felt  it  a  hardship  to  wait 
for  the  regular  shelf  copies.  It  belongs  to 
this  report  to  show  the  success  of  the  ex- 
periment by  a  statement  of  its  actual  work- 
ing out  from  its  beginning,  Feb.  4,  1911,  to 
the  close  of  the  first  complete  fiscal  year 
thereafter : 

Total  earnings  of  the  collection $283.73 

136  volumes    transferred    to    regular    shelves 

i  copy  lost  and  paid  for 
90  volumes    in    collection    June    30,    1912 

227  copies   purchased  at  a  cost  of 237.70 

Net    cash    profit $46.03 

"Though  financial  advantage  to  the  library 
formed  no  part  of  the  argument  advanced  for 
this  experiment,  it  is  essential  that  the  venture 
should  involve  no  loss.  To  produce  a  small 
balance  annually,  and  to  contribute  regularly 
additional  copies  for  our  free  circulation,  are 
incidental  advantages  that  accentuate  the  pro- 
priety of  the  duplicate  pay  collection. 

"It  might  seem  that  a  supplementary  collec- 
tion of  novels  like  this  would  facilitate  fiction 
borrowing  to  the  point  of  perceptibly  increas- 
ing our  'fiction  percentage/  It  is  deserving  of 
comment  that  our  proportion  of  fiction  issue 
in  1911-1912  was  actually  less  than  during  the 
previous  year  before  the  existence  of  the 

Evansville,  Ind.  Two  new  Carnegie  libra- 
ries, in  the  East  Side  and  West  Side,  were 
formally  opened  to  the  public  on  New  Year's 
day.  Appropriate  dedicatory  exercises  were 
held  from  Jan.  i  to  Jan.  4.  The  program  in- 
cluded an  address  on  "Books  and  people,"  by 
Edgar  Young  Mullens,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  of  Louis- 
ville, Ky.,  a  meeting  of  section  i  of  the  In- 
diana Library  Association,  and  story  hours  for 
the  school  children  of  the  city  by  Mrs.  Gudrun 
Thorne-Thomsen,  of  the  University  of  Chi- 
cago. The  exercises  were  preceded  by  recep- 
tions to  the  city  officials  and  citizens,  held  in 
the  library  buildings  and  the  junior  high 

Patten  Free  Library,  Bath,  Me.  A  story 
hour  was  instituted  Jan.  4,  1913.  Posters 
were  bulletined  the  day  before,  announcing 
"Fairy  tales,  children's  room,  Saturday,  2 
o'clock."  As  a  result  about  one  hundred  boys 
and  girls  were  on  hand  at  the  appointed  hour. 
The  story  was  told  by  one  who  has  had 
valuable  practical  experience  in  this  line  of 
education  on  the  East  Side,  New  York  City. 
At  this  first  trial  of  the  story  hour,  the  room 
was  by  no  means  large  enough  to  seat  half 
the  children,  and  many  came  who  had  never 
been  inside  the  library  before. 

THE  public  library  of  Grand  Rapids  has 
established  twenty-five  libraries  in  the  public 
schools  of  the  city.  From  a  total  of  15,000 
volumes,  a  circulation  of  7^,457  was  reached. 

The  children's  librarian  and  other  members 
of  the  library  staff  visit  the  schools  during 
the  year  and  talk  with  the  teachers  and  chil- 
dren about  the  use  of  the  books.  There  are 
opportunities  for  the  teachers  to  bring  their 
classes  to  the  library  for  instruction  in  the 
use  of  a  library.  Six  school  buildings  have 
branch  libraries  for  both  adults  and  children. 

San  Francisco.  The  Sturge  Library,  named 
in  honor  of  Dr.  and  Mrs.  F.  A.  Sturge  for 
their  work  of  more  than  a  quarter  century 
among  the  Japanese  on  the  Pacific  coast,  \va* 
formally  opened  in  December.  The  library 
comprises  1300  English  and  800  Japanese 
books  and  several  hundred  unbound  sets  of 

THE  home  circulation  from  the  New  York 
Public  Library  was,  in  1912,  7,669,664.  Brook- 
lyn, with  its  4,380,779,  follows,  and  Chicago 
has  leaped  to  a  circulation  of  3,762,858,  with 
a  home  circulation  of  2,004,889. 

Philadelphia.  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences 
has  issued  its  proceedings  of  the  meetings 
held  March  19-21,  1912,  in  commemoration  of 
the  looth  anniversary.  The  proceedings  in- 
clude reminiscences  of  the  recording  secretary, 
Dr.  Nolan,  famed  in  A.  L.  A.  circles. 

Geneva  (Neb.)  Public  Library.  The  Car- 
negie library  building,  which  cost  $12,000,  was 
dedicated  January  9. 

Cleveland  Public  Library  has  opened  a  mu- 
nicipal reference  library  in  the  city  hall. 

BOSTWICK,  A.  E.,  has  been  elected  president 
of  the  City  Club  of  St.  Louis. 

CAMPBELL,  Thomas  A.,  for  thirty-five  years 
librarian  of  the  law  library  in  the  Equitable 
Building,  in  New  York,  died,  Jan.  9,  1913,  in 
the  Prospect  Heights  Hospital,  Brooklyn,  of 
pneumonia.  He  was  sixty-four  years  old. 

FLEXNER,  Jennie  N.,  Western  Reserve,  '09, 
who  has  been  classifier  in  the  Louisville  Free 
Public  Library,  has  been  appointed  head  of 
the  circulation  department  of  that  library. 

GLEASON,  Celia,  for  24  years  connected  with 
the  Los  Angeles  Public  Library  and  14  years 
assistant  librarian,  resigned  Dec.  24  to  become 
county  librarian  in  the  newly  established  li- 
brary of  Los  Angeles  county. 

GORGAS,  Mrs.  Amelia  G.,  for  thirty-four  years 
librarian  at  the  University  of  Alabama,  died 
Jan.  3,  1913,  in  Tuscaloosa,  aged  88. 

HAMMOND,  Otis  G.,  after  several  years'  ser- 
vice as  assistant  state  librarian  of  New  Hamp- 
shire, has  been  appointed  superintendent  of 
the  New  Hampshire  Historical  Society,  with 
executive  charge  of  all  departments.  The 
new  building,  costing  $500,000,  was  presented 



[February,  1913 

to  the  society  by  Mr.  Edward  Tuck,  a  native 
of  the  state. 

THE  New  York  Sun,  in  its  issue  of  Jan.  12, 
1913,  has  a  column  editorial,  headed  "A  li- 
brary that  does  things,"  an  enthusiastic  ap- 
preciation of  Mr.  John  Cotton  Dana's  work 
at  Newark,  and  of  his  paper,  The  Newarker, 
which,  says  the  Sun,  plays  "the  part  of  a  wide- 
awake, good-natured,  alert  and  intelligently 
patriotic  citizen." 

Noxz,  Cornelia,  has  been  appointed  librarian 
of  the  San  Antonio  (Tex.)  Public  Library. 
She  is  a  graduate  of  the  University  of  Wis- 
consin and  took  a  post-graduate  course  in  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania.  In  1904  she  was 
graduated  from  the  Drexel  Institute  Library 
School,  and  took  up  library  work  in  various 
public  and  school  libraries  in  Wisconsin.  Be- 
fore coming  to  San  Antonio  she  was  con- 
nected with  the  Yale  University  Library.  Her 
predecessor.  Miss  Edwards,  was  married  on 
Nov.  20  to  Mr.  E.  H.  Dittmar. 

PAGE,  Annie  R,  of  Hallowell,  Me.,  recently 
completed  forty  years  of  service  as  librarian 
in  that  town.  From  the  small  collection  of 
books,  kept  in  a  room  over  a  store,  and  owned 
by  a  stock  company  and  used  only  by  paid 
subscribers,  she  has  watched  its  growth  to  its 
present  1 1,000  volumes.  A  feature  of  the  li- 
brary is  a  valuable  collection  of  imprints, 
books  printed  in  Hallowell,  old  newspapers 
and  ancient  books,  gathered  solely  by  Miss 

PRINCE,  Henry  C.,  of  Madison,  Me.,  has 
t>een  appointed  state  librarian  by  Gov.  Haines. 

ROBINSON,  Prof.  Otis  Hall,  assistant  librar 
dan,  1866-1868,  and  librarian,  1868-1881,  of  the 
University  of  Rochester,  died  in  Rochester, 
N.  Y.,  Dec.  12,  1912,  aged  77  years.  Prof. 
Robinson,  besides  discharging  the  arduous 
duties  of  a  professor  in  a  small  college,  classi- 
fied, cataloged  and  brought  to  a  high  grade  of 
efficiency  the  library  under  his  charge,  in  very 
large  part  by  his  individual  labors.  In  some 
lines  of  library  work  he  was  among  the  pio- 
neers. He  made  in  manuscript  for  the  books 
of  the  library  up  to  1880,  an  index  on  the  lines 
of  the  A.  L.  A.  Index  to  general  literature, 
first  published  in  1893,  and  a  supplement,  for 
the  periodicals  in  the  library  for  1852-1880,  to 
Poole's  Index  of  1852.  In  order  to  keep  these 
and  their  annual  additions  in  alphabetical  order 
he  devised  a  loose-leaf  binder  35  years  before 
loose-leaf  binding  came  into  commercial  vogue. 
The  card  catalog  which  he  made  was  one  of 
the  first  half  dozen  ever  formed,  and  the  first 
in  America  to  employ  the  rod  through  the  cards 
to  hold  them  in  place.  He  was  an  active  par- 
ticipant in  the  first  A.  L.  A.  Conference,  at 
Philadelphia  in  1876,  and  a  contributor  of  ar- 
ticles on  library  matters  to  the  Convocation  of 
the  University  of  the  State  of  New  York  and 
to  the  United  States  Report  on  Libraries  of 
1876,  in  one  of  which  the  binder  above  men- 

tioned is  figured  and  described.    Since  1903  he 
had  been  professor  emeritus. 

STOLLBERG,  Luella  E.,  Western  Reserve,  '08, 
who  has  been  first  assistant  in  the  Glenville 
Branch  of  the  Cleveland  Public  Library,  has 
resigned,  to  accept  the  position -of  head  of  the 
children's  department  of  the  Toledo  Public 

TODD,  Cora  W.,  for  the  past  two  years 
children's  librarian  of  the  Jackson  (Mich.) 
Public  Library,  has  resigned,  to  take  a  similar 
position  in  the  Rosenburg  Public  Library,  of 
Galveston,  Tex. 

WATSON,  William  R.,  formerly  librarian  of 
the  San  Francisco  Public  Library  and  assist- 
ant librarian  of  the  Carnegie  Library  in  Pitts- 
burgh, has  been  appointed  chief  of  the  educa- 
tional extension  division  of  the  New  York 
State  Education  Department  (or  head  of  the 
traveling  library).  He  succeeds  William  R. 
Eastman,  who  retires  after  twenty  years  in 
the  place.  Mr.  Watson's  professional  record 
includes  service  from  1907  to  this  year  in 
San  Francisco,  during  its  trying  but  success- 
ful reconstruction  period  since  the  disaster. 

WHITNEY,  James  Lyman,  the  honored  libra- 
rian of  the  Boston  Public  Library,  who  died 
September  25,  1910,  left  a  total  estate  of  $219,- 
797,  according  to  the  appraisal  recently  filed, 
showing  that  he  left  bequests  to  416  employees 
of  the  Boston  Public  Library  ranging  from  $25 
to  the  librarian  to  $i  each  to  assistants  in  the 
library.  Mr.  Whitney  left  his  residuary  estate 
to  be  divided  between  the  library,  the  Boston- 
ian  Society,  the  towns  of  Concord  and  Gpshen, 
Mass. ;  the  American  Library  Association, 
American  Antiquarian  Society,  Harvard,  Yale, 
the  Russell  Trust  Association  at  Yale,  Massa- 
chusetts General  and  Boston  City  hospitals, 
Colonial  Society  of  Massachusetts,  and  the 
grand  nephews  and  nieces. 

WOOTEN,  Katharine,  librarian  of  the  Carne- 
gie Library  of  Atlanta,  has  been  appointed  as 
a  member  of  the  Georgia  Library  Commission, 
to  fill  the  position  left  vacant  by  the  resigna- 
tion of  Mrs.  Frank  O.  Foster.  Miss  Wootten 
will  serve  as  chairman  of  the  commission. 

WYMAN,  Alice,  daughter  of  Dr.  W.  S.  Wy- 
man,  of  Tuscaloosa,  has  been  appointed  libra- 
rian of  the  university  to  succeed  Miss  Ora  I. 
Smith,  who  recently  resigned  to  accept  a  posi- 
tion in  the  state  historical  library  of  Wiscon- 

(Bffts  anfc  Bequests 

Baltimore,  Md.  A  site  for  a  Carnegie 
branch  library  has  been  given  by  Mrs.  Leon 
Lauer,  in  memory  of  her  husband.  The  loca- 
tion is  on  North  avenue,  between  Small  wood 
and  Bentalou  streets. 

Boston,  Mass.  The  public  library  has  re- 
ceived $2000,  a  bequest  contained  in  the  will 
of  Frank  Cement,  of  Newton. 

February,  1913] 



Corsicana,  Tex.  Capt.  James  Garitt,  Capt. 
C.  H.  Allyn  and  S.  A.  Pace  have  presented 
the  Public  Library  with  a  fund  of  $700. 

Chardon,  Okla.  Andrew  Carnegie  has  given 
$8000  to  the  town  for  a  public  library  building. 
The  town  is  to  provide  a  site  and  maintenance 
and  the  Progress  Club  the  books. 

Clinton,  N.  Y.  $2000  for  the  purchase  of 
Latin  books  has  been  given  to  the  Hamilton 
College  Library  by  Robert  M.  Pomeroy,  of 
Buffalo,  as  a  memorial  to  his  father.  The 
library  receives  also  $2500  from  Thomas  R. 
Proctor,  of  Utica. 

Danville,  Ky.  Central  University  receives 
$30,000  from  Andrew  Carnegie  for  a  library 
building.  An  equal  sum  for  endowment  was 
raised  from  other  sources. 

Fostoria,  O.  Public  Library  Association  re- 
ceives $1700  as  residuary  legatee  of  the  estate 
of  the  late  Louisa  McClean. 

Frederick,  Md.  Mrs.  Margaret  E.  S.  Hood 
has  bequeathed  the  city  a  site  valued  at  $15,- 
ooo  for  the  public  library,  to  be  available  only 
when  the  C.  Burr  Artz  trust  fund  of  about 
$100,000  is  in  the  hands  of  the  trustees. 

Lynn,  Mass.  The  public  library  has  re- 
ceived $10,000 — a  bequest  from  the  late  Joseph 
N.  Smith. 

Minonk,  III.  By  the  will  of  David  Felger, 
the  town  receives  a  site  and  $20,000  for  the 
erection  of  a  public  library,  to  be  known  as 
the  Felger  Library,  in  memory  of  Christopher 
and  Sarah  Felger,  parents  of  the  donor. 

New  Brunswick,  N.  J.  Mrs.  Grace  T.  Wells, 
widow  of  Dr.  Wells,  '78,  has  given  Rutgers 
College  Library  $1500  for  the  purchase  of 
French  books. 

Newark,  N.  J.  Through  the  Board  of 
Trade,  Harry  Swisher  has  given  $1000  to  the 
public  library,  with  no  stipulation,  except  that 
the  investment  shall  be  of  a  permanent  char- 
acter and  known  as  the  Mabel  Montgomery 
Swisher  Memorial. 

Newport,  R.  I.  Mr.  George  Gordon  King 
has  given  to  the  People's  Library,  for  a  new 
home,  his  brick  house,  with  24,000  square  feet 
of  land.  The  large  house  is  of  Italian  archi- 
tecture, situated  in  a  park  of  nine  acres,  and 
is  in  perfect  condition,  fireproof,  and  well 
adapted  to  library  use.  Such  interior  altera- 
tions as  are  necessary  will  be  made  soon. 

Nashville,  Tenn.  Vanderbilt  University  re- 
ceives by  bequest  from  Dr.  W.  J.  Vaughn, 
formerly  of  the  chair  of  mathematics,  the 
gift  of  his  library,  containing  books  on  math- 
ematics and  many  Russian  works. 

Ovid  (N.  y.)  P.  L.  is  to  use  for  new  furni- 
ture a  gift  of  $300  from  Mrs.  Benedict,  of 
Pasadena,  Cal. 

Providence,  R.  I.  Public  Library  is  to  re- 
ceive $5000  under  the  terms  of  the  will  of 
Isaac  C.  Bates. 

Scotland,  Conn.,  receives  a  $500  bequent 
from  Burton  E.  Leavitt,  in  memory  of  his 
great-aunt,  Lucy  Ainsworth. 

Spokane,  Wash.  Sylvester  Heath  has  given 
two  lots  valued  at  $7000  for  a  site  for  a  branch 

Springfield,  Mass.  The  Springfield  Street 
Railway  Company  has  given  $1000  toward  the 
site  of  the  Memorial  Square  branch  of  the 
city  library.  The  branch  is  to  be  very  near 
the  car  barns,  headquarters  for  six  or  seven 
hundred  men.  There  will  be  collections  of 
volumes  of  special  interest  to  street  railway 
men.  The  library  has  also  received  a  bequest 
of  $1000  from  the  late  George  W.  Tapley. 

Wallingford,  Pa,  Dr.  H.  H.  Furness,  the 
Shakespearean  scholar,  left  $5000  to  the  Free 
Library  at  Wallingford  under  condition  that 
the  name  be  changed  from  "The  Horace  How- 
ard Furness  Free  Library"  to  that  of  the 
"Helen  K.  Furness  Free  Library."  The  be- 
quest is  to  be  used  for  a  new  building,  a  site 
for  which  has  been  given  by  Dr.  William  H. 
Furness,  3d. 

Wellesley,  Mass.  Professor  George  H. 
Palmer,  of  Harvard,  on  the  anniversary  of  his 
marriage  to  Alice  Freeman,  former  president 
of  Wellesley,  sent  to  the  College  Library  a 
set  of  first  editions  of  translations  of  Homer's 
"Odyssey"  and  "Iliad,"  including  a  first-edi- 
tion copy  of  nearly  every  translation  of  the 
"Odyssey"  that  has  been  made  into  English 
up  to  the  publication  of  Professor  Palmer's 
own  translation. 

Whitman  College,  Walla  Walla,  Wash.,  is  the 
recipient  of  the  Esther  Nilsson  memorial  fund 
for  library  purposes,  given  by  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Andrew  Nilsson,  of  Dayton,  Wash.,  in  memory 
of  their  daughter,  a  former  student  of  the 

York,  Pa.,  receives  by  the  will  of  Milton  D. 
Martin  funds  for  the  erection  of  a  public  li- 
brary to  cost  $125,000,  and  for  its  maintenance 
the  income  of  $60,000  more.  The  bequest  be- 
comes operative  upon  the  death  of  his  wife. 

%tbcarp  tReports 

Albion  (N.  Y.),  Swan  L.  Lillian  Achilles, 
Ibn.  Accessions  483;  total  11,671.  Circula- 
tion 34,719.  Expenditures  (for  books  and 
periodicals)  $569.88. 

Amsterdam  (N.  7.)  Free  L.  Mrs.  Howard 
R.  Moore,  Ibn.  Accessions  1184.  New  regis- 
tration 812.  Circulation  70,922.  Receipts 
$6743.97;  expenditures  $6387.18. 

Atlantic  City  (N.  7.)  P.  L.  A.  P.  Abbott, 
Ibn.  Total  number  of  volumes  25,347.  New 
registration  2743;  total  12,115.  Circulation 

Ansonia  (Conn.)  P.  L.  Ruby  E.  Steele,  Ibn. 
(i6th  rpt.  —  year  to  S.,  1912.)  Accessions 



[February,  1913 

771;  total  17,977.  Circulation  54*842.  Regis- 
tration 2383.  Expenditures  $4000  (salaries 
$2392,  books  $587). 

Beverly  (Mass.)  P.  L.  Martha  P.  Smith, 
Ibn.  (57th  annual  rpt.)  Accessions  1575; 
net  growth  1162;  total  30,362.  Total,  includ- 
ing branch  and  school  library,  36,180.  New 
registration  774;  total  registration  since  1900 
8945.  Circulation  94,381.  Receipts  $8019.66; 
expenditures  $7934.96.  The  new  building, 
large  enough  for  80,000  volumes,  will  be  open 
to  the  public  about  June  i.  In  the  reference 
room,  public  document  room  and  reading 
rooms  there  will  be  immediate  access  to  10,000 

Bristol  (R.  /.),  Rogers  Free  L.  Geo.  A. 
Arnold,  Ibn.  (Rpt.— 1912.)  Accessions  401  ; 
net  increase  355;  total  19,048.  New  registra- 
tion 231 ;  total  2035.  Circulation  18,875.  Re- 
ceipts $2124.81 ;  expenditures  $1942.97 ;  balance 

Binghamton  (N.  7.)  P.  L.  W.  F.  Seward, 
Ibn.  Total  number  of  volumes  30,214.  Reg- 
istration during  the  year  3736;  total  registra- 
tion 15,345.  Circulation  171,994  (non-fiction 
50,116).  Sixty-seven  traveling  libraries  were 
sent  to  the  public  schools.  Traveling  libraries 
have  also  been  installed  in  the  fire  stations, 
the  Slovak  Parochial  School,  at  the  Y.  M. 
C.  A.  and  many  factories.  The  library  has 
cooperated  in  promoting  a  vocational  guid- 
ance bureau.  At  the  public  meeting,  the 
mayor  was  requested  to  name  the  members 
of  such  a  bureau,  and  upon  his  action  the 
organization  will  be  ready  for  work. 

Boston  Medical  L.  J.  W.  Farlow,  Ibn. 
(37th  rpt.  —  year  to  N.  12,  1912.)  Accessions 
3212;  total  75,022.  Attendance  of  readers  12,- 
187.  Expenditures  $23,998  (salaries  $7397* 
books  $1937,  periodicals  $2330;  binding  $1050). 

Brown  Univ.  L.  H.  L.  Koopman,  Ibn.  (Rpt. 
—  year  to  Je.,  1912.)  Accessions  8095.  Circu- 
lation 6345.  Volumes  cataloged  12,384.  Two 
special  collections,  aggregating  10,000  volumes, 
have  been  added.  They  consist  mainly  of 
books  on  South  America,  some  of  them  very 
rare,  and  on  rivers  and  harbor  engineering. 

A  feature  of  this  library  is  its  long  series  of 
publications  of  the  leading  engineering  socie- 
ties of  the  world.  Attention  is  called  to  the 
number  of  treatises,  reports  and  maps  relating 
to  the  regulation  of  rivers  and  creation  of 

The  cataloging  of  the  German  Seminary  Li- 
brary has  been  completed;  oooo  cards  were 

Brooklyn  (N.  F.)  P.  L.  Frank  P.  Hill, 
Ibn.  (Rpt. — 1912.)  Accessions  75,424;  total 
735,848.  Total  registration  294,535.  Circula- 
tion 4,380,779  (juvenile  1,562,783).  The 
Brooklyn  Library  has  been  developed  upon  an 
unusual  plan — that  of  a  system  of  branch  li- 
braries, without  a  central  library  or  a  large 
collection  of  books  as  a  nucleus.  The  aim  of 

the  first  trustees  was  that  the  "borough  should 
ultimately  be  covered  by  small  libraries,  not 
more  than  a  mile  and  a  half  apart."  This 
plan  has  been  realized  in  large  measure.  Fully 
equipped  branches  have  been  located  in  all  the 
densely  settled  sections  of  the  city,  in  many 
instances  less  than  a  mile-  apart,  v,  liile  in  the 
more  sparsely  settled  districts  stations  have 
been  provided  containing  a  smaller  collection 
of  books  and  open  fewer  hours  than  the 
branches,  or  deposit  stations  in  stores,  under 
the  care  of  proprietors,  but  under  the  direc- 
tion and  supervision  of  the  library.  In  addi- 
tion to  these  agencies  for  the  distribution  of 
books,  clubs,  schools,  factories,  fire  and  police 
stations,  department  stores,  recreation  centers 
and  playgrounds,  orphan  asylums,  homes  for 
the  aged,  and  similar  institutions  are  reached 
through  the  department  of  traveling  libraries. 

The  library  system  consists  of  28  branches, 
3  stations,  10  deposit  stations,  n  factory  sec- 
tions, 3  stations  in  department  stores,  and 
275  institutions  to  which  traveling  libraries 
are  lent.  Seventeen  of  the  branches  are 
housed  in  buildings  given  by  Andrew  Carne- 
gie. Most  of  them  are  adequate,  with  the 
notable  exception  of  the  Brownsville  section. 
Last  year,  600  buildings,  each  planned  to 
house  from  four  to  twelve  families,  were 
erected  there.  The  better  to  serve  this  com- 
munity, the  Carnegie  committee  is  about  to 
erect  another  building  within  six  blocks  of 
the  present  branch.  This  new  building  will 
be  devoted  entirely  to  the  service  of  children 
under  high  school  age.  So  far  as  we  know, 
it  will  be  the  first  branch  in  this  country  espe- 
cially planned  as  a  children's  library.  The 
building  will  be  so  arranged  that,  with  little 
alteration,  it  can  be  turned  into  a  branch  to 
be  used  both  by  adults  and  children. 

The  librarians  of  New  York,  Brooklyn  and 
Queens  Borough  libraries  presented  to  the 
Board  of  Estimate  certain  recommendations 
as  to  the  possible  and  desirable  cooperation 
between  schools  and  libraries.  Work  has 
been  done  under  a  special  cooperative  plan 
with  the  Pratt  Institute  Library  School.  The 
following  recommendations  were  presented: 
New  buildings  at  Ridgewood  and  Tompkins 
Park;  the  purchase  of  more  rare  and  expen- 
sive books;  addition  to  endowment  fund;  ask 
the  Board  of  Estimate  for  an  appropriation 
for  central  building,  for  books;  more  assist- 
ants for  reference  work. 

Charlotte,  N.  C.  Carnegie  L.  (loth  annual 
rpt  — 1912.)  Mary  B.  Palmer,  Ibn.  Acces- 
sions 812;  total  6704.  New  registration  409; 
total  1049.  Circulation  32,367.  Receipts  $4000. 
not  including  fines.  Expenditures  $4033.24. 

Cincinnati,  O.  University  of  Cincinnati  L. 
Charles  Albert  Read,  Ibn.  (Annual  rpt. - 
1911.)  Accessions  2263;  total  cataloged  57,- 
426;  total  63,426.  Number  of  student  ap- 
proximately 1400.  Expenditures  $2000.  The 
librarian  finds  the  appropriation  inadequate  for 
the  needs  of  an  institution  of  that  size,  and  to 

February,   1913] 



support  his  arguments  appends  tables  showing 
the  amounts  spent  by  representative  institu- 
tions for  the  purchase  of  books,  the  number 
of  students  and  the  amount  spent  per  student 
for  the  acquisition  of  books.  He  divides  47 
institutions  into  three  groups,  the  first  com- 
prising colleges  and  professional  schools,  the 
second  the  larger  universities,  the  third  other 
universities  of  about  the  same  standing  as  the 
University  of  Cincinnati.  In  the  first  group 
the  sums  per  student  range  from  $2.30  at 
Wellesley,  $3.10  at  Smith,  $5  at  Mount  Hoi- 
yoke,  $7.70  at  Williams,  $9.10  at  Amherst.  to 
$14.60  at  Bryn  Mawr  and  $78.30  at  the  Gen- 
eral Theological  Seminary,  New  York.  Omit- 
ting the  latter,  the  average  for  this  group  is 

In  the  second  group  the  sums  range  from 
$3.80  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  and 
$4  at  Columbia,  to  $6.70  at  Harvard,  $8.30  at 
Princeton,  $12.60  at  Johns  Hopkins,  and  $15.90 
at  Leland  Stanford.  The  average  in  this 
group  is  $6.91. 

The  third  group  shows  that  universities  of 
usual  standing  spend  $5.17  on  an  average  per 
student.  In  this  computation  were  omitted 
Cflark  University,  which  has  special  book 
funds,  the  University  of  Nevada,  which  can 
spend  $8000  for  300  students,  and  the  College 
of  the  City  of  New  York,  which  spends  30 
cents  per  student.  The  University  of  Cincin- 
nati evidently  intends  to  increase  its  average 
as  soon  as  possible. 

University  of  Colorado  (Boulder,  Co/.)  L. 
C.  Henry  Smith,  Ibn.  (Biennial  rpt. — 1910- 
1912,)  Accessions  11,489;  total  63,487.  Cir- 
culation 29,034  (not  including  use  of  reserve 
books  or  reading  room).  Expenditures 

Dallas  Public  Library,  under  an  arrange- 
ment recently  made  with  the  city,  is  to  have  a 
municipal  reference  department. 

Davenport  (la.)  P.  L.  (Rpt.  — 1912.)  Ac- 
cessions 4530;  total  35,935.  Circulation  172,- 
335  (10,897  German,  229  French,  71  Swedish, 
61  Bohemian,  and  4  Danish). 

Elizabeth  (N.  J.)  Free  P.  L.  Charles  A. 
George,  Ibn.  (Rpt. — year  1912.)  Accessions 
5243 ;  total  37,650.  New  registration  2836 ;  to- 
tal 11,224.  Circulation  171,248.  Receipts  $27,- 
713.79;  expenditures  $26,021.44.  The  new  main 
building,  given  by  Mr.  Carnegie,  at  a  cost  of 
$102,703.53,  was  opened  in  October.  A  branch 
library,  also  given  by  Mr.  Carnegie,  has  been 

El  Paso  (Tex.)  P.  L.  Maud  Durlin,  libn. 
(Rpt— 1912.)  New  registration  1384.  Circu- 
lation 57,865  (juvenile  12,780). 

Special  stress  has  been  laid  upon  the 
strengthening  and  development  of  the  chil- 
dren's department.  New  books  were  added  to 
replace  the  worn  and  discarded  copies,  and 
visits  were  made  to  most  of  the  public  schools 
by  the  librarian,  with  the  view  of  acquainting 

the  children  with  the  library  and  of  meeting 
the  teachers  upon  their  own  ground,  in  order 
to  cooperate  in  their  work.  Stories  were  told 
in  the  lower  grades,  and  the  children  invited 
to  attend  the  story  hour,  which  was  conducted 
weekly  at  the  library  on  Friday  afternoon. 

Evanston,  III.  Northwestern  University  L. 
Walter  Lichtenstein,  Ibn.  Accessions  4779 ; 
pamphlets  3118;  total  88,433.  Circulation  78,- 
644.  Registration  1358.  Average  number 
using  reading  room  per  day  594.  Receipts 
$9153.09.  Expenditures  $11,779.55.  The  libra- 
rian reports  a  very  crowded  condition  in  the 
reading  room  and  the  shelves. 

Evanston  (III.)  P.  L.  Mary  B.  Lindsay, 
Ibn.  (Rpt. — 1912.)  Accessions  2125;  total 
48,567.  New  registration  1622;  total  registra- 
tion 10,777.  Circulation  120,617.  Receipts 
$20,223.03 ;  expenditures  $13,779.27. 

Fresno  (Cal)  P.  L.  Sarah  E.  McCardle, 
Ibn.  Accessions  1834;  total  13,881.  New  reg- 
istration 627;  total  4121.  Circulation  43,874, 
from  July-December.  Receipts  $7313.34;  ex- 
penditures $5250.47. 

Helena  (Mont.)  State  Law  L.  Ashburn  K. 
Barbour,  state  law  Ibn.  (Rpt  — 1911-12.)  Ac- 
cessions 1937;  total  approximately  30,000. 

Huntington  (N.  Y.)  L.  Mrs.  Mary  F. 
Gaines,  Ibn.  Accessions  519;  total  9209.  Cir- 
culation 14,260. 

Kingston  (N.  Y.)  City  L.  Marion  Herbert, 
Ibn.  Accessions  334;  total  7728.  Circulation 
44,934.  Reading-room  users  24,374.  Receipts 
$4474.32 ;  expenditures  $4522.57. 

Lansing  (Mich.)  P.  S.  L.  E.  Jennie  Mc- 
Neal,  Ibn.  (nth  rpt — year  to  Aug.,  1012.) 
Accessions  2713;  total  22,066.  Circulation  71,- 
248.  Receipts  $8916.  Expenditures  $6521 
(books  $1113,  binding  $305,  salaries  $2312). 

Little  Falls  (N.  Y.)  P.  L.  Mabel  E.  Rich- 
ards, Ibn.  (Rpt.  —  n  mos.,  from  Feb.  i,  1912, 
to  Jan.  i,  1913.)  Accessions  621;  total  8505. 
New  registration  343;  total  1600.  Circulation 

Long  Beach  (Cal.)  P.  L.  Victoria  Ellis. 
Ibn.  (nth  rpt. — year  ending  June  30,  1912.) 
Accessions  4354;  total  23,967.  Circulation 
223,022  (  an  increase  of  22,469  over  1911). 
Registration  10,300.  New  registration  5231. 
There  are  four  branches  and  one  deposit 
station.  Receipts  $20,380.17;  expenditures 

Long  Beach  has  an  estimated  population 
(exclusive  of  tourists)  of  20,000,  and  library 
cardholders  represent  about  fifty  per  cent  of 
total  number  of  residents. 

Madison  (Wis.)  F.  L.  Mary  A.  Smith,  Ibn. 
(37th  rpt.  —  year  to  Je.  30,  1912.)  Acces- 
sions 2719;  total  27,006.  Circulation  144,762. 



[February,  1913 

Registration  14,405.  Expenditures  $19,839 
(salaries  $5613,  books  and  periodicals  $2571, 
binding  $817). 

Manitowoc  (Wis.)  P.  L.  Martha  Elizabeth 
Pond,  Ibn.  (Rpt. —  year  June  30,  1912.)  Ac- 
cessions 895;  total  10,453.  Registration  4799. 
Circulation  38,329.  Receipts  $6874.09.  Expen- 
ditures $4089.37.  Active  publicity  work  is  car- 
ried on  by  this  library  in  the  press  of  the  town, 
and  much  attention  is  paid  to  personal  work, 
displays  and  bulletins  in  the  library. 

Marietta  (O.)  P.  L.  William  D.  Cotton, 
Ibn.  Accessions  496;  total  14,161.  New  reg- 
istration 565;  total  2491.  Circulation  30,888 
(periodicals  1571). 

The  library  is  at  present  housed  in  the  high 
school  building,  already  overcrowded.  The 
need  of  a  separate  building  is  plain. 

Massachusetts.  State  L.  C.  F.  D.  Belden, 
Ibn.  (3d  rpt.  —  year  to  N.  30,  1912.)  Net  ac- 
cessions 10,513.  Expenditures  $27,509  (sal- 
aries $15,010,  books  $6158,  binding  $1288). 

During  the  1912  legislative  session  the  daily 
average  of  state  officials  and  legislators  using 
the  reference  rooms  reached  40.  Other  states 
and  even  foreign  countries  are  making  more 
and  more  demand.  The  use  made  by  the  public 
is  notably  increasing.  3400  cards  are  now 
available  to  the  card  index  referring  to  the 
messages  of  the  governor.  6714  books  and 
pamphlets  have  been  sent  out  from  the  dupli- 
cate collection  in  exchange  with  other  libraries. 
615  booklists  on  selected  topics  are  now  in  use. 
In  considering  the  making  of  a  card  catalog 
open  to  public  use,  it  has  been  found  that  the 
cost  for  printing  would  be  50  cents  per  book 
title.  It  has  therefore  been  decided  to  use 
typewritten  cards  except  where  L.  C.  and 
Harvard  cards  can  be  purchased.  It  is  be- 
lieved that  the  completed  card,  ready  for  de- 
posit in  the  tray,  would  cost  on  the  average  10 
cents.  This  estimate  is  based  on  the  fact  that 
during  the  last  year  5645  lead-pencil  title  cards 
(21,000  books)  were  prepared  at  an  average 
cost  of  6  cents.  This  striking  difference  in 
cost  of  cataloging  is  due  to  a  new  system  of 
handling  the  work.  The  expert  cataloger  dic- 
tates the  substance  of  the  cards  to  an  aman- 
uensis, instead  of  doing  all  the  mechanical 
work  himself.  Experience  has  demonstrated 
that  by  this  method  the  work  of  three  cata- 
logers  can  be  done  by  one.  During  the  past 
year  the  librarian  issued,  as  prepared  by  C.  J. 
Babbitt,  a  "Hand-list  of  American  statute  law." 

Mount  Clemens  (Mich.}  P.  L.  Agnes  L. 
Snover,  Ibn.  (Rpt. — year  to  Je.  30,  1912.) 
Accessions  544;  total  9235.  Circulation  31,206. 
Registration  4601.  Expenditures  $4165  (sal- 
aries $1323,  binding  $326). 

New  York,  N.  Y.  Cooper  Union  L.  F.  A. 
Curtis,  Ibn.  (Rpt.  — year  to  Je.  30,  1912.) 
Accessions  48,695;  total  226,425.  Attendance 
585,766.  Expenditures  $15,730. 

Olean  (N.  F.)  P.  L.  Maud  D.^  Brooks,  Ibn. 
(6th  annual  rpt.  —  1912.)  Accessions  850;  net 

gain  179;  total  10,468.  New  registration  1032; 
total  5186.  Circulation  59,590.  Careful  pub- 
licity work,  including  special  lists  sent  to 
shops,  factories,  clubs,  city  officials,  schools 
and  professional  workers,  is  being  done. 

Oakland  (Cal.)  F.  L.  Charles  F.  Greene, 
Ibn.  (34th  annual  rpt. — 1912.)  Accessions 
5781 ;  total  58,287.  New  registration  8348 ; 
withdrawn  703;  total  49,417.  Circulation  481,- 
285.  Receipts  $95,670;  expenditures  $95,069.47. 

A  municipal  reference  library  of  about 
seven  hundred  books,  pamphlets  and  period- 
icals has  been  organized,  and  extensive  cor- 
respondence conducted  with  other  cities.  It 
is  eventually  to  become  a  branch  library  and 
to  be  housed  in  the  City  Hall.  The  library 
finds  most  useful  and  economical  the  em- 
ployment of  expert  bindery  workers  in  mend- 
ing books  and  advising  as  to  rebinding,  etc. 
Two  such  women  mended,  respectively,  8263 
and  8812  books  during  the  year. 

Philadelphia  (Pa.)  Mercantile  L.  Acces- 
sions 3918.  Circulation  125,156.  Members 
2680.  Expenditures  $4707.49. 

Phoenixville  (Pa.)  P.  L.  Elmira  W.  Penny- 
packer,  Ibn.  (i6th  rpt.  —  year  to  Jl.,  1912.) 
Accessions  496;  total  9691.  Circulation  29,716. 
New  registry  450;  total  1631.  Expenditure? 
$2352  (salaries  $951,  books  $630). 

Portland  (Ore.)  Library  Assn.  (49th  annual 
rpt. — year  ending  Oct.  31,  1912.  Total  number 
of  volumes,  144,522.  Total  registration  56,- 
667)  n°t  including  children  borrowing  through 
the  schools.  Circulation  1,036,894.  Receipts 
$148,621.31;  investment  funds  $114,605.11;  ex- 
penditures (for  books,  general  administration, 
central  library  and  library  extension)  $118,- 
306.63.  A  gift  of  $60,000  from  the  Carnegie 
Corporation  of  New  York  for  the  construction 
of  four  new  branch  library  buildings,  and  sites 
for  three  branches,  valued  at  $18,900.  The 
new  main  library  building  is  in  use:  two 
branches  are  housed  in  beautiful  and  conve- 
nient buildings  made  possible  by  the  generos- 
ity of  Mr.  Andrew  Carnegie,  and  by  the  presi- 
dent of  the  Library  Board,  who  contributed 
the  sites ;  two  more  are  in  process  of  con- 
struction upon  sites  given  by  the  citizens  of 
the  community,  and  the  site  for  a  fifth  has 
been  given  by  Mr.  M.  L.  Holbrook  and  plans 
for  the  building  are  under  consideration ; 
eight  small  branches  are  established  in  rented 
buildings;  thirteen  deposit  stations  may  be 
found  in  parts  of  the  country  where  the  pop- 
ulation does  not  warrant  larger  service,  and 
traveling  libraries  have  been  placed  in  car 
barns,  engine  houses,  institutions,  Sunday- 
schools  and  with  clubs.  In  addition,  both  city 
and  county  schools  have  been  provided  with 
classroom  libraries.  The  circulation  has  in- 
creased 836  per  cent,  since  1002.  One  means 
of  advertising  the  library  has  been  made  pos- 
sible through  the  courtesy  of  the  People's 
Amusement  Company.  Two  lantern  slides 
have  been  provided  for  each  of  the  eleven 

February,  1913] 



moving  picture  theaters  operated  by  this  com- 
pany ;  one  slide  states  that  the  story  of  the 
picture  may  be  obtained  at  the  Public  Library ; 
the  other  slide  gives  the  location  of  the  central 
library  and  branches.  These  slides  are  shown 
during  performances  which  include  literary 
films,  and  at  the  same  time  the  library  posts 
on  its  bulletin  board  a  notice  of  such  films. 
This  advertising  is  proving  so  successful  that 
similar  arrangements  are  being  made  with 
other  companies  operating  moving  picture 

Placards  setting  forth  the  practical  value  of 
the  library  to  various  classes  of  people  have 
been  posted  in  all  possible  public  places,  stores, 
mills,  waiting-rooms,  hotels,  barber  shops  and 

In  North  Portland  arrangements  were  made 
with  the  local  collector  of  water  rents  to  dis- 
tribute library  applications  and  book  lists,  and 
when  the  Gas  Company  in  that  section  gave  a 
demonstration  of  cooking  for  a  week,  at  each 
session  the  speaker  kindly  advertised  the 
branch's  collection  of  cook  books. 

At  St.  Johns  the  librarian  made  almost  a 
house  to  house  canvass  questioning  nationality, 
occupation  and  organization  and  furnished  ex- 
act information,  which  is  of  inestimable  ser- 
vice in  building  up  the  resources  of  the  branch. 

Members  of  the  library  staff  have  talked  ort 
library  matters  before  many  clubs  and  organ- 
izations in  both  city  and  county,  and  the 
library  has  been  represented  by  booths  at  the 
Child  Welfare  exhibit,  the  County  Fair,  the 
Industrial  Fair  at  St.  Johns,  and  by  a  case  of 
special  editions  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the 
Oregon  Congress  of  Mothers. 

Since  April  non-fiction  has  been  reserved 
without  charge,  and  by  telephone  or  postal; 
this  has  occasioned  an  increase  of  nearly  25 
per  cent,  in  the  use  of  the  cards. 

Only  four  of  the  ten  books  permitted  the 
vacation  issue  may  be  fiction.  Very  few  bor- 
rowers wished  for  fiction  alone,  and  few  bor- 
rowed the  full  complement  of  ten  books.  999 
members  availed  themselves  of  this  privilege, 
borrowing  5292  books.  The  vacation  privilege 
was  extended  throughout  the  year  to  traveling 
men  whose  headquarters  are  in  Portland.  On 
the  signature  of  the  firms  they  represent, 
books  are  issued  for  the  time  requested.  No 
fiction  is  included,  as  trains  and  hotels  supply 
novels  generously. 

The  development  of  the  three  high  school 
libraries,  the  introduction  of  a  course  of  in- 
struction in  the  use.  of  the  library  and  the  ex- 
tension of  the  work  to  Sunday  schools,  paro- 
chial schools  and  private  schools  are  the  strik- 
ing features  of  trie  year's  activities.  Thirty- 
five  schools  were  provided  with  classroom  li- 
braries, fifty-seven,  including  high,  trade,  night 
and  summer  schools,  with  traveling  libraries. 

Poughkeepsie  (N.  F.)  P.  L.  J.  C.  Sickley, 
Ibn.  (Rpt  — 1912.)  Accessions  2444;  total 
number  of  books  50,122.  New  registration 
1732;  total  registration  7031.  Circulation 

Redlands  (Cal)  A.  K.  Smiley  P.L.  Artena 
M.  Chapin,  Ibn.  (i8th  annual  rpt.  —  1911-12.) 
Accessions  1761;  net  growth  1458;  total  21,689. 
New  registration  136;  total  5408.  Circulation 
94,784.  Receipts  $15,381.47.  Expenditures 
$15,511.97.  This  library  is  doing  good  work 
with  all  departments,  has  a  stereoscope  circu- 
lation of  25,024,  and  a  pay  collection  for  the 
newest  fiction  which  nearly  pays  for  itself. 

St.  Louis  (Ma.)  P.  L.  Hourly  book  de- 
livery, something  not  heretofore  attempted  by 
the  library,  and  impracticable,  of  course,  at  a 
distant  station,  is  now  available  at  the  new 
downtown  station  on  the  second  floor  of  the 
Grand-Leader  Building.  Messengers  leave 
the  central  library  at  ten  minutes  before  each 
hour,  and  reach  the  station  on  the  hour. 
Books  ordered  at  the  beginning  of  a  shopping 
trip  may  therefore  be  obtained  at  the  station 
at  its  close.  These  facilities  are  i-ntended  to 
remove  objections  to  the  new  location  of  the 
central  building,  and  the  indications  are  that 
they  are  doing  so. 

The  report  of  the  Municipal  Reference 
Branch  for  October  and  November  shows  that 
in  those  months  16  different  departments  of 
the  city  government  used  the  library  for  pur- 
poses of  more  or  less  extended  investigation. 
Other  cities  and  outside  organizations  making 
similar  inquiries  numbered  21.  Investigations 
have  been  conducted  by  research  and  corre- 
spondence on  the  governor's  power  of  re- 
moval of  city  officials,  municipal  home  rule, 
municipal  outdoor  baths,  state  registration  of 
nurses,  marriage  laws,  moving-picture  censor- 
ship, firemen's  salaries,  food  screening,  and 
street-car  heating  and  ventilation.  Informa- 
tion on  a  very  large  variety  of  other  subjects 
connected  with  municipal  administration,  but 
not  requiring  such  extended  investigation,  is 
asked  for  and  furnished  daily.  The  librarian 
attends  assembly  meetings  with  some  regu- 
larity, and  is  thereby  enabled  to  discover  and 
anticipate  the  needs  of  members;  in  some 
cases  investigations  have  been  completed  be- 
fore the  arrival  of  the  official  request.  A 
subject  index  is  now  kept  of  all  important 
pending  bills,  showing  the  stage  of  each,  the 
number  and  the  date  of  introduction.  Other 
useful  indexes  are  in  progress,  and  a  full  col- 
lection of  clippings  on  municipal  subjects  is 
kept  up  to  date.  These  resources  are  at  the 
disposal  not  only  of  city  officials,  but  of  any 
interested  citizen. 

The  library  holds  a  visitors'  night  monthly. 
At  present  they  occur  on  the  second  Thurs- 
day of  every  month.  On  these  nights,  special 
guides  are  present  to  show  guests  around  the 
building,  which  is  opened  and  lighted  in  every 
part,  including  those  not  usually  accessible  to 
the  public.  These  occasions  have  met  with 
favor,  and  will  be  continued  so  long  as  they 
appear  to  do  so.  About  one  hundred  guests 
have  been  received  and  entertained  on  each 
evening  between  7.30  and  9.30,  apart  from 
regular  users  of  the  library. 

The  photograph  room  of  the  library  offers 



[February,  1913 

facilities  to  those  who  wish  to  reproduce  by 
photography  plates  or  diagrams  from  books 
that  may  not  be  removed  from  the  building, 
or  that  have  been  borrowed  from  other  cities 
by  interlibrary  loan.  Architects,  engineers, 
draughtsmen  and  patent  attorneys  will  find 
this  useful.  The  library  furnishes  utensils, 
but  users  are  expected  to  provide  their  own 
chemicals  and  plates  or  films.  It  is  preferable 
that  each  user  should  have  his  own  camera, 
but  the  library  has  a  5  x  7  camera  for  loan, 
if  desired.  Application  should  be  made  to  the 
librarian  or  the  building  superintendent. 

The  library  borrows,  for  its  readers,  books 
from  such  out-of-town  libraries  as  are  willing 
to  lend  them,  especially  from  the  Library  of 
Congress  at  Washington.  There  is  no  ex- 
pense, save  that  of  transportation,  which  is 
paid  by  the  user.  The  library  has,  for  the 
use  of  persons  contemplating  such  a  loan,  a 
"repertory"  card  catalog,  showing,  so  far  as 
cards  have  been  printed,  the  contents  of  the 
Library  of  Congress,  the  John  Crerar  Library 
of  Chicago,  the  Harvard  University  Library 
and  the  University  of  Chicago  Library,  as 
well  as  occasional  books  of  interest  in  other 
large  libraries. 

The  second  staff  meeting  of  the  St.  Louis 
Public  Library  for  the  current  season  took 
the  form  of  an  anniversary  celebration  of  the 
opening  of  the  new  library  building,  and  was 
held  in  the  central  library  on  the  evening  of 
Monday,  January  6.  Mr.  Roger  N.  Baldwin, 
secretary  of  the  Civic  League,  delivered  an 
address  on  "Public  service  as  a  fine  art." 

San  Francisco  (Cal}  P.  L.  Robert  Rea, 
acting  Ibn.  (Rpt  — 1912.)  Accessions  18,413; 
net  accessions  12,731 ;  total  120,1051.  New 
registration  980;  total  38,454-  Circulation  821,- 
162.  Receipts  $105,650.25.  Expenditures  $79>- 
840.90  (books  $15,343.19,  periodicals  $1930.17, 
binding  $6124.98,  a  percentage  of  nearly  30  per 
cent,  of  the  total  income). 

The  library  has  only  9063  less  circulation 
than  the  largest  figures  ever  recorded  before 
the  destruction  of  the  library  in  April,  1906, 
when  it  had  40,352  more  volumes.  An  auto- 
mobile delivery  to  the  branches  and  deposit 
stations  has  been  instituted.  The  work  of  the 
main  library  and  its  branches  has  far  out- 
grown the  facilities  of  the  system,  and  the 
erection  of  a  new  main  library  building  and 
branches  is  contemplated.  Under  a  gift  of 
$750,000  from  Mr.  Carnegie,  $500,000  is  avail- 
able for  the  proposed  main  building,  and  such 
a  site  is  being  selected  that  the  new  building 
may  be  a  part  of  the  group  of  public  buildings 
which  are  to  form  the  new  civic  center. 

San  Jose  (Cal}  Free  P.  L.  (Rpt.  — year 
ending  Nov.  30,  1912.)  Nell  McGinley,  Ibn. 
Accessions  3008;  total  23,529.  Circulation 
100,202.  Receipts  $8897.03.  Expenditures 
$8895.55.  Of  the  fourteen  California  cities 
supporting  public  libraries,  the  population  of 

which  ranges  from  10,000  to  44,000  inhabitants,. 
San  Jose  received  the  lowest  per  capita  appro- 
priation for  1912.  The  library,  however,  shows 
an  increase  in  circulation  of  15,438. 

Sag  Harbor  (N.  F.),  John  Jermain  Memo- 
rial Library.  Mrs.  Olive  Pratt  Young,  Ibn. 
Accessions  1137;  total  7968.  Circulation  47,- 
396  (30,050  adult,  17,346  juvenile).  Sixty-five 
per  cent,  of  the  population  are  subscribers. 
Registration  2230.  Mrs.  Russell  Sage  has  en- 
dowed the  institution,  which  was  built  by  her 
in  memory  of  her  grandfather. 

Savannah  (Ga.}  P.  L.  William  Harden^ 
Ibn.  Accessions  4008;  total  45,850. 

Traverse  City  (Mich.}  P.  L.  Alice  M. 
Wait,  Ibn.  (Rpt  — 1912.)  Accessions  719; 
total  12,074.  Circulation  40,286.  Reading 
room  14,651.  New  patrons  690.  Total  regis- 
tration 5031.  Receipts  $4177.84.  Expendi- 
tures $3701.47.  Total  number  of  children  at 
the  story  hour  1962;  average  attendance  63. 

Utica  (N.  Y.}  P.  L.  C.  M.  Underbill,  Ibn. 
(20th  annual  rpt  — 1912.)  Accessions  5929; 
net  growth  3661;  total  68,310.  New  registra- 
tion 1047;  total  2351.  Circulation  194,308. 
German  1456 ;  Italian  649 ;  Yiddish  870 ;  Polish 
15355  French  252;  juvenile  46,615.  Attend- 
ance at  28  story  hours  890.  Exhibitions  6.  Of 
the  559  volumes  taken  out  under  special  vaca- 
tion privilege  215  were  non-fiction.  The  li- 
brary maintains  a  branch  with  a  circulation 
of  21,454  and  several  stations. 

Vineland  (N.  /.)  P.  L.  (Rpt.  — 1912.)  Ac- 
cessions 696.  New  registration  579.  Circula- 
tion 44*225. 

Waco  (Tex.}  P.  L.  Gertrude  Matthews, 
Ibn.  (i2th  annual  rpt  — 1911-12.)  Net  acces- 
sions 1053;  total  13,679-  New  registration 
1203;  total  1648.  Registration  in  delivery  sta- 
tions 424.  Receipts  $437547-  Expenditures 

Warren  (O.)  P.  L.  Cornelia  G.  Smith,  Ibn. 
(Rpt.  —  1912.)  Accessions  1080;  total  15,011. 
Circulation  26,474.  Receipts  $4121;  expendi- 
tures $3347.23.  Branches  have  been  estab- 
lished in  the  Mahoning  Lamp  Works  and  the 
Trumbull  Magda  Lamp  Works,  and  a  dupli- 
cate pay  collection  in  the  main  library. 

Watertown,  N.  Y.    Flower  Memorial  L.    S. 
A.  Hayt,  Ibn.     (Rpt.  —  1912.)     Accessions  579 
Registration    803.      Circulation    78,314. 
closing  of  the  library  on   weekday   evenings 
has  greatly  reduced  the  circulation. 

Woburn  (Mass.}  L.  George  Hill  Evans, 
Ibn.  (Rpt— 1912.)  Accessions  070.  Circu- 
lation 60,022.  New  registration  742 ;  total  reg- 

February,  1913] 



istration  3884.     The  ave 
ings  for  juveniles  was 

e  number  of  lend- 
;   for  other  books 


Aberdeen  P.  L.  G.  M.  Fraser.  Ibn.  (Rpt.  — 
1912.)  Accessions  2155;  net  accessions  748. 
Total  lending  stock  38,132;  reference  dept.  47,- 
988;  tetal  77,129  vols.  and  8991  pamphlets. 
New  registration  3108;  total  registration  n,- 
515.  Circulation  359,497.  Receipts  £3360  155. 
3d.;  expenditures  £3461  155.  3d. 

Bolton.  Eng.  County  Borough  L.  Archi- 
bald Sparke,  Ibn.  (59th  rpt.  —  year  to  Oct. 
n,  1912.)  Accessions  4931;  total  129,489.  New 
registration  2145;  tetal  34,422  (18,153  ordinary 
tickets,  10,033  juvenile,  6236  non-fiction,  all 
exclusive  of  circulation  of  the  14  school  libra- 
ries). Circulation  508,484.  Estimated  number 
using  all  departments  1,203,176.  Receipts 
£6972  i8s.  9d.  ;  expenditures  £6717  145.  sd. 

Bradford,  Eng.  B.  Wood,  Ibn.  (Rpt.— 
year  to  Aug.  12,  1912.)  Accessions  8416;  total 
168,792.  Circulation  861,775.  Borrowers  18,- 

ant>  Cataloging 

American  bibliography ;  a  chronological 
dictionary  of  all  books,  pamphlets  and  peri- 
odical publications  printed  in  the  United 
States  of  America  from  the  genesis  of 
printing,  in  1639,  down  to  and  including  the 
year  18120;  with  bibliographical  and  bio- 
graphical notes,  v.  7,  1786-1789.  Chic., 
[The  author,  1413  Pratt  Ave.,  Rogers  Park.] 
424  p.  4°,  $15. 

AMERICAN  LITERATURE.  Pancoast,  H.  Spack- 
man.  An  introduction  to  American  litera- 
ture. 2d  ed.,  rev.  N.  Y.,  Holt.  c.  '12.  16+ 
2-r438  p.  (bibls.)  front,  pors.  12°,  $1.12. 

AMERICANA.  Anderson,  W.  H.  Library  of 
Nathaniel  C.  Reynal,  of  White  Plains,  N.  Y. 
Part  i,  Rare  Americana.  N.  Y.,  8°,  pap. 
(No.  085;  869  lots.) 

ANGHIERA,.  Pietro  Martire  d'.  De  orbe  novo, 
the  eight  Decades  of  Peter  Martyr  d'An- 
ghera;  tr.  from  the  Latin,  with  notes  and 
introd.  by  Fs.  Augustus  MacNutt.  N.  Y., 
Putnam.  2  v.  (5  p.  bibl.)  pors.  fold,  map, 
8°,  $12.50. 

ANTE-NICENE  CHURCH.  Warren,  F.  E.  The 
liturgy  and  ritual  of  the  ante-Nicene 
church.  2d  ed.,  rev.  N.  Y.,  E.  S.  Gorham, 
'12.  16+317  p.  (4  p.  bibl.)  8°,  (Side-lights 
of  church  history.)  $1.50. 

ANTHROPOLOGY.  Munro,  Rob.  Palaeolithic  man 
and  Terramara  settlements  in  Europe ;  being 
the  Munro  lectures  in  anthropology  and  pre- 

historic archaeology  in  connection  with  the 
University  of  Edinburgh;  delivered  during 
February  and  March,  1912;  with  75  pis.  and 
174  figs,  in  the  text.  N.  Y.,  Macmillan,  '12. 
23+507  P-  (bibl.)  $5.50. 

ARCHITECTURE.  Ries,  Heinrich.  Building 
stones  and  clay-products;  a  handbook  for 
architects.  N.  Y.,  Wiley,  c.  15+415  p.  (4 
p.  bibl.)  il.  pis.  maps,  (2  double)  diagrs,  (i 
double)  8°,  $3. 

ART.  Whitman,  Alfr.  Print  collector's  hand- 
book. 6th  ed.,  rev.  and  enl.,  with  additional 
chapters ;  ed.  by  Malcolm  C.  Salaman.  N. 
Y.,  Macmillan.  c.  21+376  p.  (bibls.)  il.  8°, 

BOOKS  AND  READING.  Collard,  A.  Catalogues 
alphabetique  des  livres  brochures  et  cartes, 
Tome  2,  Fascicule  I.  Brussels.  4°,  pap. 
(8563  titles.) 

Quaritch,    Bernard.      Catalogue    of    rare 

and  valuable  books,  including  works  on 
Africa,  America,  Bibles,  bibliography,  early 
printed  books,  European  history  and  litera- 
ture, fine  arts,  mss.,  palaeography  and  fas- 
similes  of  mss.,  and  a  selection  of  impor- 
tant new  books.  London.  8°,  pap.  (No.  321 ; 
608  titles.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  Revista  della  biblioteche  e 
degli  archiv.  Periodico  di  biblioteconomia 
e  di  bibliografia  di  paleografia  di  archivis- 
tica  diretto  dal  Dolt.  Guido  Biagi,  biblio- 
tecario  della  Mediceo-Laurenziana  e  della 
Riccardiana.  Florence,  p.  133-180,  4°,  pap. 

BYZANTINE  CHURCHES.  Millingen,  Alex.  Van. 
Byzantine  churches  in  Constantinople;  their 
history  and  architecture;  il.  with  maps  and 
plans.  N.  Y.,  Macmillan,  '12.  29+352  p. 
(bibl.)  8°,  $9-50. 

CHINA.  Chung  Yu  Wang.  Bibliography  to 
the  mineral  wealth  and  geology  of  China. 
Phil.,  Lippincott,  '12.  63  p.  il.  pis.  maps,  12°, 

CHRISTMAS  BOOKS.  Chicago  P.  L.  Bull.,  D., 
'12.  Christmas  books,  p.  146-9,  8°,  pap. 

COAL.  Rey,  Jules.  Catalogue  de  la  houille 
blanche;  Table  decennale  de  la  houille 
blanche,  ouvrages  scientifiqucs,  relatifs  a 
la  houille  blanche,  hydralique  electricite, 
legislation,  electrochemie,  cement,  papier. 
Grenoble,  France,  p.  30-80,  pap. 

COLONIAL  NEWSPAPERS.  Cook,  Eliz.  Christine. 
Literary  influences  in  colonial  newspapers, 
1704-1750.  N.  Y.,  Lemcke  &  B.  c.  '12,  11+ 
279  P.  (7  P-  bibl.)  8°,  (Columbia  Univ.  stu- 
dies in  English  and  comparative  literature.) 

CONCRETE.  Properties  (The)  and  design  of 
reinforced  concrete;  instructions,  author- 
ized methods  of  calculation,  experimental 
results  and  reports  by  the  French  govern- 
ment commissions  on  reinforced  concrete ; 
tr.  and  abr.  by  Nathaniel  Martin.  N.  Y., 



[February,  1913 

Van  Nostrand,  '12.  14+119  p.  (2^p.  bibl.) 
8°,  $2.50. 

COTTON  PLANT.  Balls,  W.  Lawrence.  The 
cotton  plant  in  physiology  and  genetics. 
N.  Y.,  Macmillan.  16+202  p.  (bibls.)  il.  8°, 

COUNTRY  LIFE.  Carney,  Mabel.  Country  life 
and  the  country  school;  a  study  of  the 
agencies  of  rjiiral  progress  and  of  the  so- 
cial relationship  of  the  school  to  the  coun- 
try community.  Chic.,  Row,  Peterson,  c. 
22+405  p.  (bibls.)  il.  12°,  $1.25. 

DOMESTIC  SCIENCE.  Am.  Sch.  Home  Econom- 
ics. Handbook  of  food  and  diet;  a  com- 
plete food  course,  comprising:  Chemistry 
of  the  household,  by  Marg.  E.  Dodd;  Prin- 
ciples of  cookery,  by  Anna  Barrows;  Food 
and  dietetics,  by  A.  P.  Norton.  Chic,  (bibl.) 
il.  pis.  tabs.,  diagrs.,  12°,  $2. 

Handbook  of   housekeeping ;   a  complete 

"house"  course,  comprising :  The  house ;  its 
plan,  decoration  and  care,  by  Isabel  Beyier; 
Household  hygiene,  by  S.  Maria  Elliott; 
Household  management,  by  Bertha  M.  Ter- 
rill.  Chic.,  Am.  Sch.  of  Home  Economics, 
(bibl.)  il.  pis.  plans,  forms,  12°,  $2. 

ECONOMICS.  Streightoff,  Fk.  Hatch.  The 
distribution  of  incomes  in  the  United 
States.  N.  Y.,  Longmans,  c.  171  p.  (4^2  p. 
bibl.)  tabs.,  8°,  (Columbia  Univ.  studies  in 
history,  economics  and  public  law.)  pap., 

Bibliography  of  the  department  of  econom- 
ics and  sociology.  Wash.,  D.  C.,  Carnegie 
Inst.  17  p.  4°,  pap. 

EDUCATION.  Holmes,  W.  H.  School  organi- 
zation and  the  individual  child ;  a  book  for 
school  executives  and  teachers;  being  an 
exposition  of  plans  that  have  been  evolved 
to  adapt  school  organization  to  the  needs 
of  individual  children,  normal,  supernormal 
and  subnormal.  Worcester,  Mass.,  Davis 
Press,  c.  211  p.  (14  p.  bibl.)  il.  diagrs.,  8°, 

—  Kemp,  Ellwood  Leitheiser.  History  of 
education.  Phil.,  Lippincott.  c.  '12.  23+17- 
385  p.  (5  p.  bibl.)  12°,  (Lippincott  educa- 
tional sen;  ed.  by  M.  G.  Brumbaugh.)  $1.25. 

United  States.  Bureau  of  Education 

Bull.  List  of  publications  of  the  United 
States  Bureau  of  Education  available  for 
free  distribution.  September,  1912.  Wash., 
D.  C.,  Gov.  Pr.  Off.  37  p.  8°,  pap. 

EDUCATION,  VOCATIONAL.  Weeks,  Ruth  Mary. 
The  people's  school;  a  study  in  vocational 
training.  Bost,  Houghtpn  Mifflin.  c.  8+207 
p.  (8  p.  bibl.)  12°,  (Riverside  educational 
monographs.)  60  c. 

ENGINEERING.  Gebhardt,  G.  F.  Steam  power 
plant  engineering.  3d  ed.,  rev.  and  enl.  N. 
Y.,  Wiley.  30+902  p.  (bibl.)  il.  diagrs.,  8°, 

Tyrrell,     H.     Grattan.       Engineering    of 

shops  and  factories.     N.  Y.,  McGraw-Hill, 
c.  '12.  17+399  P-  (6  p.  bibl.)  il.  diagrs.,  8°, 


EUROPEAN  HISTORY.  Robinson,  Ja.  Harvey, 
and  Beard,  C.  Austin.  .  Outlines  of  Euro- 
pean history,  pt.  2,  from  the  opening  of 
the  eighteenth  century  to  the  present  day. 
Bost.,  Ginn.  c.  '07-' 12.  9+555  p.  (15  p.  bibl.) 
pis.  maps,  12°,  $1.60. 

FLORA,  ARCTIC.  Lloyd,  Lib.  Bibliography  re- 
lating to  the  floras  of  Arctic  regions:  Ice- 
land, Scandinavia,  Denmark,  Norway,  Swe- 
den, Russia,  Finland,  Lapland,  Russian  Po- 
land, and  Caucasia.  Cin.  311-354  p.  8°, 
(Bibliographical  contributions.)  (Not  for 

FORBIDDEN  BOOKS.  Betten,  Fs.  Sales.  The 
Roman  Index  of  forbidden  books,  briefly 
explained  for  Catholic  booklovers  and  stu- 
dents; with  a  summary  of  the  Index.  3d 
enl.  ed.  St.  Louis,  Herder.  6+69  p.  35  c. 

FRANKLIN,  BENJAMIN.  Franklin,  B.  Frank- 
lin's autobiography;  ed.  by  Fk.  Woodworth 
Pine.  N.  Y.,  Holt.  c.  30+231  p.  (4  p.  bibl.) 
il.  por.  16°,  (English  readings  for  schools.) 
35  c. 

GASCONY.  Marsh,  Fk.  Burr.  English  rule  in 
Gascony,  1199-1259,  with  special  reference 
to  the  towns;  a  thesis  submitted  to  the  fac- 
ulty of  the  Department  of  Literature,  Sci- 
ence and  the  Arts  of  the  University  of 
Michigan,  1906.  Ann  Arbor,  Univ.  of  Mich, 
c.  '12.  11+178  p.  (6  p.  bibl.)  8°,  (Historical 
studies.)  $1.25. 

HEBBEL,  FRIEDRICH.  Gubelmann,  Alb.  Studies 
in  the  lyric  poems  of  Friedrich  Hebbel ;  the 
sensuous  in  Hebbel's  lyric  poetry.  New 
Haven,  Ct.,  Yale  Univ.  c.  18+317  p.  (6  p. 
bibl.)  12°,  $2.25. 

HERALDRY,  Scottish.  Johnston,  G.  Harvey. 
Scottish  heraldry  made  easy.  2d  ed.  N.  Y., 
[Scribner.]  15+221  p.  (20  p.  bibl.)  figs.  12°, 

HORNIMAN  MUSEUM.  Handbook  of  the  Hor- 
niman  Museum.  Published,  London,  by  the 
County  Council.  Post  free,  12  cents.  Gives 
under  250  headings,  mostly  scientific  or  re- 
lating to  popular  natural  history,  reading 
lists,  with  an  author  index.  W :  B. 

HOUSE  DECORATION.  Rothery,  Guy  Cadogan. 
Staircases  and  garden  steps.  N.  Y.,  Stokes. 
12+250  p.  (4l/2  p.  bibl.)  D.  (House  decora- 
tion ser.)  $1.50. 

HYGIENE.  Terman,  Lewis  M.  The  teacher's 
health;  a  study  in  the  hygiene  of  an  occu- 
pation. Bost.,  Houghton  Mifflin.  c.  13+136 
P-  (&/2  P-  bibl.)  16°,  (Riverside  educational 
monographs ;  ed.  by  H.  Suzzalo.)  60  c. 

IDYLLS  OF  THE  KING.  Tennyson,  Alfr.,  Lord. 
Selections  from  Tennyson's  Idylls  of  the 
king;  ed.  by  J:  Erskine.  N.  Y.,  Holt.  c.  '12. 

February,  1913] 



31+178  p.  (3  p.  bibl.)  por.  16°,  (English 
readings  for  schools.)  30  c. 

INCUNABULA,  HEBREW.      Rosenthal,    Ludwig. 

Hebraische  Inkunabeln,    1475-1490,    mit    33 

Faksimiles.  Munich,  f °,  pap.  (No.  151 ;  68 

JESUS  THE  CHRIST.  Thorburn,  T:  Ja.  Jesus 
the  Christ;  historical  or  mythical?;  a  reply 
to  Professor  Drews'  Die  Christusmythe.  N. 
Y.,  [Scribner.]  19+311  p.  (14^  P-  bibl.)  8°, 

JEWELRY.  Perciyal,  Maclyer.  Chats  on  old 
jewelry  and  trinkets;  with  nearly  300  illus- 
trations. N.  Y.,  Stokes.  384  p.  (4  p.  bibl.) 
8°,  (Collector's  ser.)  $2. 

KEWEENAW  SERIES.  Lane,  Alfr.  Church.  The 
Keweenaw  series  of  Michigan;  pub.  as  a 
part  of  the  Annual  report  of  the  Board  of 
Geological  and  Biological  Survey  for  1909. 
2  v.  Lansing,  Mich.,  Mich.  Geological  Sur- 
vey, '11.  (6  p.  bibl.)  il.  pis.  (partly  col.) 
fold,  map,  diagrs.,  and  portfolio  of  fold, 
maps  and  fold,  diagrs.,  8°,  (Mich.  Geolog- 
ical and  Biological  Survey  pub.,  Geological 
ser.)  $3. 

LEGISLATION.  Bacon,  Edn.  Munroe,  and  Wy- 
man,  Morrill.  Direct  elections  and  law- 
making  by  popular  vote ;  the  initiative,  the 
referendum,  the  recall,  commission  govern- 
ment for  cities,  preferential  voting.  Bost, 
Houghton  Mifflin.  c.  '12.  4+167  p.  (3  p. 
bibl.)  forms  (ballots),  12°,  $i. 

LEGISLATION.  University  of  Wisconsin  Uni- 
versity Extension  Division.  Dept.  of  Debat- 
ing and  Public  Discussion.  Popular  election 
of  United  States  senators.  2d  rev.  ed.  Mad- 
ison, Wis., '12.  9  p.  (3^  p.  bibl.)  12°,  (Univ. 
of  Wis.  buH.,  General  ser.)  pap.,  5  c. 

LINCOLN,  PRESIDENT.  Whitman,  Walt.  Me- 
moirs of  President  Lincoln.  Portland,  Me., 
T.  B.  Mosher.  c.  various  p.  (bibl.)  por,  f°, 


LIP-READING.  Nitchie,  E.  Bartlett.  Lip-read- 
ing principles  and  practise;  a  handbook  for 
teachers  and  for  self-instruction.  N.  Y., 
Stokes,  c.  14+324  P-  (13  P-  bibl.)  12°,  $1.50. 

Bernard.  Catalogue  of  books  in  English 
literature  and  history.  Pt.  II.,  Dickens — 
Lindsay.  8°,  pap.  (No.  322;  2265  titles.) 

MEDICINE.  Am.  Med.  Assoc.  Committee  on 
Public  Health  and  Education  Among  Wo- 
men. List  of  books  on  the  prevention  of 
disease.  Chic.  14  p.  8°,  gratis. 

Am.  Sch.  of  Home  Economics.    Handbook 

of  health  and  nursing;  a  complete  home- 
study  course,  comprising  Household  bac- 
teriology, by  S.  Maria  Elliott;  Personal 
hygiene,  by  Maurice  Le  Bosquet;  Home 
care  of  the  sick,  by  Amy  E.  Pope.  Chic. 
(bibls.)  il.  pis.  12°,  $2. 

—  Bibliographic  des  livres  Frangais  de  med- 
icine et  des  sciences,  1900-12.  Paris,  Sec- 
tion de  Medicine  du  Syndicat  des  Editeurs. 
134  p.  8°,  pap. 

Deuticke,     Franz.       Klinische     Medizin, 

Alte  Arzte,  Geschichte  der  Medizin,  Ana- 
tomic, Physiologic,  Zoologie,  Anthropologie, 
Neurologic,  Psychiatric,  etc.  Vienna.  8°, 
pap.  (No.  92;  1687  titles.) 

MUNICIPAL  GOVERNMENT.  Beard,  C.  Austin. 
American  city  government ;  a  survey  of 
newer  tendencies.  N.  Y.,  Century  Co.  c. 
9+420  p.  (4l/2  p.  bibl.)  pis.  8°,  $2. 

NORTH  AMERICA.  Willis,  Bailey.  Index  to  the 
stratigraphy  of  North  America;  accom- 
panied by  a  geologic  map  of  North  Amer- 
ica, compiled  by  the  United  States  Geolog- 
ical Survey  in  cooperation  with  the  Geo- 
logical Survey  of  Canada  and  the  Instituto 
Geologico  de  Mexico  under  the  supervision 
of  Bailey  Willis  and  G.  W.  Stose.  Wash., 
D.  C,  Gov.  Pr.  Off.  894  p.  (25  p.  bibl.)  Q. 
(U.  S.,  Dept.  of  the  Interior,  U.  S.  Geolog- 
ical Survey,  Professional  pap.)  pap. 

NURSING.  Dock,  Lavinia  L.  A  history  of  nurs- 
ing from  the  earliest  times  to  the  present 
day;  with  special  reference  to  the  work  of 
the  past  thirty  years.  In  4  v.  vs.  3,  4;  ea. 
with  34  illustrations.  N.  Y.,  Putnam  c.  '12. 
16+340;  7+338  p.  (6  p.  bibl.)  8°,  $5. 

OLD  BOOKS.  Merlino.  Livres  anciens.  Rome. 
8°,  pap.  (No.  20;  206  titles.) 

ORIENTAL  LITERATURE.  Morice,  Eugene  L. 
Books  on  British  India  and  the  Near  East, 
China,  the  Far  East,  Australasia;  being  a 
fine  collection  of  rare  and  valuable  books 
and  pamphlets  on  their  antiquity,  arts,  cus- 
toms, commerce,  history,  etc.  London, 
W.  C.  8°,  pap.  (No.  17;  1033  titles.) 

OSBORN,  HENRY  FAIRFIELD.  Ripley,  H.  Ernes- 
tine. Bibliography  of  the  published  writ- 
ings of  Henry  Fairfield  Osborn  for  the 
years  1877-1910.  Lancaster,  Pa.,  New  Era 
Pr.  26  p.  8°,  pap.,  gratis. 

PANAMA.  Forbes-Lindsay,  C.  Harcourt  Ains- 
lie.  Panama  and  the  canal  to-day;  an  his- 
torical account  of  the  canal  project  from 
the  earliest  times,  with  special  reference  to 
the  enterprises  of  the  French  company  and 
the  United  States;  with  a  detailed  descrip- 
tion of  the  waterway  as  it  will  be. ultimately 
constructed;  together  with  a  brief  history 
of  the  country  and  the  first  comprehensive 
account  of  its  physical  features  and  natural 
resources;  with  53  il.  from  recent,  photo- 
graphs and  5  maps.  New  rev.  ed.  Bost., 
Page.  c.  '12.  3+5-13+474  P-  (5  P-  bibl.)  pis. 
fold,  map,  8°,  $3. 

POETRY.  Schiller,  Johann  Christophe  Friedrich 
von.  Kabale  und  liebe;  ein  biirgerliches 
trauerspiel;  ed.,  with  introd.,  notes  and  ap- 
pendix, by  W :  Addison  Hervey.  N.  Y.,  Holt. 



[February,  1913 

c.  '12.  1084-279  p.  (10  p.  bibl.)  por.  pis.  12°, 

POLITICS  AND  RELIGION.  Humphrey,  E.  Fk. 
Politics  and  religion  in  the  days  of  Augus- 
tine. N.  Y.,  [The  author,  110  West  34th  St.] 
5-220  p.  (6  p.  bibl.)  8°,  $1.50. 

PSYCHOLOGY.  Brett,  G.  Sidney.  A  history  of 
psychology,  ancient  and  patristic.  N.  Y., 
Macmillan,  '12.  20+388  p.  (bibls.)  8°,  $2.75. 

PUBLIC  DOCUMENTS.  N.  Y.  P.  L.  Bull,  D.,  '12. 
List  of  city  charters,  ordinances  and  col- 
lected documents.  Pt.  III.  p.  885-947,  4°, 

United  States.  Superintendent  of  Docu- 
ments. Checklist  of  United  States  public 
documents,  1789-1909,  congressional :  to  close 
of  Sixtieth  Congress;  departmental:  to  end 
of  calendar  year  1909.  3d  ed.,  rev.  and  enl. ; 
comp.  under  direction  of  the  Superintendent 
of  Documents.  Wash.,  D.  C.,  Gov.  Pr.  Off. 
'ii.  8°,  $1.50. 

REED,  WALTER.  Kelly,  Howard  Atwood.  Wal- 
ter Reed  and  yellow  fever.  New  and  rev. 
ed.  Bait.,  Medical  Standard  Bk.  Co.,  [307 
N.  Charles  St.]  c.  '06.  19+310  p.  (3  p.  bibl.) 
pors.  12°,  $1.50. 

RELIGION.  Lectures  on  the  history  of  relig- 
ions. St.  Louis,  B.  Herder,  '12.  5  v.  (bibls.) 
12°,  ea.,  60  c. 

RELIGIOUS  LITERATURE.  Cambridge  (Mass.) 
Church  L.  Assoc.  List  of  books  recom- 
mended for  Sunday  school  and  parish  libs, 
by  the  Church  Lib.  Assoc.  22  p.  12°,  pap. 

SCIENCE.  Schoningh,  Ferdinand.  Biicher  aus 
alien  Wissenschaf ten ;  Deutsche  Literatur 
Arnim,  Brentano,  Goethe,  Schiller ;  Fran- 
zosische  und  englische  Literatur ;  Philoso- 
phic, Geschichte,  Biographien  Kunst,  etc. 
Osnabriick.  8°,  pap.  (No.  143;  1570  titles.) 

SOCIAL  ECONOMICS.  Winder,  Phyllis  D.  The 
public  feeding  of  elementary  school  chil- 
dren ;  a  review  of  the  general  situation,  and 
an  inquiry  into  Birmingham  experience; 
with  a  preface  by  Councillor  Norman  Cham- 
berlain. N.  Y.,  Longmans.  11+84  p.  (2  p. 
bibl.)  8°,  (Birmingham  studies  in  social 
economics  and  adjacent  fields.)  pap.,  75  c. 

SOCIOLOGY.  Devine,  E.  T.  The  family  and 
social  work.  N.  Y.,  Assn.  Press,  c.  163  p. 
(5  p.  bibl.)  12°,  60  c. 

—  Ellwood,    C.    Abram.      Sociology    in    its 
psychological  aspects.     N.  Y.,  Appleton.  c. 
13+416  p.  (8  p.  bibl.)  8°,  $3. 

—  Griggs,  E.  Howard.    Human  progress ;  a 
study  of   modern   civilization;   a  handbook 
of   eight   lectures.     N.   Y.,   Huebsch.   52   p. 
(4l/2  p.  bibl.)  pap.,  25  c. 

SPIDERS.  Comstock,  J.  H.  The  spider  book; 
a  manual  for  the  study  of  the  spiders  and 

their  near  relatives,  the  scorpions,  pseudo- 
scorpions,  whip-scorpions,  harvestmen,  and 
other  members  of  the  class  Arachnida, 
found  in  America  north  of  Mexico ;  with 
analytical  keys  for  their  classification,  and 
popular  accounts  of  their  habits.  Garden 
City,  N.  Y.,  Doubleday,  Page.  c.  '12.  15+ 
721  p.  (16  p.  bibl.)  il.  8°,  $4- 

SPORTING  BOOKS.  Anderson,  W.  H.  Library  of 
Nathaniel  C.  Reynal,  of  White  Plains,  N.  Y. 
Part  2,  Sporting  books.  N.  Y.,  8°,  pap.  (No. 
986;  324  lots.) 

THEOLOGICAL  BOOKS.  Higham,  Charles  &  Son. 
Useful  and  otherwise  valuable  theological 
books  of  all  kinds,  chiefly  modern  and  sec- 
ond-hand, including  many  items.  London, 
E.  C.  8°,  pap.  (No.  515 ;  2455  titles.) 

TRAVEL.  Rey,  Jules.  Etrennes  du  touriste, 
editions  de  grand  luxe  illustrees  en  photo- 
typie  relative  aux  Alpes,  au  pays  de  Jeanne 
d'Arc,  aux  pays  de  Napoleon;  editions  sci- 
entifiques  de  la  Houille  Blanche.  France. 
16  p.  pap. 

VENEZUELA.  Dalton,  Leonard  V.  Venezuela; 
with  a  map  and  34  illustrations.  N.  Y., 
Scribner.  320  p.  (27  p.  bibl.)  8°,  (South 
American  ser.)  $3. 

ZOOLOGY.  Stiles,  C.  Wardell,  and  Hassall,  Alb. 
Index  catalogue  of  medical  and  veterinary 
zoology:  subjects,  Cestoda  and  Cestodaria. 
Wash.,  D.  C.,  Gov.  Pr.  Off.  467  p.  8°, 
(U.  S.,  Hygienic  Laby.  bull.)  pap. 

fwmors  an&  JSlun&ers 

Dear   Mr.    H. :    This    little    Christmas   thought 
Goes   to   you   with   all   friendly   memories  fraught; 
May  the  New  Year  for  you  and  yours  be  bright, 
May  your   new   building  take   on   form   and   height. 
May  branches  thrive   for  you   on  every  hand; 
May   funds   be   plenteous  as   the   seashore   sand; 
May  legislators  smile  upon  your  need; 
May    press    and    public    yield    you    well-earned    need; 
May  your  old  news  files  cease  to  crack  and  shrivel, 
May  you,  upon  the  golf  links  beat  the  divvil! 
May  all  good  things — and  more  than  these  I'm  tellin' — 
Be  granted  you. 

Affectionately,    H . 

H.   G.   H. 

Xtbrarp  Calenfcar 


10.     Penn  L.  C.,  Philadelphia. 

io?-i5?.  Western  Mass  L.  C.,  Northampton. 

28-Mr.  i.     N.  J.  L.  A.  and  Penn  L.  C,  Bi-state 

annual  meeting. 
5-7.    Wis.  L.  A.,  Wausau. 

Mr.     Old  Colony  L.  C 

Ma.?-Je.?  Mass.  L.  C.  annual  meeting  at 

Je.  23- Aug.  i.  Penn.  Summer  School  for  Li- 
brary Workers. 


VOL.  38 

MARCH,   1913 

No.  3 

"No  matter  who  you  are,  or  what  your 
work  or  business  is,  we  can  help  you — come 
to  us,"  is  the  summation  by  a  newspaper  wri- 
ter of  the  tenor  of  the  annual  report  of  the 
New  York  Public  Library,  and  though  not 
from  an  interview  with  Dr.  Billings,  as  might 
be  inferred  from  the  text,  pithily  expresses 
both  the  spirit  of  the  library  and  of  the  Amer- 
ican public  library  system.  New  York's  cir- 
culation for  1912,  7,969,664,  gives  an  average 
of  2.6  volumes  per  capita  for  the  estimated 
population  of  3,061,000  in  its  immediate 
bailiwick  of  Manhattan,  Bronx  and  Rich- 
mond boroughs;  almost  exactly  the  same 
as  last  year,  and  slightly  better  than  the 
2.4  of  the  Brooklyn  system.  This  is  some- 
what below  the  average  in  smaller  places,  and 
there  is  still  a  vast  unexplored  field  of  readers 
before  the  metropolitan  libraries.  As  the  li- 
brary of  the  largest  circulation  in  the  world, 
the  record  of  the  New  York  Public  Library 
is  of  unique  interest,  and  its  report  is  really 
of  national  importance. 

IT  is  proverbial  that  a  book  owned  is  worth 
many  times  a  book  borrowed,  and  it  should 
be  an  axiom  that  the  purpose  of  the  public 
library  system  is  to  promote  good  reading, 
outside  as  well  as  inside  its  jurisdiction.  Pride 
of  circulation  has  led  some  librarians  so  far 
as  to  suggest  that  there  is  no  reason  why 
people  should  buy  books  when  they  can  ob- 
tain them  for  nothing  from  the  public  library. 
This  overlooks,  or,  rather,  antagonizes,  the 
proper  view  of  the  purpose  of  the  public  li- 
brary: that  it  should  not  spend  the  public 
money  where  private  means  can  better  accom- 
plish the  end.  The  library  is  only  a  part  of 
the  larger  system  of  public  education  in  which 
not  only  the  school  and  the  college,  but  the 
bookstore  and  the  personally  owned  book  are 
also  a  part.  Mr.  Mumford's  paper  on  the 
relations  that  should  exist  between  the  libra- 
rian and  the  bookseller  is  altogether  in  the 
right  direction.  Cooperation  between  the  libra- 
rian and  the  bookseller  can  be  very  fruitful  of 
good  result,  and  it  is  unfortunate  that  for  one 
reason  or  another  the  two  classes  have  come 
to  look  upon  each  other  askance.  There 
was  once  a  proposition  that  the  library  should 
become  a  local  bookstore,  and  thus  do  away 
\\ith  the  commercial  element  in  bookselling. 

But  this  would  be  going  far  afield,  and  would 
involve  the  library  system  in  the  losses  as  well 
as  gains  of  trade.  Far  better  is  it  that  the 
librarian  should  be  the  wise  guide  of  the 
bookseller  in  helping  him  to  select  the  best 
books,  especially  those  for  children,  and  that 
the  bookseller  should  feel  that  the  librarian 
is  behind  him  rather  than  against  him  in  pro- 
moting good  reading  through  the  sale  of  the 
best  books.  Mr.  Mumford  brings  together 
much  of  the  experience  of  libraries  in  such 
cooperation,  and  his  paper  is  full  of  sugges- 
tions that  should  be  heeded. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL  training  in  college  and,  in- 
deed, in  the  schools,  is  not  at  all  a  question 
of  professional  education,  though  it  is  the 
library  profession  which  should  emphasize  its 
need.  There  are  certain  courses  in  education 
which  are  both  labor-saving  and  time-saving- 
and  instead  of  increasing  the  amount  of  work 
and  the  number  of  hours  required  for  edu- 
cation, really  diminish  these.  Amongst  such, 
the  knowledge  of  how  to  find  and  how  to  use 
a  book  is  of  the  first  importance.  This  study 
should  not  be  overlooked  in  the  grammar 
grades,  for  the  key  to  the  library  should  be 
furnished  all  the  more  to  children  who  will 
never  get  to  the  high  school  or  the  college, 
but  who,  nevertheless,  should  use  books  all 
their  lives  and  should,  consequently,  be  told 
how  to  use  them  to  best  advantage.  Other- 
wise not  only  is  an  enormous  amount  of  time 
wasted,  both  by  the  user  of  books  and,  inci- 
dentally, by  the  library  staff  in  serving  him, 
but  a  person  may  not  even  know  that  certain 
lines  of  information,  pertinent  to  and  prac- 
tical in  his  life,  may  be  had  from  books,  quite 
aside  from  the  inspiration  which  also  should 
be  had  from  books.  The  knowledge  of  the 
use  of  logarithms  is  a  similar  example  of  a 
subject  auxiliary  to  the  study  of  mathematics, 
which  means  an  enormous  saving  in  practical 
life;  and  the  slide  rule  is  another  device  which 
is  literally  a  tool  for  intellectual  work.  These, 
however,  are  much  more  technical,  and  do 
not  cover  so  wide  a  field  of  usefulness  as 
does  bibliographical  training.  This  corre- 
sponds, in  fact,  to  the  value  of  typewriting 
and  stenography  as  labor-saving  devices;  and 
it  is  especially  interesting  here  to  note  that 
President  Woodrow  Wilson  has,  throughout 



[March,  1913 

his  life,  made  practical  use  of  shorthand  and 
typewriting,  putting  his  addresses  in  form 
through  shorthand,  as  he  has  recently  done 
in  the  case  of  his  inaugural.  The  libraries 
should  be  ready  to  advise  students  of  all 
grades  to  avail  themselves  of  such  helps  as 
these,  because  in  this  way  there  will  be  more 
time  for  reading  and  better  reading. 

EFFICIENCY,  a  word  now  rather  fashionable, 
may  mean  either  social  or  mechanical  effec- 
tiveness on  the  part  of  the  worker,  and  it  is 
perhaps  the  human  side  which  should  rightly 
be  emphasized  in  library  relations.  This  can- 
not be  determined  by  any  mechanical,  physio- 
logical or  even  psychological  tests,  for  the 
relation  of  one  human  being  with  other  hu- 
man beings  cannot  be  gauged  by  any  appa- 
ratus. Yet  there  is  a  standard  by  which  such 
efficiency  may  be  measured,  and  the  report 
paper  which  Mr.  Bostwick  has  prepared  is  a 
very  useful  illustration  of  what  may  be  done 
in  this  direction.  Such  efficiency  records  as 
these  are  useful,  first  of  all,  to  the  executive 
in  relation  to  appointment  and  promotion,  but 
they  have  another  usefulness,  though  this  is 
difficult  to  make  effective  without  disturbing 
social  equilibrium.  To  an  individual  worker 
who  wants  to  know  how  to  better  personal 
work  and  improve  his  personal  position,  the 
opinions  of  his  immediate  chief  and  co- 
workers  are  most  valuable;  and,  therefore, 
such  records  should  be  of  peculiar  value  to 
the  person  whose  character  and  work  are 
thus  passed  upon,  if  that  person  is  sufficiently 
broadminded  to  take  advantage  of,  instead  of 
to  resent,  such  evaluation.  While  it  is  the 
human  side  of  efficiency  that  has  to  be  empha- 
sized, yet  there  is  a  good  deal  on  the  mechan- 
ical side,  with  respect  to  the  use  of  labor- 
saving  and  time-saving  methods  and  devices, 
of  which  account  should  be  taken  in  libraries. 
In  this  field,  Mr.  W.  P.  Cutter  has  for  some 
time  been  making  observations,  and,  happily, 
it  is  his  intention  at  a  later  date  to  put  his 
results  before  the  library  profession. 

purpose,  presented  by  Senator  La  Follette,  is 
in  itself  a  model  of  bill  drafting,  for  it  makes 
the  necessary  provision  and  gives  the  neces- 
sary power  in  the  simplest  form,  without 
cumbering  the  bill  with  administrative  details 
which  can  be  best  worked  out  in  the  course 
of  the  development  of  such  bureaus.  This 
administrative  detail  in  legislative  measures 
has  been  a  curse  to  the  economic  organization 
of  governmental  bureaus,  and  Post  Office  leg- 
islation has  been  peculiarly  obnoxious  in  this 
way.  Senator  La  Follette's  bill  provides  for 
a  Bill  Drafting  Bureau  outside  the  Library 
of  Congress,  and  whether  or  not  such  a 
bureau  should  be  under  the  direct  supervision 
of  the  legislature,  inviting  the  possible  dan- 
gers of  partisanship,  or  be  connected  with  the 
official  library,  now  almost  universally  non- 
partisan,  is  fairly  a  matter  of  question.  A  bill 
for  creating  a  Bill  Drafting  Bureau  in  con- 
nection with  the  State  Library  has  been  in- 
troduced in  the  New  York  Legislature  by 
Assemblyman  Hinman,  and  New  York  is  likely 
before  very  long  to  follow  the  good  example 
of  Wisconsin  and  other  states.  The  Hinman 
bill  is,  however,  open  to  criticism,  as  going 
overmuch  into  detail,  and  a  simpler  measure 
would  be  preferable. 

THE  plan  for  developing,  the  legislative  ref- 
erence features  of  the  Library  of  Congress 
and  the  establishment  of  a  Bill  Drafting 
Bureau,  either  within  or  without  the  library, 
is  again  before  Congress,  and  is  likely,  if  not 
in  the  present  session,  at  least  during  the  next 
Congress,  to  become  law.  The  bill  for  this 

As  a  library  post,  i.  e.,  a  lower  rate  for 
books,  is  not  made  part  of  the  postal  appro- 
priation bill,  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  it  may  be 
brought  forward  at  the  extra  session  of  Con- 
gress, and  that  enough  pressure  will  be 
brought  to  bear  upon  Senate  and  House  to 
insure  its  adoption.  Under  the  parcels  post 
bill,  the  Postmaster-General  was  given  wide 
power  to  modify  everything  except  classifica- 
tion, but  in  this  respect  his  hands  were  tied. 
Books  were  excluded  from  parcels  post  ad- 
vantages because  the  parcels  post  was  specifi- 
cally confined  to  fourth-class  or  merchandise 
matter.  Books  should  certainly  have  the  ben- 
efit of  the  parcels  post  rates,  but  in  the  farther 
zones  the  inclusion  of  them  would  increase 
instead  of  decrease  the  present  rate.  A  prac- 
tical proposition  is  that  to  make  books  and 
other  printed  matter  four  cents  a  pound,  giv- 
ing them  also  the  benefits  of  the  parcels  post 
where  this  would  be  an  advantage.  Librarians 
should  be  on  the  alert  to  use  their  influence 
in  this  direction,  for  such  a  rate  would  be  of 
benefit  to  the  whole  people,  directly  as  well 
as  through  the  agency  of  the  libraries. 

March,  1913] 


BY  ARTHUR  E.  BOSTWICK,  Librarian,  St.  Louis  Public  Library 

IN  an  article  entitled  "Service  systems  in 
libraries,"  printed  in  the  June  number  of  this 
journal,  the  present  writer  gave  the  result  of 
his  experience  in  formulating  and  establish- 
ing such  systems  of  service  in  four  large 
libraries,  and,  incidentally,  stated  his  conclu- 
sion that  such  systems  should  always  remain 
in  the  control  of  the  library  authorities. 

While  the  plans  therein  described  work 
satisfactorily  from  an  inside  standpoint,  they 
are  defective  in  one  particular — that  of  com- 
plete record.  This  is  most  important  in  case 
of  investigation  by  competent  authority.  While 
direct  control  of  a  library  service  system  by 
an  outside  body,  such  as  a  municipal  or  other 
civil  service  board,  is  objectionable,  there  can 
certainly  be  no  objection  to  the  requirement, 
by  municipal  charter  or  state  law,  that  the 
library  service  be  organized  and  operated  on 
the  merit  system,  which  requirement  presup- 
poses occasional  inquiry  to  ascertain  whether, 
and  in  what  degree  and  form,  this  is  the  case. 
Now,  in  the  event  of  such  investigation,  it 
will  usually  be  easy  to  produce  the  records  of 
examinations,  with  marked  papers,  tabulated 
marks,  and  the  action  based  thereon.  When 
it  comes  to  personality  and  efficiency,  such 
records  are  not  easy  to  get.  Even  where  li- 
braries assign  marks  in  these  subjects  and 
combine  them  with  the  results  of  the  written 
tests  to  obtain  a  final  mark  on  which  pro- 
motion is  based,  there  is  nothing  to  show  how 
the  marks  were  obtained,  and  the  investigat- 
ing authority  might  not  unnaturally  conclude 
that  here  was  an  opportunity  to  nullify  the 
merit  system.  Evidently  all  data  on  which 
appointment  or  promotion  is  based  should  be 
matters  of  record,  otherwise  a  perfectly  well- 
ordered  merit  system  cannot  be  demonstrated 
to  be  such  to  one  who  has  a  right  to  know; 
and,  of  course,  in  the  last  analysis,  every  citi- 
zen has  this  right  in  the  case  of  a  public  in- 

What  appeared  to  be  needed  was  some  reg- 
ular report  on  the  efficiency  of  every  em- 
ployee, which  should  be  taken  into  account  in 
assigning  marks  or  in  some  other  way,  in 
making  promotions,  made  in  such  permanent 
form  that  it  could  be  filed  as  a  record.  Such 
reports  are,  of  course,  constantly  made  orally 

and  acted  upon,  without  any  record  being 
preserved.  They  are  occasionally  made  in 
recordable  form,  perhaps  most  often  in  the 
case  of  apprentices  or  members  of  training 
classes.  In  some  cases  derelictions  or  unfav- 
orable reports  alone  have  been  recorded,  but 
a  complete  report  on  personality  and  work 
made  regularly  and  filed  permanently  is  a 
thing  that  has  not  come  under  my  observa- 
tion, although,  of  course,  it  may  exist. 

Having  decided  to  adopt  some  such  form 
of  report  in  the  St.  Louis  Public  Library,  the 
librarian  laid  the  matter  before  the  weekly 
conference  of  department  heads  and  branch 
librarians.  Had  the  question  been  the  advisa- 
bility of  the  adoption  of  such  a  form,  the 
sentiment  of  the  meeting  would  probably  have 
been  against  it,  but  the  announcement  was 
simply  that  the  librarian  had  decided  to  re- 
quire regularly  thereafter,  in  shape  suitable 
for  filing,  information  regarding  the  efficiency 
of  assistants  that  had  hitherto  been  received 
irregularly  and  by  word  of  mouth.  A  staff 
committee  was  appointed  to  draft  a  form  of 
report,  and  the  reports  of  progress  of  this 
committee,  with  the  incidental  discussions  and 
conferences,  occupied  nearly  a  year,  during 
which  time  everyone  on  the  staff  became 
thoroughly  familiar  with  the  plan  and  either 
agreed  with  the  librarian  regarding  its  ad- 
visability or  had  some  reasonable  and  well- 
considered  ground  of  opposition. 

The  librarian  had  in  mind  a  short  form, 
containing  a  few  important  data.  The  com- 
mittee brought  in  a  long  one  —  somewhat 
longer  than  that  finally  adopted,  which  is 
given  below.  Their  reason,  as  stated,  was 
that  it  is  easier  to  answer  a  large  number  of 
questions  that  require  hardly  more  than  the 
words  "yes"  and  "no"  in  reply  than  a  few, 
each  of  which  calls  for  the  writing  of  an 
essay,  however  brief.  This  reason  appealed 
to  all  and  finally  prevailed.  It  means  prac- 
tically the  presentation  of  the  information  re- 
quired, ready-made,  and  its  adoption  or  re- 
jection by  the  person  making  the  report.  Dis- 
cussion in  the  meeting  was  chiefly  on  the 
more  personal  items  of  information,  such  as 
those  about  neatness  of  dress,  etc. ;  also  about 
others  whose  propriety  or  clearness  was  ques- 

1 32 


[March,  1913 

tioned,  such  as  that  regarding  loyalty  to  the 
library.  Some  of  these  were  finally  stricken 
out,  but  most  were  retained.  It  was  also 
noted  that  in  many  cases  the  information 
asked  for  could  not  ordinarily  be  obtained.  A 
department  head,  for  instance,  may  be  inti- 
mate enough  with  one  of  her  assistants  to 
know  whether  she  has  a  real  appreciation  for 
literature,  but  in  most  instances  this  would 
not  be  the  case.  Many  such  questions  were 
retained  on  the  ground  that  answers,  if  pos- 
sible, would  be  of  value,  and,  if  not,  could 
simply  be  omitted. 

After  the  forms  had  thus  been  put  into 
shape  they  were  duplicated  and  a  copy  was 
given  to  each  department  head,  with  instruc- 
tions to  show  it  to  all  her  assistants,  discuss 
it  with  them,  and  report  at  the  next  meeting. 
The  reports  showed  that  the  reception  of  the 
form  had  depended  chiefly  on  the  department 
head,  either  through  manner  of  presentation 
or  through  personal  influence.  In  some  de- 
partments the  plan  seemed  to  be  viewed  with 
equanimity,  while  in  others  there  was  a  con- 
siderable amount  of  suspicion,  distrust  and 
-dislike  of  the  whole  scheme.  It  was  next 
.announced  that  anyone  on  the  staff  desiring 
to  discuss  the  matter  with  the  librarian  would 
be  given  an  opportunity  to  do  so  at  a  specified 
ineeting.  This  was  well  attended,  and  it  ap- 
peared that  much  of  the  feeling  was  due  to 
misunderstanding.  It  was  explained  that  no 
new  method  of  making  promotions  was  con- 
templated, and  that  personality  and  efficiency 
would  be  taken  into  account  neither  more  nor 
less  than  before,  but  that  the  reports  from 
which  the  librarian  derived  his  information 
on  these  points  would  be  required  in  writing, 
thus  safeguarding  both  the  appointing  officer 
and  the  appointees.  There  seemed  to  be  a 
strong  feeling  on  the  part  of  some  that  per- 
sonal feeling  might  actuate  some  department 
head  to  make  a  false  report,  and  that  while, 
of  course,  such  report  might  be  made  even 
more  effectively  if  rendered  orally,  it  would 
be  a  pity  to  have  it  permanently  on  record. 
There  was  no  answer  to  this  except  that  the 
likelihood  of  such  a  misleading  report  would 
probably  become  known  to  the  librarian,  who 
could  reject  or  modify  it. 

In  due  course  of  time,  a  sufficient  number 
of  blanks  were  distributed,  filled  and  handed 
in.  They  were  then  discussed  again  at  a 
meeting,  and  questions  that  had  come  up  in 

the  practical  rendition  of  the  reports  were 
brought  up  and  settled.  A  filled  report  re- 
garding the  work  of  every  classified  assistant 
in  this  library  is  now  on  file  in  the  librarian's 

The  conditions  under  which  these  reports 
are  made  and  held  are  as  follows: 

Every  question  must  be  answered  or  the 
reason  for  not  doing  so  must  be  stated. 

The  reports  are  to  be  made  out  regularly 
on  the  first  of  each  year,  or  oftener  at  the 
librarian's  request.  Each  is  accessible  only 
to  the  librarian,  to  the  reporting  officer  and 
to  the  assistant  reported  on,  except  when  a 
transfer  is  to  be  made,  when  the  head  of  the 
department  to  which  the  assistant  is  to  be 
transferred  may  also  consult  the  record. 

Since  the  reports  were  made  out  only  about 
half  a  dozen  assistants  have  requested  to  be 
shown  their  records.  Some  others  were  al- 
lowed to  see  them  before  they  were  handed 
in.  Such  excitement  as  there  was  regarding 
the  matter  has  now  abated,  and  the  matter 
has  been  relegated  to  its  proper  plane  in  the 
scheme  of  library  things.  This  is  due,  prob- 
ably, very  largely  to  the  plan  of  conducting 
the  whole  matter  on  a  free  and  open  basis, 
in  consultation  with  the  staff  at  every  point, 
and  also  to  the  length  of  time  that  was  al- 
lowed to  elapse  between  steps.  Publicity  and 
deliberation  are  the  two  necessary  things  in 
a  procedure  of  this  kind,  and  both  are  com- 
mended to  librarians  wishing  to  adopt  this 
kind  of  record. 

There  is  no  doubt  in  my  mind  that  some 
efficiency  record  is  necessary  and  valuable, 
and  that  a  full  record,  including  the  usual 
high  percentage  of  good  things  with  the  pos-' 
sible  proportion  of  bad  ones,  is  preferable  to 
a  mere  blacklist,  on  which  only  the  bad  is 

The  blank,  as  finally  adopted,  is  reproduced 



(Inverted,  in  full) 
Branch  or  Department. 

Length  of  service  in  dept.  or  branch. 
Present  grade  of  assistant. 
Entered  the  library 
A.  Personal  qualities. 

i.  Physically  strong  enough  for  the  work? 
How  much  time  lost  while  in  depart- 
ment and  why? 

March,  1913] 



2.  Knowledge  of  books 
Improving  in  this? 

3.  All  around  information? 

4.  Appreciation  for  real  literature. 

5.  Resourceful?     Systematic? 

6.  Self-possessed  in  a  rush  or  emergency? 

7.  Executive  ability  ?     Decision  ? 

8.  Accurate?     Quick?     Adaptable? 

9.  Industrious?     Careless? 

10.  Obliging  to  fellow-workers? 

11.  Punctual?     Times  tardy?     Excusable? 

12.  Forgetful?     Inclined  to  gossip? 

13.  Neat  and  appropriate  in  dress  ? 

B.  Relations  with  the  public. 

1.  Uniformly  courteous?     Dignified? 

2.  Inclined  to  entertain  personal  visitors? 

3.  Effective  in  work  with  adults? 

4.  Effective  in  work  with  children? 

C.  Grade  as  excellent,  good,  fair,  or  poor. 

1.  Library  hand. 

2.  Printing. 

3.  Typewriting. 

4.  Shorthand. 

D.  Did  the  assistant  improve  while  with  you? 

In  what  way? 

In  what  did  she  fall  short? 

E.  If  the  assistant  had  weak  points,  did  you 

call  her  attention  to  them? 

F.  What  did  you  especially  like  about  the  as- 

sistant ? 

G.  Do  you  consider  the  assistant  fitted  or  un- 

fitted by  personality,  education  and  prac- 
tical efficiency  to  work  in  any  one  of  the 
following  departments  ?  Grade  her  work 
as  excellent,  good,  fair  or  poor, 
stating  also  length  of  service  at  each 
kind  of  work. 

1.  An  all-around  branch  assistant  in  this 

library  ? 

2.  A  children's  librarian? 

3.  A  reference  department  assistant? 

4.  A  catalog  department  assistant? 

5.  A  desk  assistant? 

6.  A  clerical  assistant? 

7.  An  assistant  in  other  lines?  (specify) 
If  you  do  not  consider  the  assistant  so 

fitted,  give  particular  reasons. 
H.  Is  the  assistant  loyal  to  the  library? 
I.  Has  the  assistant  enthusiasm  in  her  work? 
J.  Would  you  be  satisfied  to  have  the  assistant 
in  your  (Branch)   (Dept),  not  consider- 
ing the  fact  that  you  might  prefer  some 
one  else? 
L.  Remarks. 



BY  KENDRIC  C.  BABCOCK,  Specialist  in  Higher  Education,  United  States  Bureau  of  Education 

THE  phase  of  this  topic  which  I  wish  to 
discuss  deals  with  the  general  instruction  of 
individual  college  students  in  bibliography  and 
the  use  of  the  library,  rather  than  with  a 
few  lectures  by  the  librarians,  or  with  the 
technical  bibliographical  instruction  in  courses 
devised  for  the  training  of  librarians  or  pro- 
fessional bibliographers.  Courses  of  the  lat- 
ter kind  are  given  in  several  universities, 
sometimes  as  a  regular  course  running 
through  one  or  more  years,  sometimes  as  a 
summer  session  course  which  a  regular  stu- 
dent may  elect  for  credit  toward  a  degree,  if 
he  so  chooses.  Syracuse  University,  for  ex- 
ample, conducts  a  library  school,  in  which 
were  registered,  in  1911-12,  41  students.  It 
offers  a  variety  of  combinations  of  courses 
and  degrees;  (i)  a  two-years' technical  course 
for  college  graduates  leading  to  the  degree 
of  Bachelor  of  Library  Science;  (2)  a  one- 
year  technical  course  for  college  graduates 
leading  to  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Library 
Economy;  (3)  a  four-years'  combined  aca- 

*  Presented  at  the  Conference  of  Eastern  College 
Librarians,  Columbia  University,  Nov.  30,  1912. 

demic  and  technical  course  leading  to  the 
degree  of  Bachelor  of  Library  Economy;  (4) 
a  three-years'  certificate  course,  consisting  of 
two  years  of  academic  study,  followed  by 
one-year's  technical  course;  (5)  a  two-years' 
technical  certificate  course.  Just  what  is  the 
difference  between  a  Bachelor  of  Library 
Science  and  a  Bachelor  of  Library  Economy  a 
layman  like  myself  is  hardly  competent  to 
judge.  The  University  •  of  Michigan  illus- 
trates the  summer  course  in  library  methods, 
which  runs  through  eight  Weeks,  and  by  spec- 
ial permission  may  be  allowed  to  count  for 
two  hours  of  university  credit  if  satisfac- 
torily completed.  None  of  these,  however, 
touches  the  great  body  of  new  students. 

Mention  should  also  be  made  of  the  usual 
courses  of  lectures  on  the  use  of  the  library. 
These  are  sometimes  optional  and  sometimes 
required  of  all  students.  A  course  of  this 
kind  was  recently  given  at  Columbia  Univer- 
sity, in  which  Mr.  Johnston  lectured  on  "The 
libraries  of  New  York  City  and  their  uses," 
Mr.  Hicks  on  "Why  we  have  a  university 
library,"  and  Miss  Mudge  on  "The  keys  to 



[March,  1913 

the  resources  of  the  library."  No  matter  how 
excellent  the  lecture  courses  in  bibliography 
may  be,  they  fail  to  meet  the  need  for  general 
bibliographical  instruction.  Ten  lectures  in 
bibliography  by  Mr.  Keogh,  of  Yale  Univer- 
sity, or  lectures  of  one  hour  a  week,  on  "His- 
torical and  practical  bibliography,"  by  Pro- 
fessor Davis,  of  the  University  of  Michigan, 
are  presumably  excellent  and  stimulating.  But 
these  are  evidently  optional  courses;  new  stu- 
dents coming  into  the  university  are  not  cer- 
tain to  elect  them.  Similarly,  handbooks  like 
the  "Rules  and  regulations  of  the  library," 
the  "Handbook  of  the  library,"  issued  by  the 
University  of  Chicago,  and  the  "Reader's 
manual"  of  Columbia  University,  are  valuable 
so  far  as  they  go,  but  they  do  not  go  far 
enough  in  the  way  of  definite  instruction,  and 
there  is  no  certainty  that  they  will  gain  the 
attention  of  all  students.  A  modification  of 
an  old  proverb  has  been  suggested  by  a  wise 
college  president  of  to-day,  who  said  that 
though  you  may  lead  a  colt  to  water,  and  yet 
cannot  make  him  drink,  you  can  at  least  cre- 
ate in  him  a  thirst.  So  with  the  use  of  the 
library.  A  student  may  be  lectured  to  on 
how  he  may  use  the  library,  and  may  never 
make  the  attempt  to  use  it.  His  thirst  should 
be  created  early,  and  the  means  of  satisfying 
it  made  easy  and  illustrated  experimentally. 

The  place  of  the  library  in  the  work  of  all 
departments  is  one  of  increasing  importance. 
The  library  is  a  resource  or  reservoir  from 
which  the  student  should  draw  constantly  for 
information  and  inspiration,  whether  his  in- 
terest lie  in  history,  literature  or  science. 
Every  month  of  delay  in  instructing  him  in 
the  meaning  and  use  of  the  library  lessens  the 
efficiency  of  his  course.  The  importance  of 
knowing  how  to  use  the  library  is  peculiarly 
great  for  scientific  students  and  engineering 
students,  whose  best  material  is  frequently  in 
the  form  of  magazine  articles,  pamphlets, 
proceedings  of  learned  societies,  and  technical 
papers  prepared  by  experts.  Discrimination 
in  the  use  of  different  editions  is  highly  es- 
sential. Nothing  is  more  out  of  date  than  a 
five-year-old  text-book  on  electricity  or  phys- 
ical chemistry.  For  promoting  economy  of 
time  and  of  energy,  and  as  a  means  of  ac- 
curacy and  rapid  progress,  the  student  should 
very  early  learn  how  to  get  from  the  library 
the  latest  and  strongest  presentation  of  a 
given  topic,  and  to  get  it  expeditiously. 

Every  new  student  should  be  required  to 
take  some .  course  in  which  is  given  definite 
practical  instruction  in  the  handling  of  library 
tools.  It  is  not  enough  to  instruct  those  who 
happen  to  choose  history  or  literature.  Such 
a  course,  moreover,  should  not  only  be  re- 
quired, but  it  should  constitute  a  definite  part 
of  the  work  required  for  a  degree.  Perhaps 
the  best  way  of  securing  its  recognition  would 
be  to  give  it  a  definite  credit  toward  a  given 
degree.  Objection  will  be  promptly  made  that 
this  suggestion  involves  adding  to  the  already 
full  college  curriculum,  one  hour  to  the  120 
required  for  the  degree;  but  an  equally 
prompt  rejoinder  may  be  made  that  the  im- 
portance to  both  the  literary  and  scientific 
student  of  early,  intimate,  personal  knowledge 
of  the  use  of  the  library  is  equal  to  the  im- 
portance of  physical  training  or  an  hour  of 
composition.  In  all  three,  understanding  and 
skill  must  supplant  ignorance  and  clumsiness. 
The  president  of  a  large  state  university,  who 
was  himself  educated  in  a  large,  endowed  uni- 
versity, recently  confessed  that  he  had  never 
known  that  there  was  such  a  thing  as  "Poole's 
index"  until  he  was  a  senior.  I  recall  a  stu- 
dent, a  senior  in  engineering  in  a  large  state 
university  in  which  there  were  no  department 
libraries,  who  asked  me  how  he  could  draw 
a  book  from  the  library,  saying  that  he  had 
spent  nearly  four  years  in  the  institution  and 
had  never  drawn  out  a  book. 

In  my  investigation  in  various  parts  of  the 
country,  relative  to  the  standing  of  colleges, 
I  have  found  difficulty  in  estimating  the  effi- 
ciency of  the  library,  though  it  is  often  quite 
obviously  low.  Various  tests  may  be  ap- 
plied—the number  of  volumes,  the  number  of 
those  which  are  live  books,  the  number  of 
public  documents,  the  quantity  of  junk,  the 
annual  budget  for  care  and  increase,  the  num- 
ber of  students  drawing  books,  the  number 
of  books  loaned,  the  use  by  students  of  the 
reading-room  and  of  the  reserve  books  or 
special  libraries.  Answers  to  some  of  these 
inquiries  from  library  authorities  have  been 
distinctly  vague  and  unsatisfactory.  Obser- 
vation shows  that  the  use  of  the  library  is  a 
fluctuating  quantity — a  place  of  social  gather- 
ing, a  study  room  for  the  preparation  of 
class  exercises,  like  mathematics,  an  oppor- 
tunity for  reading  newspapers  and  magazines, 
or  a  veritable  hive  of  workers,  a  workshop 
with  tools  wearing  out  under  steady  use.  The 

March,  .1913] 



number  of  students  drawing  books  may  be 
misleading,  in  view  of  the  large  probable  use 
of  special  libraries  and  departmental  collec- 
tions; but  the  number  of  students  entitled  to 
draw  books  from  the  Cornell  library,  for  ex- 
ample, as  stated  in  the  last  annual  report  of 
the  president,  601  of  a  total  registration  of 
more  than  4500,  seems  rather  small. 

This  plea  for  required  accredited  instruc- 
tion in  bibliography  is  not  based  wholly  upon 
theory.  It  certainly  would  not  be  satisfied  by 
chance  instruction  through  the  insistence  of 
departmental  heads  or  enthusiastic  instructors 
in  different  departments.  Several  institutions 
have  already  tried  the  scheme  and  find  that 
it'  works  well.  They  have  reasoned  rightly 
that  the  work  should  be  under  the  direction 
of  the  librarian  and  carried  on  by  his  trained 
assistants,  and  that  when  so  done  it  is  en- 
titled to  recognition.  Three  progressive  in- 
stitutions will  illustrate  the  procedure.  The 
Oregon  Agricultural  College  has  been  carry- 
ing on  a  course  in  library  practice:  "This 
course  teaches  by  means  of  lectures  and  prac- 
tical problems  the  use  of  catalogs,  indexes, 
etc.  .  .  .  All  degree  courses — freshman  year, 
first  semester,  one  credit,  one  recitation." 
The  importance  of  such  a  course  in  an  insti- 
tution like  the  Oregon  Agricultural  College  is 
greater  than  it  would  be  in  one  having  higher 
standards  of  admission  and  receiving  students 
better  trained  in  handling  books  and  period- 
icals, since  the  institution  requires  only  two 
years  of  a  high  school  course  for  admission, 
and  is  therefore  compelled  to  do  some  of  the 
work  ordinarily  done  in  the  high  school.  I 
had  a  long  conference  with  the  librarian  of 
this  institution  about  her  plans  for  instruc- 
tion, and  they  seemed  to  be  highly  practical 
and  commendable.  Another  institution,  a  dis- 
tinctly standard  university,  the  University  of 
North  Dakota,  offers  a  course  in  practical 
library  work:  "One  credit.  One  hour  a  week. 
First  semester.  Required  of  all  freshmen. 
Elective  for  others."  The  Ohio  State  Uni- 
versity last  year  enlarged  the  bibliographical 
instruction  given  by  its  library  staff,  introduc- 
ing a  course  in  "Agricultural  bibliography. 
One-half  credit  hour.  A  required  course  for 
students  in  the  College  of  Agriculture."  These 
are  schemes  for  excellent  bibliographical  in- 
struction at  work  and  working  satisfactorily. 

Stress  should  be  laid  upon  the  importance 
of  having  this  work  done  through  the  library 

and  under  the  direction  of  expert  and  thor- 
oughly trained  persons.  While  the  men  in 
each  department  may  rightly  be  expected  'to 
instruct  advanced  students  in  the  bibliography 
of  special  or  narrow  fields  of  their  general 
subjects,  there  should  not  be  imposed  upon 
them  the  unnecessary  common  burden  of  ele- 
mentary bibliographical  instruction.  If  it  is 
impossible  to  secure  a  definite  hour  of  credit 
for  the  work,  it  is  quite  feasible  to  have  set 
aside  an  hour  from  the  course  in  English  and 
another  from  the  course  in  history,  even  if 
grudgingly  yielded  by.  departmental  heads,  for 
instruction  by  the  library  force.  If  the  libra- 
rian and  his  assistants  are  not  interested  in 
this  sort  of  instruction,  it  is  high  time  for 
the  president  to  put  into  the  library  staff  at 
least  one  person  who  is  both  interested  and 
competent  to  forward  a  movement  for  secur- 
ing the  maximum  use  of  the  library  by  fresh- 
men, sophomores,  juniors  and  seniors. 

This  scheme  of  instruction  involves,  of 
course,  on  the  part  of  the  instructors,  in- 
genuity, resourcefulness,  and  a  thorough 
knowledge  of  students,  of  fields  of  study,  and 
of  the  library.  It  means  laborious,  individual 
instruction,  often  to  numbers  which  are  ap- 
pallingly large;  but  my  experience  and  ob- 
servation make  me  believe  in  its  essential 
importance,  especially  for  all  new  students. 
No  small  part  of  the  success  of  these  courses 
will  depend  upon  the  adaptation  of  the  as- 
signed topics  to  the  interests  and  tastes  of  the 
individual  student.  If  he  be  an  agricultural 
student  and  interested  in  potato  bugs,  let  him 
have  a  topic  on  potato  bugs;  if  he  be  a  class- 
ical student  interested  in  the  archaeology  of 
Pompeii,  let  him  have  a  topic  in  that  field. 
In  similar  fashion,  topics  of  historical,  polit- 
ical or  economic  interest  will  catch  other  stu- 
dents. At  any  rate,  make  sure  that  the  topic 
will  connect  with  the  interest  of  the  student 
and  that  the  library  exercise  will  not  be  a 
mere  grind.  For  several  years,  while  I  was 
on  the  faculty  of  the  University  of  Califor- 
nia, the  librarian  gave  a  few  general  lectures 
upon  the  use  of  the  library,  but  with  each 
new  class  it  was  necessary  for  me  to  go  to 
the  library  and  actually  to  put  them  through 
a  course  of  practice  in  the  use  of  the  catalog, 
periodical  and  other  indexes,  reader's  guides, 
etc.  It  was  gratifying  not  very  long  ago  to 
hear  an  active  young  lawyer  of  Los  Angeles 
say  that  he  thought  one  of  the  most  valuable 



[March,  1913 

things  which  he  got  out  of  his  college  course 
was  the  stern  training  which  he  received  in 
bibliography,  in  the  matter  of  making  exact 
references,  and  in  searching  independently  for 
material  on  given  topics.  By  way  of  illustra- 
tion, he  opened  the  drawers  of  a  cabinet  of 
notes  and  showed  how  the  results  of  this 
training  were  applied  in  his  daily  work. 

As  a  practical  suggestion,  I  should  like  to 
urge  that  the  fee  or  deposit  sometimes  re- 
quired of  students  before  drawing  books  from 
the  library  should  be  abandoned  altogether. 
If  a  fee  for  the  use  of  the  library  be  required 
of  any  student,  it  should  be  required  of  all 
students.  At  the  beginning  of  his  course,  a 
dollar  looks  as  big  as  the  new  moon  to  a 
freshman,  and  he  will  hesitate  some  time 

before  voluntarily  depositing  two  of  them 
against  the  remote  possibility  of  wanting  to 
draw  out  a  book  from  the  library.  Even  such 
a  simple  barrier  should  be  promptly  removed. 
By  way  of  summarizing  this  cursory  discus- 
sion, there  is  great  need  for  systematic  bibliog- 
raphical instruction.  It  should  be  individual, 
differentiated  to  fit  the  tastes  of  the  student, 
free  from  special  fees,  required,  not  elective, 
and  accredited  toward  a  degree.  The  burden 
of  the  general  practical  instruction  should  be 
placed  upon  the  library  staff,  cooperating  with 
the  instructors  in  the  different  departments. 
To  the  latter  should  be  left  the  technical  spe- 
cialized instruction  in  divisions  of  the  work 
looking  toward  independent  investigation  and 

BY  EDWARD  W.  MUMFORD,  of  the  Penn  Publishing  Company,  Philadelphia 

You  may  wonder  why  one  who  is  neither  a 
librarian  nor  a  bookseller  should  discuss  in 
this  way  your  relation  to  each  other.  How- 
ever, there  is  nothing  so  difficult  to  discourage 
as  advice.  You  remember  that  Alphonso  the 
Wise  regretted  that  he  had  not  been  present 
at  the  creation  of  the  world,  for  he  felt  con- 
fident that  he  could  have  offered  some  excel- 
lent suggestions.  He  shared  the  fate  of  all 
advice  dispensers,  for  Carlyle  records  that  of 
all  his  wisdom  nothing  remains  except  this 
evidence  that  Alphonso  himself  thought  well 
of  it. 

But  you  simply  can't  discourage  us  advice- 
givers.  We  recall  the  French  proverb,  "Don't 
stick  your  finger  between  the  bark  and  the 
tree."  But  we  calmly  proceed  to  do  it,  in 
order,  if  for  no  other  reason,  to  find  how  far 
apart  they  are.  And  so  here  is  a  publisher 
putting  his  fingers  adventurously  between 
those  two  essential  parts  of  the  book  dis- 
tributing system — the  librarian  and  the  book- 
seller. The  excuse,  if  there  must  be  one,  is 
that  he  wishes  to  emphasize  the  fact  that, 
after  all,  they  are  part  of  the  same  vital 
growth,  both  necessary  to  the  public  and  to 
each  other. 

Although  they  work  in  the  same  field,  it 
seems  to  be  evident  that  the  librarian  and  the 

*  An  address  delivered  before  the  Pennsylvania 
Library  Club,  Feb.  10,  1913. 

bookseller  do  not  understand  each  other.  In 
spite  of  many  instances  of  warm  personal 
friendships  and  of  active  cooperation  between 
individuals,  contact  with  both  sides  makes  it 
evident  that,  as  a  whole,  each  class  regards 
the  other  with  a  very  real  distrust  and  even 

The  librarian,  freed,  as  he  believes,  from 
all  taint  of  commercialism,  looks  with  ill- 
concealed  contempt  at  the  bookstore  window 
filled  with  shrieking  "best-sellers"  and  Sun- 
day supplement  juveniles,  and  wonders  what 
sort  of  man  can  peddle  that  harmful  stuff  and 
sleep  well  o'  nights.  And  the  bookseller,  be- 
wildered by  a  doctrine  which,  if  accepted  in 
toto  by  his  community,  would  leave  him,  he 
fears,  with  reduced  business  and  vanished 
profits,  is  just  as  vehement  on  his  side  in  con- 
demnation of  the  impractical  librarian,  who 
may  have  his  head  in  the  clouds,  but  who  the 
bookseller  firmly  believes  has  seldom  more 
than  one  foot  on  the  ground. 

This  attitude  of  mutual  disrespect  is  natu- 
rally fostered  by  the  differences  born  of  bar- 
gaining between  two  parties,  one  of  whom 
has  little  to  spend  and  the  other  very  little 
to  make.  Their  differences  have  naturally 
been  emphasized  in  recent  years  by  the  grad- 
ual introduction  of  the  net-price  system, 
which,  although  it  means  the  salvation  of  the 
book  trade,  has  naturally  worked  a  hardship 

March,  1913] 



to  the  library.  The  result  of  all  this  has  been 
that  when  committees  of  librarians  and  book- 
sellers meet  it  is  usually  to  wrangle  over  dis- 
counts or  to  listen  to  grievances,  such  as  the 
perennial  complaint  that  librarians,  trustees 
and  their  families  are  illegitimately  supplied 
with  books  for  private  use  at  library  dis- 

It  is  a  pity  that  these  differences  have  been 
allowed  so  long  to  color  the  attitude  of  the 
librarian  and  the  bookseller  toward  each  other 
and  to  prevent  their  active  cooperation.  After 
all,  are  not  their  interests  very  much  in  com- 
mon? The  bookseller  certainly  realizes  that 
his  welfare  depends  upon  the  education  of  his 
community,  and  the  library  is  constantly  de- 
manding recognition  of  its  place  as  a  part  of 
our  system  of  public  education.  The  book- 
seller begins  to  see  that  his  business  needs  the 
support  of  a  large  class  of  book  owners,  and 
booksellers  to-day  are  consciously  trying  to 
increase  the  numbers  of  such  persons  near 
them.  The  Booksellers'  Association  of  Phila- 
delphia was  instrumental  in  having  published, 
recently,  a  series  of  brief  interviews  with 
well-known  people  on  the  importance  of  read- 
ing and  owning  books.  This  plan  has  been 
warmly  commended  by  publishers  and  book- 
sellers, and  a  plan  is  now  being  perfected  for 
publishing  next  fall  a  series  of  such  inter- 
views in  every  important  American  city.  This 
should  benefit  the  library  as  well  as  the  book- 

Both  as  citizen  and  as  merchant,  the  book- 
seller has  a  very  direct,  practical  interest  in 
the  formation  of  private  libraries.  To  what 
extent  is  the  public  library  interested  in  pro- 
moting them? 

When  the  librarian,  in  his  most  cheerful, 
optimistic  and  expansive  mood,  looks  forward 
to  the  future  of  his  profession,  what  does  he 
see?  Is  his  vision  that  of  a  people  served 
by  the  public  library  alone,  with  vast  collec- 
tions and  splendid  buildings,  with  many 
branches  and  finely  subdivided  activities,  so 
anticipating  every  need  that  the  private  li- 
brary becomes  entirely  unnecessary?  Or  does 
he  behold  a  people  taught  by  him,  among 
other  educational  influences,  to  love  books, 
own  them  and  use  them  familiarly?  When 
he  sends  out  his  "home  libraries"  and  "travel- 
ing libraries,"  when  he  fosters  "study  clubs," 
etc.,  to  what  does  he  see  them  ultimately  lead- 
ing? Are  they  simply  the  means  of  multiply- 

ing readers'  cards  and  circulation,  or  is  it  the 
hope  that  they  will  stimulate  the  beginnings 
of  carefully  selected  private  collections  as 

Librarians,  we  have  noted,  emphasize  the 
claim  of  the  library  to  be  regarded  as  an  in- 
tegral part  of  our  public  educational  system. 
One  of  your  magazines  reiterates  the  claim 
on  the  cover  of  every  issue.  The  aim  of  all 
sound  education,  however,  is  to  make  the  pu- 
pil in  time  independent  of  his  teacher  and  to 
stimulate  in  him  a  desire  to  educate  himself. 
Is  it  your  aim  to  persuade  patrons  to  acquire 
their  own  tools,  hoe  their  own  row,  and  come 
to  the  library  for  an  occasional  piece  of  spe- 
cial apparatus?  Or  is  the  library  intending 
to  lend  all  the  tools  and  promote  the  entire 
cultivation  of  the  field  by  a  sort  of  literary 

Perhaps  the  attitude  of  the  library  is  so 
well  understood  among  you  who  work  in  it 
that  it  is  a  mere  commonplace,  requiring  no 
statement  in  the  library  journals,  in  conven- 
tion talks,  or  in  text-books  such  as  Mr.  Dana's 
excellent  "Primer."  But  some  of  us  outside 
of  the  library  who  would  like  to  have  you  put 
yourselves  a  little  more  definitely  on  record. 

The  seventh  report  of  the  New  York  State 
Education  Department,  1911,  begins  thus,  un- 
der the  head  of  "Educational  extension" : 
"Gibbon,  in  his  'Memoirs,'  says:  'Every  man 
who  rises  above  the  common  level  has  re- 
ceived two  educations — the  first  from  his 
teacher;  the  second,  more  personal  and  im- 
portant, from  himself.'  It  is  with  this  second 
education  that  the  Division  of  Educational 
Extension  is  concerned.  The  aim  is  to  give 
to  every  inhabitant  of  the  state  a  fair  chance 
for  reading  and  study,  not  only  in  school,  but 
outside  of  the  schools,  and  to  this  end  pro- 
mote the  most  liberal  supply  of  good  books 
at  the  public  expense." 

A  member  of  the  New  York  State  Library 
force  says  that  the  "house  libraries"  circu- 
lated by  that  organization  are  often  sent  to 
families  who  ask  for  them  openly,  with  the 
intention  of  examining  them  for  private  pur- 
chase. But  the  report  itself  says  nowhere 
explicitly  that  the  ultimate  aim  of  its  educa- 
tional extension  work  is  to  induce  people  to 
buy  their  own  books,  and  a  mere  outsider 
might  readily  infer  that  there  is  no  such  aim. 

A  Pennsylvania  library,  in  a  recent  circular 
to  the  public,  says:  "How  often  do  you  want 



[March,  1913 

your  books  after  you  have  read  them?  Why 
buy  your  books,  when  you  can  borrow  them 
at  a  nominal  cost?"  It  is  true  this  is  not  a 
public  library,  but  is  one  supported  by  sub- 
scription. But  is  not  this  attitude  practically 
that  of  a  great  many  public  libraries  in  this 
and  other  states?  Is  the  library  really  in- 
terested in  promoting  the  book-owning  habit? 

It  is  a  frequent  observation  that  we  Amer- 
icans are  becoming  less  and  less  readers  of 
serious  books.  Certainly  it  is  true  that  even 
among  our  educated  classes  the  habit  of  book- 
owning  is  much  less  strong  than  it  was  a 
generation  ago.  One  sometimes  sees  pub- 
lished a  picture  of  the  "library"  in  a  rich 
man's  new  house,  magnificent  in  its  appoint- 
ments for  comfortable  loafing,  but  with  no 
sign  of  either  a  bookcase  or  a  book.  And 
among  our  friends  of  less  means  we  frequent- 
ly note  that  the  apartment  house  seems  to  be 
as  unfriendly  to  a  book  collection  as  it  is  to 
a  baby.  One  cannot  but  wonder  whether  the 
impressive  library  statistics  of  circulation, 
mean  increased  book  loving  as  well  as  book 
reading.  Is  the  possession  of  a  private  library 
still  the  mark  of  your  true  booklover? 

Surely  you  still  feel  with  Sydney  Smith 
that  there  is  "No  furniture  so  charming  as 
books."  Hazlitt,  you  remember,  speaking  of 
Richardson's  novels,  says:  "Nor  could  I  ask 
to  have  anything  better  to  do  than  to  read 
them  from  beginning  to  end,  to  take  them  up 
when  I  choose  and  to  lay  them  down  when  I 
was  tired,  in  some  old  family  mansion  in  the 
country."  Could  that  essay  on  "Reading  old 
books,"  with  all  its  delicious  intimacies,  have 
been  written  by  a  man  who  had  known  books 
only  in  the  public  library? 

And  Andrew  Lang  only  re-echoes  Cowley 
and  many  another  gentle  spirit  when,  in  his 
"Ballade  of  true  wisdom,"  he  pleads  for  "a 
houseful  of  books  and  a  garden  of  flowers/' 
These  ideals  are  surely  not  utterly  old-fash- 
ioned and  outworn  in  our  day?  And  this 
being  recognized,  if  you  do  still  believe  that 
the  finest  flavor  and  the  highest  value  in 
books  is  found  only  by  him  who  owns  them, 
how  far  are  you  willing  to  go  to  encourage 
the  book-owning  habit?  And  this  brings  us 
back  to  the  bookseller,  whom  you  perhaps 
thought  had  been  forgotten,  but  who  has  been 
waiting  for  us  all  through  this  discussion. 

For  your  attitude  toward  the  bookseller  is 
necessarily  colored  by  the  degrees  of  your 
interest  in  promoting  private  libraries.  If 

you  are  interested  in  having  people  buy  more 
books  and  better  ones,  why  are  you  not  anx- 
ious to  see  that  there  is  a  place  where  they 
can  do  it?  If  you  preach  book  buying,  why 
are  you  not  concerned  also  about  bookselling? 
There  is  little  use  in  prescribing  rare  drugs 
to  a  community  that  has  no  apothecary,  and 
it  would  seem  to  be  about  as  futile  to  urge 
buying  of  good  books  in  a  town  that  has  no 
real  bookstore. 

There  are  many  such  towns  in  the  United 
States;  moreover,  it  is  rather  a  striking  fact 
that  there  are  many  towns  where  the  library 
seems  strong,  and  which  yet  are  universally 
known  among  publishers  as  "poor  book 
towns."  There  are  hundreds  of  prosperous 
American  communities  where  there  is  no 
bookstore  worthy  of  the  name,  and  where  it 
is  impossible  to  find  most  of  the  books  that 
the  library  would  recommend  for  purchase 
in  any  given  field.  What  are  you  doing  to 
help  your  patrons  find  readily  the  medicine 
you  prescribe  for  them? 

As  a  necessary  first  step,  how  close  and 
cordial  are  your  relations  with  your  local 
booksellers  ? 

A  great  deal  can  be  accomplished  in  any 
community  if  the  bookseller  and  the  librarian 
learn  to  know  each  other  personally  and  make 
it  their  business  to  understand  and  appreciate 
each  other's  point  of  view.  Especially  in  the 
small  town  will  a  close  association  of  this 
kind  become  valuable,  although  there  is  much 
that  can  be  accomplished  in  the  larger  cities 

Not  long  ago  the  manager  of  the  book  sec- 
tion for  a  department  store  in  a  New  England 
town  read  an  article  condemning  cheap  and 
poor  children's  books.  He  realized  that  it 
was  aimed  at  exactly  the  kind  of  books  that 
he  was  selling  most  freely.  Through  a  friend 
he  sent  some  of  these  books  to  the  local  chil- 
dren's librarian,  whose  report,  of  course,  con- 
firmed his  fear  that  they  were  not  wholesome. 
Since  then  he  has  not  pushed  so  hard  the 
sales  of  such  books,  and  has  paid  more  atten- 
tion to  the  better  books  for  children. 

But  why  had  not  the  librarians  in  that  town 
reached  him  before? '  Why  had  they  not 
thought  it  worth  while  to  impress  him  with 
their  point  of  view?  Why  was  it  necessary 
for  him  to  come  to  them,  and  to  come 
stealthily,  through  the  medium  of  a  third 
party  ? 

No  quarrel  over  discounts  and  prices  should 

March,  1913] 



be  allowed  to  hold  the  librarian  and  the  book- 
seller apart.  The  library's  means,  of  course, 
are  usually  too  small  for  its  work,  and  it 
must  be  careful  to  buy  economically.  The 
library  should,  however,  almost  invariably,  buy 
through  its  local  booksellers,  even  though  it 
may  sometimes  be  at  a  slightly  increased  cost. 
Many  a  library  order  passes  over  a  local 
man's  head,  simply  for  a  difference  of  one  or 
two  per  cent,  discount — perhaps  considerably 
less  than  fifty  dollars  on  the  entire  year's 
order.  That  fifty  dollars  will  be  well  spent 
if  it  gains  the  hearty  cooperation  of  the  book- 
seller for  things  that  the  library  wants  done 
in  its  community. 

Not  long  ago  the  president  of  the  library 
board  in  a  middle  western  town  gave  orders 
that  no  more  books  should  be  bought  from 
the  chief  bookseller  in  that  town  because  his 
prices  were  too  high.  This  bookseller  had 
enough  spunk  and  sagacity  to  take  his  in- 
voices for  books  directly  to  the  president, 
who,  upon  examining  them,  was  immediately 
convinced  that  the  prices  charged  the  library 
were  reasonable,  and  a  quarrel  in  which  the 
bookseller  could  have  caused  the  library  some 
inconvenience  was  averted. 

There  are  many  instances  of  quarrels  of 
this  kind,  pushed  to  the  bitter  end  and  main- 
tained for  years,  which  could  have  been 
avoided  as  easily.  It  should  not  be  forgotten, 
moreover,  that  the  local  bookseller  is  a  local 
taxpayer,  and  is  helping  to  support  the  li- 
brary, and  on  this  account  alone  should  have 
first  consideration  as  against  outsiders. 

But  if  the  bookseller  and  the  librarian  thor- 
oughly understand  each  other,  what  can  they 
accomplish  that  is  not  ordinarily  being  done? 

The  possibilities  are  faintly  foreshadowed 
by  what  has  been  already  achieved  in  the 
juvenile  field,  where  the  library  has  clearly 
recognized  an  obligation  to  promote  the  sale 
of  more  and  better  books.  Many  libraries 
make  Christmas  exhibits  of  children's  books, 
and  perhaps  print  lists  of  them  for  the  guid- 
ance of  parents  and  other  buyers.  This  Christ- 
mas exhibk  should  be  an  invariable  feature 
of  the  year's  work,  and  1  believe  it  could  be 
profitably  extended  to  other  departments  of 
the  library  and  perhaps  to  other  seasons  of 
the  year. 

In  order  to  make  such  an  exhibit  or  list 
most  effective,  however,  it  is  necessary  that 
the  library  and  the  bookstore  should  cooper- 

ate in  it.  It  is  a  little  absurd  to  issue  a  list 
showing  publishers'  prices  only  when  they 
differ  so  widely  from  the  prices  at  which  the 
books  can  actually  be  bought.  Why  should 
not  the  bookseller,  working  with  the  library, 
issue  the  list  over  his  own  name,  putting  in 
the  prices  at  which  he  will  supply  the  books, 
and  making  it  a  point  to  have  the  books  in 
stock?  An  arrangement  of  this  kind  is  very 
much  more  apt  to  be  effective  in  promoting 

In  many  cases  it  should  be  possible  to  make 
the  library's  exhibit  at  the  bookstore,  where 
it  can  be  seen  by  people  who  are  in  the  buy- 
ing mood.  Here  is  an  excellent  opportunity 
for  the  library  to  advertise.  The  St.  Louis 
Public  Library,  before  moving  into  its  present 
palatial  building,  used  a  temporary  structure 
where  it  had  six  large  plate-glass  windows  on 
the  ground  floor,  overlooking  a  busy  sidewalk, 
and  used  "these  spendid  display  spaces  for 
the  exhibition  of  all  sorts  of  tempting  literary 
wares,  with  results  gratifying  to  the  head  of 
the  circulating  department."  When  the  library 
move^i  into  its  new  building  it  missed  the 
pulling  power  of  those  windows.  With  a  cor- 
dial relation  between  the  library  and  book- 
store, it  would  often  be  possible  to  use  the 
bookstore's  display  window  for  the  library's 

Practical  cooperation  is  already  an  accom- 
plished fact.  Miss  Cornelia  Marvin,  in  a  re- 
cent letter,  says  that  the  Public  Library  Com- 
mission of  Oregon  is  trying  to  "cooperate 
with  all  bookdealers  in  the  state,  and  make 
exhibits  of  books,  and  distribute  lists  at  the 
fairs,  Chautauqua  assemblies,  meetings  of 
clubs,  etc."  You  doubtless  know  of  cases 
where  the  bookseller  has  furnished  many  of 
the  books  for  the  library's  Christmas  exhibit. 
A  typical  instance  of  cooperation  is  that  of 
the  Public  Library  of  the  District  of  Colum- 
bia, Washington,  which,  in  holding  its  exhibit 
last  fall  of  children's  books  recommended  for 
purchase,  sent  its  list  in  advance  to  the  lead- 
ing local  booksellers  for  their  criticism,  and, 
after  revision,  returned  the  list  to  the  book- 
sellers with  the  request  that  they  stock  the 

The  public  library  of  Peru,  Indiana,  went 
still  further.  The  librarian  reports :  "We  told 
our  bookmen  we  would  have  a  very  attractive 
display  of  gift  books  for  children  at  the  li- 
brary some  time  in  November,  and  would  be 



[March,  1913 

happy  to  place  the  collection  after  the  library 
display  in  their  stores,  if  they  would  allow 
us  to  do  so;  that  we  would  send  someone 
from  the  library  who  knew  the  books  to  be 
in  charge  of  the  collection.  In  each  book  we 
wrote  the  price  and  grade  to  which  it  was 
suited.  This  proved  a  time-saver.  The  or- 
ders came,  of  course,  and  the  merchants  were 
delighted.  So  were  we;  for  these  men  have 
always  contended  they  could  not  sell  the 
books  we  have  suggested  they  put  in." 

The  suggestion  from  Washington,  that  the 
library's  list  of  books  recommended  for  pur- 
chase should  be  submitted  to  the  bookstore, 
is  a  practical  and  shrewd  one.  It  is  a  simple 
fact  that  many  books  the  librarian  likes  can- 
not be  profitably  stocked  by  the  bookstore. 
Some  of  them  are  regarded  by  their  publish- 
ers as  text-books,  and  a  discount  of  only  one- 
fifth  or  one-sixth  is  allowed  to  the  bookseller. 
This  is  not  enough  to  enable  him  to  stock  the 
book.  The  bookseller's  advice  on  cheap  edi- 
tions of  good  books  is  also  valuable.  And 
during  a  friendly  discussion  of  such  a  recom- 
mended list,  the  librarian  will  have  many  op- 
portunities to  lay  down  principles  and  arouse 
enthusiasm  for  them.  Enlist  the  bookseller 
in  your  war,  and  he  will  be  an  able  ally,  for 
he  will  fight  for  both  pocketbook  and  princi- 
ple, and  has  many  opportunities  for  effective 
advertising  that  are  denied  to  you. 

The  basis  of  any  campaign  must  be  knowl- 
edge of  the  facts.  Many  a  bookseller  to-day 
is  eager  for  more  knowledge  of  books.  You 
can  teach  him  a  great  deal  if  you  once  gain 
his  confidence  and  friendship,  and  I  am  not 
sure  that  he  cannot  teach  you  as  much.  Some 
effort  has  already  been  made  to  use  the  li- 
brary's knowledge  of  children's  books  in  the 
stores.  One  Philadelphia  bookseller  has  made 
the  experiment  of  employing  a  young  lady 
with  library  training  as  a  special  assistant 
during  the  Christmas  buying  season,  and  has 
been  satisfied  with  the  results.  This  is  worth 
trying  elsewhere.  And  it  should  be  practi- 
cable for  the  juvenile  clerks  in  many  a  large 
bookstore  to  take  an  hour  or  two  a  week  dur- 
ing the  quieter  business  months  under  the  in- 
struction of  the  children's  librarian  in  the  lo- 
cal public  library. 

Through  cooperation  the  library  may  ex- 
tend its  influence  to  new  fields.  An  eastern 
bookseller  last  fall  made  up  an  exhibit  of 
children's  books,  which  went,  in  turn,  to  three 

private  schools  in  his  city.  The  school,  in 
each  case,  displayed  the  books  and  inyited  the 
parents  to  see  them,  with  excellent  results  to 
the  bookseller.  Why  could  not  a  city  library 
reach  in  this  way  every  private  school,  and 
perhaps  many  of  the  public  schools,  with  fall 
exhibits  of  books  furnished  by  the  bookstores, 
the  sales  being  promoted  by  printed  lists 
showing  actual  prices? 

Cooperation  of  this  kind  was  shown  recent- 
ly at  the  annual  conference  of  the  Home  and 
School  League  of  Philadelphia.  The  Phila- 
delphia Free  Library  prepared  the  exhibit  of 
children's  books,  the  publishers  furnished 
samples,  a  local  bookseller  put  on  the  retail 
prices,  and  the  league  printed  and  distributed 
the  list  to  teachers  and  parents.  The  library 
does,  of  course,  talk  frequently  to  mothers  in 
connection  with  its  Christmas  exhibit  and  at 
other  times,  and  urges  the  formation  of  chil- 
dren's libraries  of  the  right  sort.  But  such 
work  could  be  made  doubly  effective  with  the 
bookstore's  cooperation. 

If  the  public  libraries  of  only  one-half  the 
towns  in  America,  in  cooperation  with  their 
local  booksellers,  would  start  next  fall  a 
campaign  for  better  children's  books,  enlisting 
the  clubs,  churches,  the  teachers  and  good 
citizens  of  all  classes,  the  public  conscience 
could  be  awakened  in  one  year  to  a  realiza- 
tion of  the  evils  of  modern  juvenile  stories, 
and  the  present  flood  of  bad  books  would  be 

Does  all  this  look  too  "commercial"?  I 
hope  we  have  learned  in  America  not  to  let 
that  word  frighten  us. 

An  article  in  Public  Libraries  for  Aprilr 
1911,  showed  the  right  spirit.  I'd  like  to 
shake  hands  with  that  librarian,  who  is  said 
to  have  achieved  results,  but  who  remains 
modestly  anonymous.  She  sent  to  the  chil- 
dren in  her  town  letters  that  appeared  to  be 
personal.  They  were  in  sealed  envelopes,  and 
were  delivered  by  the  public  school  teachers. 
The  letters  invited  children  to  make  lists  of 
the  books  they  would  like  to  read.  Good 
books  to  own  were  also  skilfully  suggested, 
and  the  children  were  invited  to  come  and 
learn  from  the  library  how  to  earn  money  to 
buy  them.  She  suggested  neighborhood  snow 
clubs  to  clean  pavements  by  team  work  for 
pay,  small  gardens  for  flowers  and  vegetables, 
etc.  And  she  was  not  afraid  to  sell  the  books 
herself.  "New  books,"  she  said  in  her  letter, 

March,  1913] 



"will  be  ordered  the  first  day  of  each  month. 
Tell  the  librarian  which  book  you  want  to 
buy,  and  she  will  have  it  ordered  for  you. 
You  need  not  pay  for  the  book  until  it 

Her  explanation  probably  would  be  that 
there  is  not  a  good  bookstore  in  her  town. 
There  must  be  very  few  cases  where  it  would 
not  be  better  not  only  for  immediate  results, 
but,  on  account  of  future  development,  to 
let  the  local  bookstore,  however  meager,  do 
the  actual  selling.  But  certainly,  while  the 
bookseller  might  feel  that  a  librarian  like  this 
is  treading  on  his  toes,  he  can  hardly  accuse 
her  of  not  having  her  feet  on  the  ground. 

There  would  seem  to  be  no  reason  (except 
the  length  of  a  working  day,  you  will  say) 
why  the  library  as  an  aid  in  the  selling  of 
good  books  should  stop  with  juvenile  publi- 
cations. Miss  Clara  W.  Hunt  says:  "Possibly 
the  public  libraries  have  made  grown  people 
feel  less  the  necessity  of  owning  their  books, 
but  I  am  positive  that  they  have  had  the  op- 
posite effect  upon  thoughtful  people  who  are 
guiding  the  reading  of  children."  Is  it  true 
that  through  your  labors  grown  people  feel 
that  private  libraries  are  no  longer  necessary? 

Miss  Lucia  T.  Henderson,  of  Jamestown, 
N.  Y.,  says,  on  the  other  hand:  "I  know  of 
many  books  bought  for  the  library  which  have 
met  with  so  much  favor  that  several  copies 
have  been  subsequently  bought  by  our  readers 
— Browning  and  Shakespeare — topics  such  as 
South  America,  Italian  art,  poetry  and  tech- 
nical books,  as  well  as  fiction  and  juveniles." 

Miss  Alice  S.  Tyler,  of  the  Iowa  Library 
Commission,  says:  "Often  a  book  that  is  first 
read  from  the  public  library  proves  to  be  so 
acceptable  and  worth  while  to  the  reader  that 
he  desires  to  own  the  book." 

A  New  England  librarian  commented,  re- 
cently, on  the  fact  that  many  patrons,  upon 
being  urged  to  buy  books,  naturally  hesitate 
to  do  so  because  they  have  not  had  the  op- 
portunity to  see  them.  And  the  same  librarian 
comments  on  the  fact  that  there  is  not  a  good 
bookstore  in  her  own  town.  This  may  be 
partly  the  fault  of  the  library  itself,  and  this 
instance  only  illustrates  again  the  futility  of 
urging  the  buying  of  good  books  unless  you 
take  some  practical  means  of  bringing  the 
book  and  the  buyer  together. 

It  is  no  doubt  a  matter  of  common  observa- 
tion that  the  library  is  often  urged  to  pur- 

chase expensive  books  by  patrons  who  could 
well  afford  to  own  these  books  themselves, 
and  the  librarian  is  not  a  little  indignant  at 
having  this  cost  forced  upon  him.  Here 
again  is  a  good  reason  for  a  close  relation 
with  the  bookstore.  Turn  over  such  people 
to  its  tender  mercies  for  the  good  of  their 
souls  and  the  lightening  of  your  own  burden. 

Why  should  you  not  push  home  every  argu- 
ment for  book  owning  by  the  confident  state- 
ment that  the  way  to  examination  and  pur- 
chase is  easy?  A  dealer  in  the  west,  who  has 
enjoyed  the  benefit  of  active  cooperation  with 
the  children's  department  of  his  local  library, 
advertised  last  fall  a  selected  list  of  books  for 
a  physician,  a  list  for  nurses,  one  for  a 
mother,  a  suggestion  of  gifts  to  a  clergyman, 
to  a  lawyer,  etc.  It  never  occurred  to  him 
or  to  the  library  that  they  might  cooperate 
on  lists  of  that  kind  also. 

There  are  indicated  here  but  a  few  of  the 
ways  in  which  the  librarian  and  the  book- 
seller may  be  mutually  helpful.  Once  con- 
vinced that  it  is  worth  while,  you  will  find 
many  new  opportunities  for  efficient  public  ser- 
vice. Whether  you  turn  at  all  in  this  direction 
depends  largely,  as  has  been  said,  on  how 
strongly  you  believe  in  private  book  owner- 
ship, and  how  far  you  are  willing  to  go  to 
achieve  practical  results.  You  can,  if  you  will, 
have  a  powerful  effect.  With  your  intelligent 
cooperation,  the  handicap  will  be  removed 
from  many  a  town  that  has  to-day  no  good 
bookstore.  With  your  help,  bookstores  now 
hardly  worthy  the  name  will  become  power- 
ful factors  in  progress,  civilization  and  the 
awakening  of  civic  pride. 

And,  finally,  have  you  not  a  selfish  reason — 
if  library  work  is  ever  selfish — for  seizing 
every  opportunity  to  encourage  bookbuying? 
When  private  ownership  has  been  multiplied 
threefold,  tenfold,  or  even  a  hundredfold,  is 
it  not  safe  to  say  that  your  importance  will 
only  be  increased  in  direct  ratio?  You  have 
surely  nothing  to  lose.  The  student  who  can- 
not afford  all  the  reference  books,  or  the  text- 
books and  periodicals  in  his  field,  must  always 
come  to  you.  The  clubwoman,  with  her  paper 
to  prepare,  and  the  high  school  lad,  with  his 
all-important  debate  subject,  will  still  besiege 
you.  Newark,  N.  J.,  and  other  wideawake  li- 
braries will  still  continue  to  operate  transla- 
tion bureaus  and  gather  information  for  the 
use  of  local  industries  and  enterprises.  And 



[March,  1913 

the  poor,  in  spite  of  modern  formulas  for 
abolishing  poverty,  will  probably  be  always 
with  us. 

But  will  there  not  also  come  with  it  all  a 
tremendous  widening  in  the  influence  of  the 
library  over  a  community  that  has  learned  to 
love  and  appreciate  books,  and  needs  the  li- 
brary as  guide,  arbiter  and  friend  in  choosing 
them  and  in  making  the  best  use  of  them? 
As  William  Wirt  says,  "Only  a  small  percent- 
age of  our  population  are  book-minded,"  and 
in  spite  of  all  your  study  progress  and  real 
achievement,  you  have  as  yet  barely  touched  us 
— you  libraries.  Even  so  intelligent  a  com- 
munity as  that  of  Springfield,  Mass.,  cannot 
claim  more  than  one-third  of  its  population 
as  public  library  users.  Baltimore's  largest 
public  library  is  said  to  reach  only  five  per 
cent,  of  the  city's  people,  and  Boston  library 
users  are  estimated  at  thirteen  per  cent,  of 
the  population.  What  would  be  the  percent- 
age if  every  Massachusetts  family  owned  and 
loved  and  used  Dr.  Eliot's  "five-foot  shelf" 
in  good  editions,  or  Sir  John  Lubbock's  "one 
hundred  best  books,"  or  a  list  of  twenty-five 
books  that  the  Boston  Public  Library  itself 
might  prepare  with  due  regard  to  the  circum- 
stances of  each  case? 

So  even  to  the  library's  continued  growth 
and  importance  is  it  due  that  you  should  give 
effective  aid  to  bookselling.  You  have  not,  I 
am  sure,  forgotten  the  words  of  that  very 
practical  citizen,  who  was  both  librarian  and 
bookseller — Benjamin  Franklin:  "A  borrowed 
book  is  but  a  cheap  pleasure.  To  know  the 
true  value  of  books,  and  to  derive  the  great- 
est benefits  from  them,  a  child  should  feel  the 
sweet  delight  of  buying  them;  he  should 
know  the  preciousness  of  possession." 

When  the  librarian  and  the  bookseller,  with 
Franklin's  words  as  a  common  creed,  shall 
stand  shoulder  to  shoulder,  there  will  be 
fewer  but  better  books  published,  more  good 
books  owned  and  read,  and  greater  prosperity 
for  you  both. 


MR.  LA  FOLLETTE,  on  February  3,  intro- 
duced in  the  Senate  a  bill  providing  for  a 
legislative  drafting  bureau  and  a  legislative 
reference  division  for  the  Library  of  Con- 
gress. The  bill  was  read  twice,  referred  to 
the  Committee  on  Library,  and  reported  by 

Senator  Root,  with  amendments,  February  4. 
The  amended  text  follows: 

A  bill  to  create  a  Legislative  Drafting 
Bureau  and  to  establish  a  Legislative  Refer- 
ence Division  of  the  Library  of  Congress. 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  House  of 
Representatives  of  the  United  States  of 
America  in  Congress  assembled,  That  there  is 
hereby  created  a  bureau  to  be  known  as  the 
"Legislative  Drafting  Bureau." 

Sec.  2.  That  the  said  bureau  shall  be  un- 
der the  direction  of  an  officer,  to  be  known 
as  the  "chief  draftsman,"  to  be  appointed  by 
the  President  of  the  United  States,  by  and 
with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate, 
without  reference  to  party  affiliations,  and 
solely  on  the  ground  of  fitness  to  perform  the 
duties  of  the  office.  He  shall  receive  a  salary 
of  $7500  per  annum,  and  shall  hold  office  for 
the  term  of  ten  years  unless  sooner  removed 
by  the  President  upon  the  recommendation  of 
the  Judiciary  Committee  of  both  Houses  of 
Congress,  acting  jointly. 

Sec.  3.  That  there  shall  be  in  said  bureau 
such  assistants  as  Congress  may  from  time  to 
time  provide.  They  shall  be  appointed  by  the 
chief  draftsman  solely  with  reference  to  their 
fitness  for  their  particular  duties. 

Sec.  4.  That  public  bills,  or  amendments 
to  public  bills,  shall  be  drafted  or  revised  by 
the  said  bureau  on  request  of  the  President, 
any  committee  of  either  House  of  Congress, 
or  of  eight  Members  of  the  Senate  or  of 
twenty-five  Members  of  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives. The  Judiciary  Committees  of  both 
Houses  of  Congress,  acting  jointly,  may,  from 
time  to  time,  prescribe  rules  and  regulations 
for  the  conduct  of  the  said  bureau,  including 
provision  for  drafting  and  revision  upon  such 
other  requests  as  may  be  deemed  advisable. 

Sec.  5.  That  the  chief  draftsman  shall  sub- 
mit annually  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury 
estimates  of  the  appropriations  necessary  for 
the  maintenance  of  the  said  bureau,  and  shall 
make  to  Congress  at  the  beginning  of  each 
regular  session  a  report  as  to  the  affairs  of 
the  said  bureau  for  the  preceding  fiscal  year, 
which  shall  include  a  detailed  statement  of 
appropriations  and  expenditures. 

Sec.  6.  That  the  Librarian  of  Congress  is 
authorized  and  directed  to  establish  in  the 
Library  of  Congress  a  division  to  be_  known 
as  the  "Legislative  Reference  Division"  of 
the  Library  of  Congress,  and  to  employ  com- 
petent persons  therein  to  gather,  classify,  and 
make  available  in  translations,  indexes,  digests, 
compilations,  and  bulletins,  and  otherwise, 
data  for  or  bearing  upon  legislation,  to  ren- 
der such  data  serviceable  to  Congress  and 
committees  and  Members  thereof  and  to  the 
Legislative  Drafting  Bureau,  and  to  provide 
in  his  annual  estimates  for  the  compensation 
of  such  persons,  for  the  acquisition  of  ma- 
terial required  for  their  work,  and  for  other 
expenses  incidental  thereto. 

March,  1913] 




LAST  month  we  printed  in  the  report  of  the 
librarian  of  the  University  of  Cincinnati  a 
summary  of  an  investigation  made  there  as  to 
the  relative  amounts  spent  by  different  colleges 
and  universities  in  the  purchase  of  books  per 
student.  We  have  received  the  results  of  an- 
other comparison  of  figures  made  by  W. 
Dawson  Johnston,  librarian  of  Columbia  Uni- 

versity, on  the  basis  of  total  library  expendi- 
ture, and  his  table,  which  we  print  herewith, 
shows  what  proportion  of  university  expendi- 
tures are  devoted  to  their  libraries  and  what, 
is  their  cost  per  student  enrolled.  The  figures 
are  based  upon  the  returns  made  to  the  United 
States  Bureau  of  Education  in  the  year  1908, 
are  limited  to  institutions  whose  total  expen- 
diture exceeded  $250,000,  and  arranged  in  the 
order  followed  in  the  Bureau  of  Education 

Institution  Total  Student  Library  Per  cent.  Expenditure 

endowment         enrollment       expenditures  of  total  per  capita 

California   University $1,770,920  3,305  40,600  .022  12.27 

Stanford    University 854,812  1,738  36,578  .042  21.04 

Yale    University 1,157,686  3,433  48,946  .042  14.20 

Northwestern    University 899,565  3,997  14,410  .016  3.60 

Illinois    University 1,408,762  4,376  51,568  .036  11.78 

Indiana    University 322,410  2,051  11,103  .034  5.41 

Purdue  University 428,159  1,805  7,343  -017  4-°6 

Iowa  State  College 425,121  1,684  5,365  -012  3-lS 

Iowa   State   University 572,479  2,315  11,260  .019  4.86 

Kansas  State  University 405,939  2,044  i3,35o  .032  6.53 

Kansas    State   Agric.    Coll 396,806  2,192  6,020  .015  2.74 

U.    S.    Naval   Academy 820,728  854  9,5oo  .on  i.n 

Mass.    Inst.   of   Technology 537,196  1,415  10,985  .020  7.76 

Harvard  University 2,386,424  4,012  114,165  .047  28.45 

Michigan   University 1,123,910  4,554  55»6oi  .049  12.20 

Michigan    Agric.    Coll 407,547  960  4,349  -oio  4.53 

Minnesota    University 1,424,984  4,i59  37,93*  .026  9.12 

Mississippi  Agric.    Coll 379,522  1,005  5,056  .013  5.03 

Missouri    University 639,196  2,536  21,687  -033  8.54 

Washington    University 585,328  i,744  10,609  .018  6.08 

Nebraska   University 607,526  3,237  23,046  .037  7.11 

Nevada  University 291,015  347  3, 700  .012  10.66 

Dartmouth    College 496,962  1,218  14,555  -029  ii.n 

Princeton  University 411,910  1,301  4i>947  -101  32.24 

Cornell   University 1,421,165  3,734  49,840  .035  13-34 

New    York    City    College 494,000  3,921  4,7*2  .009  1.19 

Columbia    University 1,777,545  2,993  79,650  .044  26.61 

New    York    University 408,315  3,4*8  9,33Q  .022  2.69 

Syracuse    University 1,096,163  3,081  14,054  .012  4.56 

U.    S.    Military  Academy 1,148,492  507  14,684  .012  28.96 

Cincinnati    University 255,377  1,264  10,843  -042  8.57 

Western   Reserve  University 298,799  914  11,278  .037  12.33 

Ohio  State  University 727,869  2,256  20,750  .028  9.20 

Oberlin   University 265,525  1,848  10,661  .040  5.76 

Oklahoma    University 309,503  743  3,043  .009  4-09 

Pennsylvania  University 1,084,015  3,93*  39,054  -036  10.16 

Pennsylvania    State    Coll 507,051  1,151  7,800  .015  6.77 

Brown    University 406,929  025  34,646  .085  37-45 

Clemson     Agric      Coll 289,190  690  1,900  .006  2.75 

Texas    University 259,230  2,287  12.685  .048  $.«4. 

Texas    Agric.    Coll 346,495  576  739  -002  1.27 

Virginia  Polytechnic 255,016  546  2.454  -009  4.49 

Virginia  Universitv 502,000  1,306  18,452  .036  13.21 

Wisconsin    University i,  149,557  3,585  50,670  .044  14-13 



THE  artisan — and  I  happen  to  know  him 
well — is  not  such  a  dull  fellow  as  some  people 
would  have  us  believe.  With  the  exception 
of  those  who  are  sons  of  well-to-do  folk,  and 
who,  in  consequence,  have  received  a  more  or 
less  sound  educational  grounding,  artisans  are 
too  often  thought  to  be  incurably  ignorant, 
and  quite  incapable  of  appreciating  anything 
better  in  the  literary  line  than  the  sporting 
journal  and  the  most  sensational  newspaper. 

Now,  though  artisans  in  ^  general  have  only 
had  the  benefit  of  an  ordinary  board  school 
education,  it  does  not  necessarily  follow,  as 

superficial  Judgment  indicates,  that  they  have 
no  appreciation  of,  nor  love  for,  the  best  in 
literature.  If  one  would  know  the  full  rich- 
ness of  the  man  in  this  capacity,  as  in  that 
of  others,  one  must  eat  and  drink  with  him; 
in  fact,  live  the  daily  round  with  him,  year  in, 
.year  out. 

To  have  done  so  has  been  my  fortune,  and 
with  the  knowledge  of  facts  in  my  brain,  I 
can  safely  assert  that  the  craftsman  is  no 
dullard.  He  may  be  no  genius,  but  neither  is 
he  a  blockhead;  he  may  not  be  highly  edu- 
cated in  the  scholastic  sense,  but  neither  is 
he  sprawling  in  ignorance. 

I  have  known  several  who  knew  something 
about  Latin,  some  who  read  and  spoke  French, 
and  others,  again,  who  were  well  versed  in 



[March,  1913 

sociology,  in  science,  or  in  philosophy ;  indeed, 
I  once  had  an  artisan  in  my  employ  who  gave 
me  a  lucid  and  accurate  summary  of  Niet- 
zsche's philosophy  in  a  few  minutes —  but,  of 
course,  such  men  are  not  typical  of  the  ma- 
jority. Nevertheless,  though  the  latter  state- 
ment must  be  granted,  the  fact  need  not  be 
deplored;  for,  apart  from  bread-winning  con- 
siderations, such  knowledge  and  such  studies 
are  not  particularly  favored  by  any  other  class, 
and,  at  any  rate,  be  he  student  or  not,  the 
artisan  is  almost  always  a  reader,  and  has 
generally  the  capability  for  appreciating  the 
best  literature. 

To  say  so  in  sober  print  may  seem  some- 
what absurd  to  the  man  whose  knowledge  of 
the  craftsman's  literary  taste  is  founded  on 
seeing  him  read  the  "spicy"  newspaper,  but 
without  bother  I  could  bring  a  multitude  of 
facts  to  defend  the  assertion.  Moreover,  such 
reading  is  no  proof  that  the  artisan  lacks  the 
power  to  appreciate  good  books;  nay,  when 
one  comes  to  know  him  intimately,  one  finds 
that  this  seeming  lack  is  due  to  his  not  know- 
ing what  to  read  more  than  to  anything  else. 

The  truth  is  that  literature,  whether  in  the 
form  of  fiction,  poetry,  or  drama,  is  appre- 
ciated as  much  by  him  as  by  other  members 
of  the  community,  and  when  his  reading  falls 
below  zero  in  regard  to  the  classical  attain- 
ment of  the  authors  read,  as  I  regret  it  often 
does,  this  is  because  he  has  not  been  taught 
what  are  the  books  most  worth  reading — what 
are  the  books,  the  great  books  within  the  do- 
main of  the  literature  of  power. 

But — and  this  is  the  point  worth  noting — 
it  is  only  necessary  to  give  him  a  great  book 
and  a  mediocre  one  to  find  that  he  will  almost 
invariably  prefer  the  former.  How  this  comes 
about  in  his  case  and  not  in  others  that  might 
be  mentioned  is  another  question,  and  may  be 
answered  as  the  reader  will.  Suffice  it  for 
me  to  prove  my  case  by  citing  a  few  facts 
drawn  from  many  within  my  personal  experi- 

For  instance,  some  years  ago  I  lent  two  or 
three  of  Shakespeare's  plays  to  a  young  ar- 
tisan, without  any  knowledge  whether  he 
would  read  them  through.  To  my  surprise, 
he  came  to  me  shortly  after,  wishing  to  know 
which  plays  he  should  read  next ;  he  had 
enjoyed  those  lent  him  so  much  that  he  wished 
to  buy  some,  but  was  not  sure  which  were 
best  worth  buying.  "Ah,"  he  said,  "I  wish  I 
had  known  years  ago  that  Shakespeare's  books 
were  so  good.  I  know  now  what  I've  been 
missing."  He  was  a  very  intelligent  fellow, 
but,  poor  man,  he  had  been  reading  worthless 
rubbish  for  years,  and  not  till  then  did  he  see 
the  force  of  getting  what  had  been  vaguely 
known  to  him  as  the  best  literature. 

The  same  man,  I  may  add,  had  also  "The 
cloister  and  the  hearth"  on  loan,  and  on  con- 
cluding the  reading  he  threw  the  book  on  the 
table,  exclaiming,  as  he  did  so,  "I  don't  know 
how  any  man  could  manage  to  write  a  book 
like  that!  It's  simply  wonderful!"  Needless 
to  say,  some  weeks  later  the  beginnings  of  a 

library  were  formed  by  him  with  Shakespeare 
and  Charles  Reade. 

Again,  I  knew  another  artisan  who  was 
quite  enamored  with  what  is,  perhaps,  the 
most  tantalizing  of  Meredith's  novels,  "The 
egoist" ;  while  still  another  appreciated  Hardy, 
and  acclaimed  his  "Pair  of '  blue  eyes"  to  be 
a  work  par  excellence,  the  most  interesting 
book  he  had  ever  read.  Neither  of  these  men 
had  previously  read  good  books,  but  on  their 
being  introduced  to  those  great  writers  they 
at  once  saw  their  past  folly. 

As  amusing,  however,  as  any  of  the  discov- 
eries of  the  unguided  literary  instinct  of  the 
artisan,  is  the  case  of  two  house  painters  who 
were  working  in  a  nobleman's  library  in  the 
west  of  Scotland,  and  found  there  FitzGerald's 
edition  of  "Omar  Khayyam."  It  was  during 
their  meal  hour;  so  the  book  was  pulled  out 
and  looked  into.  The  first  verse  was  attrac- 
tive, the  second  not  less  so,  with  the  result 
that  every  dinner  hour  saw  the  men  in  the 
room  before  recommencing  work,  the  one  read- 
ing to  the  other.  The  nobleman's  edition  was 
a  sumptuous  one,  and  when  the  job  was  fin- 
ished the  men  were  in  perplexity  with  regard 
to  parting  from  their  favorite,  and  ventured 
to  speak  to  me  on  the  subject.  Each  wanted 
a  copy  of  the  poem,  but  the  cost! — ah,  that 
was  the  drawback.  Straightway,  to  their  de- 
light, I  guided  them  to  one  of  the  many  cheap 

Still  another  craftsman  I  knew  was  devoted 
to  Goethe,  Tennyson,  Shelley,  Burns  and 
Keats,  and  almost  every  good  piece  of  litera- 
ture he  could  procure.  Speaking  of  Goethe, 
reminds  me  of  an  older  man,  twice  married 
and  with  a  large  family,  who  appreciated  to 
the  full  "Faust,"  "The  sorrows  of  Werther," 
and  similar  works.  More  than  once  I  dropped 
in  upon  him  in  his  reading,  but  always  found 
he  had  some  exclamation  of  pleasure  on  his 
lips ;  indeed,  this  was  so  marked  that  I  felt 
he  was  one  for  whom  the  best  literature  had 
an  irresistible  charm.  When  reading  Shake- 
speare he  seemed  to  inhale  the  very  spirit  of 
the  great  Elizabethan  age,  and  he  was  wont 
to  say  with  a  headshake,  "Ah,  those  were  the 
good  old  days.  Fine  to  have  been  alive 

But  perhaps  that  is  enough.  Let  it  just  be 
said  that  the  facts  I  have  cited  point  with  no 
uncertain  index  to  the  appreciation  of  good 
literature  by  a  large  class  of  hand  workers, 
and  that  though  their  appreciation  may,  strict- 
ly speaking  and  to  the  literary  critic,  be  little 
more  than  mere  enjoyment,  it  is  none  the  less 
of  much  significance. 

After  all,  too,  though  the  delicate  literary 
craftsmanship  of  a  Stevenson,  a  Hardy,  and  a 
Tennyson  may  often  be  lost  on  the  average 
artisan,  it  does  not  matter  much.  Great  liter- 
ature is  not  merely  a  matter  of  technique;  it 
is  an  appeal  to  the  soul  of  man,  and  it  is  in 
this  latter  way  that  it  mostly  attracts  the  class 
spoken  of — truly  not  an  ignoble  way,  if  not  the 
aesthetic  and  learned  way.— JAMES  H.  GALLO- 
WAY, in  The  Book  Monthly. 

March,   1913] 




THE  opening  of  a  library  for  children  in  the 
city  of  Stockholm  marks  a  significant  step 
in  progress  toward  an  international  develop- 
ment of  library  work  with  children.  The  idea 
of  establishing  a  children's  library  in  Sweden 
originated  with  Dr.  Valfrid  Palmgren,  who 
was  sent  by  the  Swedish  government  to  visit 
public  libraries  in  the  United  States  in  the 
fall  of  1907.  Dr.  Palmgren  spent  about  three 
months  in  this  country.  On  her  return  to 
Swedtn  she  at  once  began  an  active  campaign 
of  writing  and  lecturing  and  instruction  of 
those  who  have  since  assisted  her  in  develop- 
ing public  library  work  in  Sweden. 

The  Swedish  Government  has  printed  two 
reports  prepared  by  Dr.  Palmgren  as  a  result 
of  her  investigations.  The  first  was  descrip- 
tive of  the  work  in  American  libraries.  The 
second  dealt  with  plans  for  public  libraries  to 
be  developed  in  Sweden.  Without  waiting 
to  finish  these  reports  Dr.  Palmgren  gave 
several  courses  in  library  instruction  and  ap- 
plied herself  to  the  task  of  raising  sufficient 
funds  to  equip  and  maintain  a  children's  li- 
brary until  such  time  as  it  should  justify  its 
existence.  In  December.  1911,  the  Chil- 
dren's Library  of  Stockholm  was  formally 
opened  with  a  collection  of  about  two  thou- 
sand books  on  open  shelves,  with  tables  and 
chairs  made  according  to  measurements  taken 
in  America,  and  with  a  staff  of  assistants 
selected  and  trained  by  Dr.  Palmgren  herself. 
It  may  be  of  interest  to  other  children's 
librarians  to  know  that  I  visited  the  Children's 
Library  of  Stockholm  last  August  and  found 
it  in  every  respect  a  model  children's  room, 
complete  in  equipment  —  including  a  very 
clearly  written  card  catalog — and  most  at- 
tractive in  arrangement  and  decoration.  It  is 
well  situated  in  a  shopping  district  and  oc- 
cupies the  floor  above  a  shop  known  as  the 
London  Bazaar  where  one  was  tempted  to 
linger  by  most  fascinating  Swedish  dolls  and 
wooden  toys.  A  walk  through  the  neighbor- 
ing streets  revealed  the  accessibility  of  the 
library  to  many  classes  of  children. 

From  my  talks  with  the  children's  librarian^ 
and  later  with  Dr.  Palmgren,  I  learned  that 
certain  problems  of  a  children's  library  are 
about  the  same  in  one  country  as  in  another. 
There,  as  here,  it  had  been  necessary  at 
times  to  limit  the  use  of  the  room  to  prevent 
overcrowding,  the  reference  work  among 
school  children  was  growing  steadily  and 
there  was  very  lively  interest  among  parents 
and  teachers  concerning  the  selection  of 
books  for  children.  In  Sweden,  as  in  other 
European  countries,  there  is  a  notable  lack 
of  children's  books  classified  as  non-fiction. 
It  was  the  belief  of  the  children's  librarian 
that  very  much  more  non-fiction  would  be 
read  if  the  books  existed  in  a  form  attractive 
to  boys  and  girls.  Adult  non-fiction  was  read 
to  some  extent,  but  not  nearly  to  the  extent 

that  it  is  read  in  this  country,  where  books 
of  non-fiction  written  for  children  serve  as 
a  direct  stimulus  of  interest  in  non-fiction 
written  for  adults. 

Requests  have  come  from  Sweden  and  other 
countries  for  advice  as  to  books  suitable  for 
translation,  especially  for  books  dealing  with 
American  history,  travel  and  description,  citi- 
zenship, mechanical  and  scientific  subjects,  and 

Translations  of  "Little  women,"  "Little  Lord 
Fauntleroy,"  "Tom  Sawyer,"  and  other  Amer- 
ican stories  are  very  popular. 

The  educator  of  the  European  child  who  is 
to  remain  in  his  own  country  presents  a  very 
different  problem  to  the  children's  librarian 
than  is  presented  by  the  average  teacher  of 
the  immigrant  child  who  is  to  be  made  into 
an  American  in  our  own  public  schools. 
Graded  lists  and  formalized  instruction  are 
of  very  little  use  in  dealing  with  this 
problem.  Out  of  the  needs  expressed  by  visi- 
tors and  out  of  the  experience  now  gathering 
in  other  countries,  as  well  as  our  own,  we 
should  be  able  to  accomplish  some  bibliogra- 
phical work  of  very  considerable  interest. 

We  have  done  the  pioneering  in  establishing 
children's  libraries.  The  challenge  is  now 
given  to  show  what  we  have  done  and  are 
doing  and  are  going  to  do  with  the  children's 
books  we  have  placed  in  those  rooms,  both 
in  relation  to  our  communities  and  to 
those  of  other  countries.  It  is  at  once  the 
most  inspiring  and  the  most  difficult  stage  of 
development  in  the  work.  Probably  no  one 
of  us  will  attempt  to  answer  the  question  of 
a  young  woman  who  asked  what  statis- 
tics could  be  furnished  by  American  libraries 
as  to  the  moral  value  of  children's  reading. 
Work  with  children  as  well  as  special  litera- 
ture for  them  has  always  been  haunted  by  the 
moralist,  the  didacticist  or  the  sentimentalist, 
but  there  has  never  been  a  time  when  the 
standards  of  human  interests  and  requirements 
in  different  countries  offered  so  strong  an  an- 
tidote to  these  sources  of  weakness,  nor  so  vig- 
orous an  incentive  to  the  production  and  uses 
of  more  robust  literature  and  art. 



THE  City  Library  of  Springfield,  Mass.,  ex- 
perimented recently  to  see  if  modern  readers 
are  really  as  dull  mentally  as  their  supposedly 
neglectful  attitude  toward  the  classics  would 
imply.  Once  give  the  classics  the  advantage 
of  at  least  as  much  bulletin  notice  as  that  given 
recent  fiction,  and  let  us  see  what  will  happen, 
was  the  librarian's  fair-minded  scheme.  This 
is  how  it  worked : 

"Last  May  the  city  library  placed  in  its  de- 
livery room  a  selection  of  more  than  one  hun- 
dred classics  in  English  form.  These  included 
some  of  the  most  famous  writers  of  all  ages 
and  countries — Homer,  Plato,  Horace,  Dante, 
Goethe,  etc.  They  were  plainly  labelled  'clas- 



[March,  1913 

sics'  so  that  there  should  be  no  misunderstand- 
ing as  to  their  character.  Newspaper  notices 
called  attention  to  the  books,  but  aside  from 
this  they  were  not  advertised  in  any  way. 

"From  the  first  the  collection  was  a  pro- 
nounced success.  It  seemed  to  attract  all 
classes  of  readers.  Young  and  old,  rich  and 
poor,  men  and  women,  could  be  seen  standing 
in  front  of  the  case  and  examining  the  vol- 
umes. In  a  month  so  many  of  the  books  were 
in  circulation  that  it  was  found  necessary  to 
replenish  the  supply.  When  in  the  fall  the 
volumes  were  sent  back  to  their  places  in  the 
stacks,  only  two  had  not  been  taken  out  by 
readers.  Curiously  enough  one  of  these  was 
a  most  readable  work — Trevelyan's  'Life  of 
Macaulay/  The  other  was  Leigh  Hunt's  'Es- 
says/ Many  of  the  books  showed  a  surprising 
popularity.  The  'Odyssey'  was  drawn  eight 
times;  Dante's  'Divine  comedy,'  seven  times; 
Epictetus,  six;  Rousseau's  'Emile/  six;  the 
'Rubaiyat  of  Omar  Khayyam,'  six;  Moliere's 
plays,  six;  Plato's  'Republic,'  four;  Goethe's 
'Faust/  four.  A  number  of  books  for  which 
the  library  attendants  are  seldom  asked  circu- 
lated freely.  Thus  Malory's  'Morte  d' Arthur' 
went  out  four  times;  More's  'Utopia/  six; 
'Little  flowers  of  St.  Francis  of  Assisi/  seven ; 
Pliny's  'Letters/  three.  Among  more  modern 
writings  some  of  the  favorites  were  Carlyle's 
'Sartor  resartus'  with  a  record  of  eight  circu- 
lations; Borrow's  'The, Bible  in  Spain/  eight; 
Amiel's  'Journal/  six;  Cellini"s  'Memoirs/ 
four;  and  Newman's  'Apologia/  four.  The 
English  poets  made  a  very  good  showing  with 
six  circulations  for  Shakespeare,  five  for  Spen- 
ser's 'Faerie  queene/  four  for  Scott,  four  for 
Browning,  three  each  for  Tennyson,  Burns, 
Byron,  and  Keats,  and  six  for  Rossetti.  The 
English  essayists,  including  the  older  ones  — 
Bacon,  Addison,  Lamb,  and  the  moderns  — 
Arnold,  Ruskin,  Emerson,  Pater,  etc.,  were 
frequently  chosen.  Since  many  of  these  books 
were  taken  for  four  and  six  weeks  and  a  con- 
siderable number  for  even  longer  periods  on 
the  summer  vacation  privilege,  it  will  be  seen 
that  the  great  majority  were  in  practically 
continuous  use ;  in  fact,  there  was  seldom  more 
than  a  scanty  supply  to  be  found  on  the  shelf. 

"While  placing  this  comparatively  small  num- 
ber of  classics  in  a  prominent  place  undoubted- 
ly increased  their  circulation,  it  does  not  by 
any  means  follow  that  they  would  not  have 
been  borrowed  otherwise.  There  is  a  steady 
call  for  most  of  these  works  year  in  and  year 
out.  It  was  a  noticeable  fact  that  when  the 
books  for  the  collection  were  brought  together, 
in  many  cases  it  was  difficult,  and  in  some  im- 
possible, to  find  a  copy  that  was  not  shabby 
from  use. 

"Not  content  with  this  excursion  into  the 
business  of  booming  the  classics,  the  librarian 
investigated  the  regular  normal  circulation 
among  his  old  masters.  For  larger  libraries 
with  larger  reference  departments,  a  fair  aver- 
age circulation,  aside  from  fiction  and  juve- 
niles, is  one  issue  a  year  for  each  volume 
owned.  A  selection  of  classic  titles  was  in- 

vestigated, exclusion  of  books  likely  to  be  taken 
put  by  school  children  for  supplementary  read  - 
ing,  and  the  following  figures  show  some  of 
the  data  discovered: 

"From  May,  1911,  to  May,  191-2,  the  library's 
various  copies  of  the  'Odyssey'  in  English  went 
out  twenty-two  times ;  Goethe's  'Faust'  twenty- 
six  times;  Plutarch's  •  'Lives/  twenty-one; 
Dante's  'Divine  comedy/  twenty.  Some  of  the 
others  stood  as  follows :  Rousseau's  'Emile/ 
fourteen;  the  'Rubaiyat  of  Omar  Khayyam/ 
twelve;  Byron's  'Poems/  twelve;  Pope's 
'Poems/  twelve;  Spenser's  'Poems/  eleven; 
Chaucer,  eight;  Moliere's  'Plays/  seven;  Ros- 
setti's  'Poems/  seven;  Bacon's  'Essays/  nine; 
Carlyle's  'Sartor  resartus/  seven;  the  'Niebel- 
ungenlied/  five ;  'Little  flowers  of  St.  Francis  of 
Assisi/  five;  Cellini's  'Memoirs/  four;  'Con- 
fessions of  St.  Augustine/  three. 

"In  very  many  instances  these  records 
show  less  than  the  actual  number  of  circula- 
tions because  the  slips  containing  the  charging 
records  had  become  filled  and  been  replaced. 
But  the  figures  given  above  clearly  indicate 
that  the  classics,  far  from  being  dead,  are,  so 
far  as  the  public  library  use  is  concerned,  con- 
siderably more  than  holding  their  own  with 
the  other  books,  for  the  whole  list  circulated 
more  than  seven  times  as  often  as  the  average. 
It  must  also  be  borne  in  mind  that  these  are 
the  books  most  likely  to  be  found  in  private 
homes  and  so  less  frequently  sought  at  the 
public  library.  Often  men  and  women  who 
go  to  the  public  library  for  the  latest  biography, 
travel,  or  essays,  turn  to  their  own  books  when 
they  wish  for  a  quiet  evening  with  the  masters 
of  literature. 

"It  is  impossible  for  any  one  to  say  how 
much  the  classics  are  read,  but  that  they  are 
not  so  much  neglected  as  some  people  think  is 
capable  of  proof.  Since  even  moderate  effort 
to  promote  their  use  is  attended  with  so  much 
success,  the  library  feels  encouraged  to  turn 
still  further  energies  in  this  direction.  It  is 
planned  to  repeat  the  experiment  another  year, 
when  special  pains  will  be  taken  to  furnish 
clean  and  attractively  bound  copies  of  the 

A.    L.    A.    EXECUTIVE    BOARD 

The  committee  on  nominations,  of  which 
Judson  T.  Jennings  is  chairman,  includes,  be- 
sides the  members  noted  in  the  February  LI- 
BRARY JOURNAL,  Miss  Clara  F.  Baldwin. 


THE  American  Book  Import  Business  and 
the  Subscription  Agency  for  American  Peri- 
odicals, conducted  for  many  years  past  by 
Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Trubner  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  of 
London,  has  been  transferred  to  and  amalga- 
mated with  the  American  Book  Agency  of 
Arthur  F.  Bird,  of  22  Bedford  Street,  Strand, 
from  which  address  the  business  will  in  future 
be  conducted.  The  foreign  subscription  busi- 
ness of  the  LIBRARY  JOURNAL  will  hereafter 
be  handled  by  this  firm. 

March,   1913] 




ACCORDING  to  an  article  by  W.  G.  Leland 
in  the  American  Historical  Review,  the  United 
States,  although  lavish  in  appropriations  for 
the  purchase  of  historical  papers  and  for  the 
publication  of  historical  documents,  has  sig- 
nally failed  in  the  duty  of  preserving  and  ren- 
dering accessible  the  national  archives.  This 
article  is  devoted  to  a  review  of  this  failure 
and  its  consequences,  and  a  consideration  of 
the  remedies  to  be  adopted. 

The  archives  of  the  federal  government, 
consisting  of  letters,  orders,  reports,  accounts 
and  other  documents  produced  in  the  course 
of  transacting  the  public  business,  are  of  in- 
estimable value.  They  constitute  the  chief 
protection  of  the  state  against  unfounded  or 
ill-founded  claims,  are  principal  source  for 
argument  in  international  discussion,  are  the 
basis  on  which  titles  to  millions  of  acres  of 
land  are  founded,  and  have  immense  histor- 
ical value.  Mr.  Leland  considers  some  of  the 
archives  of  the  various  active  departments 
most  interesting  historically. 

The  custody,  use  and  preservation  of  these 
records  is  in  charge  of  the  head  of  each  de- 
partment, who  is  required  by  law  to  furnish 
facilities  for  study  and  research  to  scientific 
investigators.  But  the  astonishingly  rapid 
accumulation  of  archives  and  the  failure  of 
Congress  to  provide  a  place  for  them  have 
brought  about  a  disastrous  state  of  conges- 

The  archives  are  now  "in  cellars  and  sub- 
cellars,  under  terraces,  in  attics  and  over  por- 
ticos, in  corridors  and  closed-up  doorways, 
piled  in  heaps  upon  the  floor  or  crowded  into 
alcoves;  this,  if  they  are  not  farmed  out  and 
stored  in  such  rented  structures  as  abandoned 
car-barns,  storage  warehouses,  deserted  the- 
atres, or  ancient  but  more  humble  edifices 
that  should  long  ago  have  served  their  last 
useful  purpose." 

The  danger  from  fire  is  an  ever-present 
one.  Damp  and  dust,  extremes  of  tempera- 
ture, lack  of  ventilation  and  rough  handling 
are  destroying  many  priceless  documents. 
Autograph  hunters,  searchers  for  revenue 
stamps,  and  other  vandals  have  made  serious 
depredations.  Many  papers  are  hopelessly 
lost.  The  student  finds  documents  and  classi- 
fication in  a  chaotic  state.  Most  historical 
students,  as  a  consequence  of  this  condition, 
prefer  to  carry  on  their  investigations  in  Lon- 
don, Paris  or  the  Hague. 

The  two  remedies  so  far  attempted  by  Con- 
gress— the  destruction  of  "useless  papers"  and 
transfer  of  especially  valuable  records  to  the 
Library  of  Congress — are  alike  inadequate. 
Moreover,  the  dangers  of  unwise  destruction 
on  the  one  hand,  and  of  the  disintegration  of 
a  series  of  archives  on  the  other,  are  appar- 
ent. The  present  method  of  storage  of  rec- 
ords in  rented  buildings  increases  fire  danger, 
obstructs  the  transaction  of  public  business, 
and  is  extravagant. 

"The  two  essentials  for  a  satisfactory  sys- 

tem are  an  archive  administration  and  an 
archive  depot.  The  former  should  be  a  branch 
of  the  government  service  closely  connected 
with  all  the  other  branches,  and  to  a  certain 
extent  controlled  by  them.  The  latter,  how- 
ever, is  the  core  of  the  situation." 

The  site  of  the  building  is  the  first  matter 
to  receive  attention.  This  must  satisfy  the 
requirements  of  size,  security  and  conven- 
ience. Since  additions  will  be  an  inevitable 
necessity,  the  location  must  be  such  as  to 
admit  of  these  enlargements.  Contiguity  to 
other  government  offices  is  not  considered 
essential  in  Europe,  since,  by  use  of  the  tele- 
phone and  pneumatic  tube,  records  can  be 
supplied  as  quickly  as  though  they  were  lo- 
cated in  the  same  building. 

The  building  should  have  a  capacity  of 
3,000,000  cubic  feet,  and  enlargements  should 
be  made  before  they  are  actually  needed.  Ex- 
ternally, it  should  be  in  harmony  with  the 
public  buildings  erected  in  Washington  with- 
in the  last  ten  years.  For  the  inner  structure, 
suggestions  might  be  gained  from  the  Hague, 
Rotterdam,  Breslau,  Berlin,  Vienna  and  other 
European  models. 

The  building  should  undoubtedly  be  of  the 
type  in  which  storage  is  provided  for  by  a 
stack,  rather  than  of  the  type  made  up  en- 
tirely of  rooms  of  varying  size.  The  stack, 
or  stacks,  consisting  of  a  steel  framework 
carrying  shelves,  extending  from  the  foun- 
dation to  the  roof  and  divided  by  platforms 
into  stories,  should  be  separated  from  the  rest 
of  the  building  by  fire  walls  with  steel  doors. 
Within  the  stack  should  be  elevators,  a  vac- 
uum-cleaning system  and  ample  electric  light. 
Ventilation  and  heating  systems  should  insure 
an  abundance  of  air  and  even  temperature. 

In  the  rest  of  the  building,  provision  must 
be  made  for  the  offices  of  the  administration, 
for  the  workrooms  of  employees  where  arch- 
ives will  be  received,  repaired,  inventoried, 
etc.,  and  for  accommodation  for  those  who 
wish  to  use  the  archives.  Two  rooms,  prefer- 
ably, should  be  provided,  one  for  official  con- 
sultation and  one — accommodating  about  a 
hundred  workers — for  students.  Two  or  three 
small  rooms,  where  typewriters  could  be  used 
by  students,  might  also  be  provided. 

The  control  of  records  should  be  in  the 
hands  of  a  board  or  commission  of  the  arch- 
ive building,  rather  than  legally  in  the  cus- 
tody of  the  same  officials,  as  at  present. 

An  archivist,  or  keeper  of  records,  should 
be  at  the  head  of  the  archive  depot.  Under 
him  would  be  the  entire  personnel  of  the 

Private  archives  and  historical  manuscripts 
should  not  be  placed  in  the  archive  depot.  The 
question  of  which  public  archives  should  be 
transferred  to  the  national  archives  and 
which  retained  in  the  offices  would  be  deter- 
mined by  the  extent  to  which  the  records 
are  used  in  the  transaction  of  current  busi- 

All  papers  should  be  filed  flat.  Probably 
a  system  of  loose  filing  in  folders  or  port- 



[March,  1913 

folios  would  be  found  most  desirable.  Use- 
less papers  should  be  weeded  out,  and  their 
immediate  destruction  assured. 

No  decimal  system  of  classification,  no 
purely  chronological  or  alphabetical  arrange- 
ment can  be  successfully  applied  to  the  classi- 
fication of  archives.  The  administrative  en- 
tity must  be  the  starting  point  and  the  unit, 
so  that  the  processes  by  which  the  records 
have  come  into  existence  may  be  made  clear. 
A  general  guide  should  be  prepared,  enu- 
merating the  various  groups  or  series  of 
records,  indicating  series,  title,  number  of  vol- 
umes and  limiting  dates,  but  no  further  de- 
tails. The  next  step  is  the  preparation  of 
inventories  of  the  contents  of  the  different 
series.  Then  we  may  expect  that  calendars 
of  certain  of  the  more  important  documents 
will  eventually  be  published.  The  exploitation 
of  the  archives  by  the  publication  of  groups 
of  documents  would  perhaps  not  be  a  proper 
function  of  the  archivist.  Rather,  it  should 
be  left  to  the  various  historical  agencies  of 
the  country. 

The  use  of  the  archives  by  officials  might 
be  facilitated  by  the  transfer  to  the  depot  of 
certain  offices,  the  principal  function  of  which 
is  to  search  the  records.  Or  these  offices 
might  be  abolished,  and  the  function  per- 
formed by  a  special  corps  of  archive  em- 

With  regard  to  the  use  of  the  archives  by 
students,  lawyers  and  others,  it  would  be  nec- 
essary to  formulate  regulations  .  A  satis- 
factory proceedure  would  be  to  establish  a 
chronological  line  on  the  earlier  side  of  which 
any  investigation  could  be  made  without  the 
obtaining  of  special  consent,  but  on  the  later 
side  of  which  each  case  should  be  treated  on 
its  merits. 

"The  very  absence  of  a  system  and  of  a 
building,"  says  Mr.  Leland,  "leaves  us  carte 
blanche  for  arrangements  marked  by  ideal 
excellence.  Why  should  the  nation  not  have 
the  best  of  all  national  archive  buildings? 
Is  it  not  incumbent  upon  all  who  cherish  our 
history,  and  who  desire  that  the  rightful 
heritage  of  future  generations  shall  pass  to 
them  unimpaired,  to  urge  vigorously  upon 
Congress  the  performance  of  this  long-neg- 
lected duty,  the  meeting  of  this  pressing  prob- 
lem by  an  ideal  solution?" 


WHEN  the  plans  and  equipment  of  the 
Pulitzer  School  of  Journalism  were  being  dis- 
cussed, the  question  of  a  library  came  up,  and 
though  libraries  were  searched  for  inform- 
ation, nothing  very  pertinent  could  be  found. 
Accordingly,  Mr.  Frederick  C.  Hicks,  of  the 
Columbia  University  Library,  made  a  study 
of  the  chief  newspaper  libraries  in  New  York, 
and  put  on  record  his  observations  in  the 
Educational  Review  for  September,  1912. 

Out   of   nine  offices   visited  by  Mr.   Hicks, 

seven  have  organized  libraries  and  two  have 
none.  Six  of  the  collections  are  in  charge  of 
persons  called  librarians,  but  only  two  of 
them  have  had  previous  library  training  of 
any  sort.  In  all  but  three  cases  the  custodian 
has  other  duties.  Newspaper  libraries  are 
perfectly  independent,  and,  have  worked  out 
their  own  needs.  Much  can  be  learned 
from  their  methods,  and  doubtless  will  when 
the  Special  Libraries  Association  comes  more 
in  touch  with  them. 

Two  points  newspaper  librarians  agree  upon 
— the  size  of  the  library  and  its  essential 
character.  "The  libraries  range  in  size  from 
about  2000  to  15,000  volumes,  and  it  is  the 
common  opinion  that  when  a  library  reaches 
the  number  of  5000  volumes  it  is  time  to 
weed  it  out.  Of  course,  there  are  many  rea- 
sons entering  into  this  conclusion,  and  not 
the  least  of  these  is  the  difficulty  of  finding 
space  for  a  large  library;  but  even  more  im- 
portant to  busy  men  is  the  fact  that  large 
collections  are  apt  to  become  unwieldy.  .  .  . 
The  proper  size  of  these  libraries  must  be 
determined,  however,  chiefly  by  their  neces- 
sary character;  and  it  is  agreed  that  they 
should  be  reference  libraries,  pure  and  sim- 
ple. ...  'A  newspaper  library,'  said  a  city, 
editor,  'should  be  divided  into  two  parts,  and 
these  parts  should  be  separately  grouped.  The 
solid,  reliable  books,  containing  arguments 
pro  and  con,  from  which  you  can  at  leisure 
dig  out  the  facts,  should  stand  by  them- 
selves.' But  the  'hair-trigger'  books,  which 
you  use  when  in  five  minutes  you  tear  the  heart 
out  of  a  subject  and  send  your  copy  to  the 
linotype  while  the  presses  wait,  must  be  liter- 
ally within  arm's  reach.  The  rest  of  the  li- 
brary may  be  a  block  away,  either  vertically 
or  horizontally,  and  still  be  useful." 

"Hair-trigger"  books  are  for  the  most  part 
in  one  volume  appearing  yearly,  and  contain 
information  in  its  most  condensed  form. 
Newspaper  almanacs,  such  as  those  issued  by 
the  New  York  World,  the  Tribune,  Chicago 
Daily  News,  and  the  London  Daily  Mail;  no- 
bility lists  of  foreign  countries,  "Who's  who" 
of  various  sorts,  social  registers,  army  and 
navy  lists,  commercial  handbooks,  legislative 
manuals,  yearbooks  and  reports,  are  among 
the  best-known.  The  division  into  two  groups 
in  fact  corresponds  to  the  division  of  the 
journal  itself,  into  news  and  editorial  sections. 


"The  Dewey  classification  is  the  only  sys- 
tematic scheme  with  which  the  newspaper  li- 
braries visited  are  familiar.  In  one  instance 
the  call  numbers  are  affixed  in  library  fash- 
ion, on  both  cards  and  books,  and  in  another 
the  numbers  are  written  in  the  books,  although 
there  is  no  catalog,  the  classification  having 
been  made  in  the  busy  librarian's  odd  mo- 
ments by  the  aid  of  the  Pittsburgh  printed 
catalog.  In  all  other  cases  the  books  are 
devoid  of  call  numbers,  and  the  grouping  is 
that  which  seems  most  natural  to  the  libra- 

March,   1913] 



rian.  In  three  instances  there  is  a  dictionary 
card  catalog.  In  one  of  these  the  Library  of 
Congress  cards  are  in  use.  One  library  has 
printed  in  a  little  booklet  of  46  pages  a  rough 
list,  loosely  classified,  of  the  most  important 
books,  with  their  location  in  the  building.  In 
every  instance  the  need  of  a  systematic  cata- 
log and  classification  is  admitted,  but  these 
have  thus  far  been  impossible  on  account  of 
lack  of  time  and  technical  skill. 


"In  all  but  four  cases,  the  administration  of 
the  library  apparently  has  been  given  little  or 
no  attention;  but  the  variations  in  method 
employed  by  these  four  raise  this  question  of 
policy :  'Is  it  possible  to  allow  free  access  to 
the  shelves,  or  must  the  library  proper  be 
shut  off  from  the  readers,  who  therefore,  will 
depend  on  the  librarian  not  only  to  find  books 
for  them,  but  to  search  out  the  precise  bit  of 
information  desired?'  The  methods  used 
vary  from  complete  open  access  to  brass 
gratings  and  stern  guardianship." 


In  only  three  libraries  are  the  clipping  files 
coordinated  with  the  books ;  in  the  other  four 
they  are  either  in  the  news  or  city  room  or 
nearby.  The  morgue,  or  •  obit,  department 
contains  primarily  biographical  clippings  and 
obituaries  of  famous  people  already  in  type, 
but  its  scope  has  been  extended  to  include  all 
other  subjects.  In  three  instances  only  does 
the  morgue  require  the  whole  time  of  one 
or  more  persons.  The  character  of  the  cus- 
todian ranges  from  the  scholar  on  Polynesian 
languages,  who  is  general  literary  adviser  to 
all  newswriters  on  his  paper,  down  to  boys 
whose  duties  are  purely  mechanical.  Clip- 
pings are  selected  by  the  person  in  charge  and 
filed  by  assistants. 

"The  furniture  in  which  the  clippings  are 
filed  varies  from  antiquated  wooden  drawers 
to  modern  wooden  or  metal  filing  cabinets 
and  steel  shelving  constructed  to  hold  a  spe- 
cial size  of  envelopes.  There  is  no  uniformity 
in  the  size  of  the  manila  envelopes,  but  the 
favorite  approximates  about  4^2  x  8  inches. 
These  either  stand  on  end  or  lie  on  their 
sides,  depending  on  the  filing  cabinets  chosen. 
Usually  the  envelopes  are  arranged  alphabet- 
ically, according  to  the  subjects  written  or 
typed  upon  them.  In  most  morgues,  the  en- 
velopes were  originally  arranged  by  number, 
and  an  alphabetical  card  index  was  kept.  The 
general  opinion  is,  however,  that  the  arrange- 
ment is  cumbersome  and  that  the  morgue 
would  be  absolutely  useless  if  the  index  were 
lost."  There  is  only  one  instance  of  co- 
operation between  the  morgue  and  the  library 
proper,  where  there  is  a  system  of  cross- 
references  to  the  books.  The  simple  system 
serves  chiefly  because  of  the  detailed  knowl- 
edge of  the  custodian.  Some  of  the  expedi- 
ents used  are  not  according  to  accepted  li- 
brary conditions ;  for  instance,  in  one  morgue, 
among  the  one  hundred  envelopes  headed 

Roosevelt,  is  one  containing  the  cross-refer- 
ence "See  liars."  Under  this  heading  are  ten 
or  fifteen  envelopes  of  clippings  about  the 
members  of  the  Ananias  Club. 

In  every  newspaper  office  the  value  of  sys- 
tematic subject  headings  is  recognized,  but 
only  two  have  had  time  to  prepare  them. 


"No  less  important  than  the  selection,  care 
and  arrangement  of  the  clippings  is  the  prob- 
lem of  keeping  the  morgue  free  from  useless 
material.  Quite  general  is  the  practice  of  re- 
moving from  the  current  files  the  envelopes 
containing  clippings  about  persons  who  have 
died.  For  less  important  persons  the  clippings 
are  destroyed,  but  persons  of  great  promin- 
ence still  live  in  the  morgue.  ...  In  only  one 
case  was  there  a  system  for  weeding  out 
clippings  other  than  biographical.  This  lack 
of  system  results  either  in  the  accumulation 
of  useless  material,  or  in  the  destruction  of 
clippings  which  later  are  sadly  needed." 

There  are  two  types  of  morgues  between 
which  newspaper  librarians  must  decide.  The 
largest  development  of  the  older  type  of 
morgues  is  seen  in  a  collection  made  up  of 
about  125,000  envelopes,  each  containing  fat 
bunches  of  clippings.  The  accumulation  dates 
from  1889,  since  which  time  no  clippings  have 
been  destroyed.  The  total  of  items  must  run 
into  the  millions.  A  file  of  cuts  ^and  proofs 
and  one  of  photographs,  etc.,  which  may  be 
of  future  use  to  the  paper  are  also  kept. 

The  second  type  of  morgue  differs  from 
others  in  filing  each  item  separately.  When 
its  present  work  of  reorganization  is  finished 
it  will  be  made  up  as  follows:  All  short  clip- 
pings, as  at  present,  will  be  pasted  on  cards 
and  arranged  alphabetically.  Clippings  too 
long  to  paste  will  be  kept  in  thin  envelopes 
or  indexed  to  the  bound  volumes  of  a  paper. 
There  is  to  be  a  file  of  cuts  and  an  index  to 
them.  There  will  be  only  two  places  to  look 
for  an  item  or  a  reference  to  it — the  biog- 
raphical file  and  the  file  for  all  other  subjects. 
The  separate  treatment  of  each  item  makes 
the  morgue  an  approximate  index  to  the 
papers  clipped,  and  an  accurate  and  sole  in- 
dex of  the  paper  itself.  The  clippings  are 
weeded  out  daily. 


The  success  of  the  second  type  of  morgue 
described  above  depends  on  the  maintenance 
of  indexed  and  bound  files  of  newspapers. 

"Of  the  papers  visited,  three  maintained 
bound  files  of  their  own  paper  only.  All  of 
the  others  had  rather  extensive  files  of  bound 
newspapers.  One  paper  formerly  had  a  large 
collection  of  bound  files,  but  has  transferred 
to  the  New  York  Public  Library  all  volumes 
of  New  York  newspapers,  except  its  own,  of 
which  only  those  since  the  year  1881  are  re- 

It  is  usual  to  bind  only  the  morning  papers, 
presuming  that  all  important  news  will  be 
found  in  them.  New  York  newspapers  run 



[March,  1913 

to  so  many  editions  that  it  is  impossible  to 
bind  complete  copies  of  each  edition;  so  a 
composite  volume  is  made  of  the  last  edition 
and  the  subsequently  altered  pages  from  ear- 
lier ones. 


Only  four  New  York  papers  have  ever  is- 
sued printed  indexes :  the  New  York  Tribune, 
1875-1906;  New  York  Times,  1894-1905; 
Brooklyn  Daily  Eagle,  1891-1902;  Evening 
Post,  I9o8-date.  There  are  three  substitutes 
in  use:  the  morgue  itself  in  either  of  the 
forms  described;  a  system  of  either  cards  or 
loose-leaf  indexes,  bound  in  books  by  sub- 
jects; and  an  especially  satisfactory  but  ex- 
pensive complete  index,  bound  once  in  two 
years.  The  entries  are  typewritten  on  special 
machines,  and  three  copies  are  made.  Eight 
men  are  continuously  employed  on  this  index. 


THE  library  has  a  twofold  purpose:  to  pro- 
vide enjoyment  and  to  provide  information. 
Whoever  comes  to  the  library  in  search  of 
recreation  should  receive  the  highest  and  the 
best.  Whoever  seeks  information  should  find 
it  with  the  least  expenditure  of  time  and 
energy.  In  an  experience  extending  over  a 
number  of  years  in  a  normal  school  library, 
I  have  found  that  the  students  who  come  to 
us.  although  graduates  of  high  schools  and 
coming  from  towns  where  there  are  good  pub- 
lic libraries,  know  nothing  of  the  resources  of 
the  library.  When  it  comes  to  investigating  a 
subject  they  spend  more  time  in  looking  up 
a  reference  than  in  reading  it  after  they  find 
it.  Many  high  school  pupils  do  not  know  the 
resources  of  the  New  International  Diction- 
ary, to  say  nothing  of  the  encyclopedias,  year- 
books, almanacs  and  various  hand-books. 
Most  students  have  a  slight  acquaintance  with 
a  card  catalog;  but  Poole's  Index,  Readers' 
Guide  and  other  magazine  indexes  are  strang- 
ers to  them. 

I  believe  that  a  librarian  is  neglecting  a 
very  important  part  of  her  duty  if  she  does 
not  give  to  such  students  systematic  training 
in  the  use  of  the  various  tools  of  her  trade. 
This  knowledge  of  where  to  look  for  infor- 
mation on  any  given  subject  is  of  far  greater 
importance  than  much  else  that  is  required  in 
the  school  curriculum.  The  library  is  the 
laboratory  of  the  school.  The  students  are 
no  longer  confined  to  one  text,  but  must  use 
many  books  in  the  preparation  of  a  single 
lesson.  It  is  of  the  utmost  importance  that 
early  in  their  school  course  they  be  taught 
the  essentials  of  reference  work;  the  use  of 
dictionaries,  encyclopedias  and  a  few  special 
reference  books,  the  card  catalog,  the  period- 
icals and  their  indexes. 

*  Reprinted  from  The  Western  Journal  of  Educa- 
tion, for  March, 

In  the  Milwaukee  Normal  School,  one  of 
the  first  things  we  do  for  new  students  is  to 
give  them  systematic  training  in  the  use  of 
the  library.  The  "course  in  reference  work," 
as  it  is  called,  is  now  required  of  all  students, 
and  is  given  the  first  quarter  of  the  first  year. 
Our  aim  is  to  familiarize  students  with  the 
resources  of  the  library  so  that  they  will 
know  the  most  likely  source  of  information 
needed  in  the  preparation  of  each  day's  work. 
The  course  consists  of  ten  lectures,  one  each 
week,  with  practical  problems  following  each 
lecture,  and  covers  the  following  points: 

Lesson  i.  Classification  and  arrangement  of 
books  in  the  library. 

a.  Classification. 

1.  System  used. 

2.  Author  marks. 

3.  Work  marks. 

4.  Call  number. 

b.  Arrangement. 

1.  Alphabetical  arrangement  of  classes. 

2.  Diagram  of  floor  space. 
Lesson  2.    The  card  catalog. 

a.  Explanation  of  card  catalog. 

b.  Forms  of  cards. 

1.  Author  card.  .    '. 

2.  Title  card. 

3.  Subject  card. 

4.  Subject  analytical. 

5.  Author  analyticals. 

6.  Editor  and  translator  cards. 

7.  Cross-reference  cards. 

8.  Bibliography  cards. 

c.  Practical   problems    in   using   the   card 

Lesson  3.     Periodicals. 

a.  Value. 

1.  As  currant  literature. 

2.  For  reference  work  when  bound. 

b.  Characterization. 

1.  Scope  of  magazine. 

2.  Value  for  reference  work. 

3.  Value  for  current  reading. 

4.  Literary  value  of  fiction. 

5.  Is    it    radical,    conservative    or    un- 

biassed ? 
Lesson  4.     Periodical  indexes. 

a.  Value. 

b.  Method    of    compiling    and    arranging 


c.  Practical    problems    in    use    of   Poole's 

Index:,     Readers'     Guide,     Children's 
Catalog,  etc. 
Lesson  5.    Reference  books. 

a.  Definition. 

b.  Dictionaries— merits  and  characteristics. 

1.  Webster's    New    International    Dic- 


2.  Century  Dictionary. 

3.  Standard  Dictionary. 

c.  Encyclopedias — merits     and     character- 

1.  New  International  Encyclopedia. 

2.  Encyclopedia  Americana. 

3.  Encyclopedia  Britannica. 

March,   1913] 


d.  Biographical  reference  books. 

1.  Century  Cyclopedia  of  Names. 

2.  Lippincott's  Biographical  Dictionary. 

3.  Allibone's     Dictionary     of     English 

Literature  and  English  and  Amer- 
ican Authors. 

4.  Moulton's  Library  of  Literary  Crit- 


5.  Warner's   Library   of   World's    Best 


6.  Who's  Who,  annual. 

7.  Who's  Who  in  America,  biennial, 
c.  Year-books    and    biennials. 

1.  Statesman's  Year-book. 

2.  World's  Almanac. 

3.  Tribune  Almanac. 

4.  New  International  Year-book. 

5.  Wisconsin  Blue  Book. 

(Brief  summary  of  the  contents  of  each 
book  given,  and  practical  problems  in  the  use 
of  each.) 

Lesson  6.     Miscellaneous  reference  books. 

a.  Lippincott's  Gazetteer. 

b.  Century  Atlas. 

c.  Bartlett's  Familiar  Quotations. 

d.  Harper's    Dictionary   of    Classical    Lit- 

erature and  Antiquities. 

e.  Harper's  Book  of  Facts. 

f.  Chamber's  Book  of  Days. 

g.  Larned's  History  of  Ready  Reference, 
h.  Baldwin's     Dictionary     of     Philosophy 

and  Psychology. 

i.  Grove's  Dictionary  of  Music  and  Mu- 

j.  Monroe's  Cyclopedia  of  Education, 
k.  Bailey's  Cyclopedia  of  American  Agri- 

1.  Granger's  Index  to  Poetry  and  Recita- 

m.  Salisbury's  Index  to  Short  Stories. 
(Brief    summary   of   the   contents   of    each 
book  given,  and  practical  proble'ms  in  the  use 
of  each.) 

Lesson  7.  Test  of  the  pupils'  knowledge  of 
the  books  used  in  lessons  5  and  6.  Do 
you  know  where  to  turn  on  a  moment's 
notice  to  the  book  giving  the  answers  to 
the  following  questions? 

1.  Who  are  the  members  of  the  Presi- 

dent's cabinet? 

2.  What  do  the  following  abbreviations 
mean :  ibid,  anon,  pseud,  S.  P.  Q.  R.  ? 

3.  In  what  work  of  literature  does  the 

"Old  man  of  the  sea"  appear? 

4.  Who  is  Governor  of  Ohio?    Where 

was  he  born? 

5.  Answer     the     following     questions 

about  Brazil: 

1.  Kind  of  government. 

2.  Present  officers. 

3.  Exports, 

4.  Education. 

6.  Who  is  the  present  secretary  of  the 


7.  In    what    books    are    the    following 

characters:  Ichabod  Crane,  Rosa- 
lind, Mr.  Micawber? 

8.  What   is   the   national  debt   of   the 

United  States? 

9.  What   is    the   size    of   the    standing 

army  of  the  United  States?  Of 
Germany  ? 

10.  Find    explanation    of   the    following 

expressions:  "to  bell  the  cat," 
"horn  of  the  dilemma,"  "beating 
about  the  bush." 

11.  What  is  the  annual  number  of  emi- 

grants to  the  United  States? 

12.  Who  is  the  diplomatic  representative 

of  the  United  States  to  Great 
Britain  ? 

13.  What  is  the  origin  of  Hallowe'en? 

14.  Where   did  we  get  the   expression, 

"Almighty  dollar"? 

15.  What    was    the    total    number    of 

deaths  due  to  football  in  1909? 

16.  What  are  the  seven  wonders  of  the 

world  ? 

17.  What  is  the  origin  of  Arbor  Day, 

Star  Spangled  Banner? 

18.  Find  the  author  and  the  correct  form 

of  the  quotation,  "The  proof  of 
the  pudding  is  in  the  eating." 

19.  Who  or  what  is,  or  was,  Bluebeard? 

The  Doomsday  Book?     Sinbad? 

20.  Which  encyclopedia  gives  the  full- 

est account  of  Queen  Elizabeth? 

21.  Which  encyclopedia  gives  the  fullest 

account  of  Wisconsin? 

22.  Compile  a  complete  bibliography,  as 

far  as  the  resources  of  our  library 
go,  on  "Wireless  telegraphy." 

23.  What  works  of  Dickens  have  we  in 

our  library?  What  works  about 
Dickens  ? 

24.  Where  will  you  find  a  criticism  of 

"Old  Curiosity  Shop"?  "The 
Iron  Woman"? 

25.  What  pictures  have  we  in  our  col- 

lection that  would   be   interesting 
to  a  class  studying  "Longfellow"? 
A  class  studying  "Lumbering"? 
Lesson  8.    Public  documents. 

a.  National  publications  helpful  to  teach- 


b.  State  (publications  helpful  to  teachers. 

c.  City  publications  helpful  to  teachers. 
Lesson  9.     Pictures. 

a.  Sources. 

b.  Methods  of  classifying,  filing  and  cata- 


c.  Value  in  school  work. 
Lesson  10.    Debating. 

a.  Books  on  debating. 

1.  Brooking   &    Ringwalt's   Briefs    for 


2.  Matson's    References     for    Literary 


3.  Craig's  Pros  and  Cons. 

4.  Ringwalt's   Briefs   on   Public  Ques- 



[March,  1913 

5.  Debater's  Handbook  Series. 

6.  Pearson's  Intercollegiate  Debates. 

b.  Preparation  of  a  bibliography. 

c.  Special  bibliographies. 

1.  Wisconsin    Free    Library    Commis- 


2.  Library  of  Congress. 

3.  Bulletin  of  Bibliography. 

4.  Libraries  throughout  the  country. 

By  the  time  we  have  completed  the  course 
the  student  has  a  working  knowledge  of  the 
resources  not  only  of  our  library,  but  of  every 
library  which  he  will  have  occasion  to  use  in 
the  future,  for  he  has  had  the  fundamentals 
of  reference  work. 

Many  normal  schools  give  a  course  similar 
to  the  one  I  have  outlined,  but  we  are  not 
reaching  the  great  number  of  boys  and  girls 
who  do  not  continue  their  education  beyond 
the  high  school,  or  possibly  the  eighth  grade. 
If  we  want  our  libraries  to  be  a  great  con- 
tinuous means  of  education  through  life,  it 
is  for  us  to  see  that  the  high  school  boys  and 
girls  get  this  fundamental  training  in  the  use 
of  the  library.  Of  course,  the  proper  place 
for  this  instruction  is  in  the  school,  but  too 
few  high  schools  are  equipped  with  a  good 
working  library.  Many  high  schools  send 
their  pupils  to  the  librarian  of  the  public  li- 
brary for  the  instruction.  It  matters  little 
where  or  by  whom  the  instruction  is  given,  so 
long  as  it  is  given  in  such  a  manner  that  the 
pupils  will  not  look  upon  it  as  a  task,  but  as 
a  pleasure.  I  would  like  to  see  the  librarian 
in  the  small  town  a  member  of  the  school 
faculty,  visiting  the  schools,  attending  faculty 
meetings,  and  hearing  the  problems  of  the 
teachers  discussed.  Thus  a  relationship  would 
be  established  that  would  be  of  mutual  benefit 
to  librarian,  teacher  and  pupil.  The  library 
is  not  an  institution  separate  from  the  school 
— the  two  are  branches  of  one  great  educa- 
tional system. 

The  excuse  of  an  already  crowded  curricu- 
lum is  urged  by  teachers.  I  am  confident  if 
a  definite  course  of  instruction  in  library  work 
should  be  arranged  for  the  high  school  and 
required  throughout  the  state,  it  would  be  a 
great  time-saver  in  the  end.  And  we  would 
be  giving  the  boys  and  girls  a  training  that 
would  be  valuable  throughout  life,  for  they 
will  continue  to  use  the  library  long  after 
they  have  forgotten  much  that  was  given  in 
the  high  school.  It  is  only  the  development 
of  this  power  to  use  intelligently  the  resources 
of  the  library  that  will  justify  support  of  a 
library.  There  is  nothing  in  the  course  given 
in  the  normal  school  but  could  be,  and  ought 
to  be,  given  to  the  high  school  student.  Teach- 
ers and  librarians  are  both  agreed  on  this 
point.  The  thing  to  be  done  is  to  see  that 
such  a  course  of  instruction  is  instituted  in 
our  schools. 


Librarian.  State  Normal  School    Milwaukee, 

THE  A.  L.  A. 

THE  growth  and  permanence  of  membership 
of  the  American  Library  Association  is  indi- 
cated by  the  following  table : 

No.  members  added  Members 
Year  during  year     Sept.,  1912 











1  06 

14  .. 

6  .  . 









'.'.".'.'.  38  '.'.'.'.'.'. 





•  232 



93  ..--.. 








1 1 






*  To   September. 

Total  5628.  Less  new  member  assigned  same- 
party  (84)  and  complimentary  membership  given 
newspapers  and  periodicals  in  1879  (69)  —  5475. 



for  first 

time  and 

not  at  any